Contents 1 Medieval Welsh land organisation 2 Commotes in the Domesday Book 3 History 4 Is and Uwch in commote names 5 List of commotes, organised by cantref 5.1 Gwynedd 5.2 Powys 5.3 Maelienydd 5.4 Buellt 5.5 Elfael 5.6 Brecheinawc (Brycheiniog) 5.7 Ystrad Tywi 5.8 Ceredigyawn (Ceredigion) 5.9 Dyfed 5.10 Morgannwg 6 Citations 7 References 8 External links


Medieval Welsh land organisation[edit] The basic unit of land was the tref – a small village or settlement. In theory, 100 trefi made up a cantref (literally, "one hundred settlements"), and half or a third of a cantref was a cymwd, although in practice the actual numbers varied greatly. The plural of cantref is cantrefi. Together with the cantrefi, commotes were the geographical divisions through which defence and justice were organised. In charge of a commote would be a chieftain probably related to the ruling Prince of the Kingdom. His court would have been situated in a special tref, referred to as a maerdref. Here, the bonded villagers who farmed the chieftain's estate lived, together with the court officials and servants.[3] Commotes were further divided into maenorau or maenolydd.


Commotes in the Domesday Book[edit] The Domesday Book has entries for those commotes that in 1086 were under Norman control, but still subject to Welsh law and custom. However, it refers to them using the Anglo-Norman word "commot" instead of hundred, the word used at the time for the equivalent land division in England. The commotes mentioned in the Domesday book, in general, represented recent Anglo-Norman advances into Welsh territory. Although the commotes were assessed for military service and taxation, their obligations were rated in carucate (derived from Latin for cattle or oxen), not in hides as on the English side of the border. The customs of the commotes are described in the Domesday accounts of the border earldoms of Gloucestershire, Herefordshire, Shropshire and Cheshire. The principal commotes described in Domesday were Archenfield, Ewias, and the commotes of Gwent in the south; Cynllaith, Edeirnion, and Iâl (Shropshire accounts); and Englefield, Rhos and Rhufoniog (Cheshire accounts).


History[edit] In legal usage, the English word 'commote' replaced cwmwd following the Edwardian conquest of Wales in the 13th century, when English was made the official language for all legal documents. The Welsh, most of whom knew not a word of English, naturally continued to use cwmwd and still do so today. In much of Wales, commotes had become more important than cantrefs by the mid-13th Century and administration of Welsh law became the responsibility of the commote court rather than the cantref court. Owain Glyndŵr called representatives from the commotes for his two parliaments during the rising of 1400–1409. The boundaries of commotes, or in some cases cantrefi, were in many cases subsequently more accurately represented by church rural deaneries than by the hundreds issuing from the sixteenth century Acts of Union.


Is and Uwch in commote names[edit] A considerable number of the names of adjacent medieval Welsh commotes contain is (meaning "lower", or "below" as a preposition) and uwch (originally uch and meaning "higher", or "above" as a preposition), with the dividing line between them being a natural boundary, such as a river, mountain or forest. Melville Richards noted that, in almost every instance where this occurs, the point of central authority was in the "is division" when the commote was named, and he suggested that such commotes were originally named in the sense of 'nearer' and 'farther' based on the location of that central authority—i.e., the terminology is for administrative purposes and not a geographical characterisation.[4] Richards attributed the use of is and uwch to some confusion in translating Latin sub (meaning "lower") and supra (meaning "upper") into Welsh in too literal a sense, when the proper sense was to consider sub to be an administrative synonym for Latin cis (meaning "this side of"), and to consider supra to be an administrative synonym for Latin trans (meaning "the other side of").[4] A number of smaller units, such as manors, parishes and townships, also use the administrative distinction of is and uwch, sometimes in their Latin forms (e.g., the manor of Clydach in Uwch Nyfer, divided into Sub Clydach and Ultra (Supra) Clydach).[5] This is unrelated to the common use of isaf and uchaf in farm names, where the terms are used in the geographical sense.[6]


List of commotes, organised by cantref[edit] The Red Book of Hergest (1375–1425) provides a detailed list of commotes in the late 14th and early 15th century.[7] The list has some overlaps and is ambiguous in parts, especially in the Gwynedd section. It should also be borne in mind that the number and organisation of the commotes was different in the earlier Middle Ages; some of the units and divisions listed here are late creations. The original orthography of the manuscript is given here together with the standard modern Welsh equivalents. Gwynedd[edit] Cantref Tegigyl (Cantref Tegeingl): Kymwt Insel (Cwmwd Insel) Kymwt Prestan (Cwmwd Prestatyn) Kymwt Rudlan (Cwmwd Rhuddlan) Cantref Dyffryn Clwyt (Cantref Dyffryn Clwyd): Kymwt Colyan (Cwmwd Colian) Kymwt Llannerch (Cwmwd Llannerch) Kymwt Ystrat (Cwmwd Ystrad) Cantref Rywynyawc (Cantref Rhufoniog) Kymwt Rhuthyn (Cwmwd Rhuthyn) Kymwt Uch Alech (Cwmwd Uwch Aled) Kymwt Is Alech (Cwmwd Is Aled) Cantref Rhos Kymwt Uch Dulas (Cwmwd Uwch Dulas) Kymwt Is Dulas (Cwmwd Is Dulas) Kymwt Y kreudyn (Cwmwd Creuddyn) Cantrefoed Mon (Anglesey) Kymwt Llan Uaes (Cwmwd Llanfaes, properly called Dindaethwy) Kymwt Kemeis (Cwmwd Cemais) Kymwt Talebolyon (Cwmwd Talebolyon) Kymwt Aberffraw (Cwmwd Aberffraw) Kymwt Penn Rhos (Cwmwd Penrhos) Kymwt Rosvyrr (Cwmwd Rhosyr) Cantref Arllechwed (Cantref Arllechwedd) Kymwt Treffryw (Cwmwd Trefriw) Kymwt Aber (Cwmwd Aber) Cantref Aruon (Cantref Arfon) Kymwt Uch Konwy (Cwmwd Uwch Conwy) Kymwt Is Conwy (Cwmwd Is Conwy) Cantref Dinodyn Kymwt Rifnot Kymwt Ardudwy (Cwmwd Ardudwy) Cantref Llyyn (Cantref Llŷn) Kymwt Dinmael (Cwmwd Dinmael) Kymwt is Clogyon (Cwmwd Is Clogion Kymwt Cwmdinam (Cwmwd Cwm Dinam) Cantref Meiryonyd (Cantref Meirionnydd) Kymwt Eftumaneyr (Cwmwd Ystumaner) Kymwt Talybont (Cwmwd Tal-y-bont) Cantref Eryri Kymwt Cyueilawc (Cwmwd Cyfeiliog) Kymwt Madeu Kymwt Uch Meloch Kymwt Is Meloch Kymwt Llan Gonwy (Cwmwd Llangonwy) Kymwt Dinmael (Cwmwd Dinmael) Kymwt Glyndyudwy (Cwmwd Glyndyfrdwy) Powys[edit] Cantrefoed Powys Madawc Kymwt Iaal (Cwmwd Iâl, later "Yale") Kymwt Ystrad Alun Kymwt Yr Hop (Cwmwd Yr Hob, later "Hope") Kymwt Berford Kymwt Wnknan Kymwt Trefwenn Kymwt Croesosswallt Kymwt y Creudyn Kymwt Nant Odyn Kymwt Ceuenbleid (possibly Cwmwd Cynllaith) Kymwt Is Raeadyr (Cwmwd Mochnant Is Rhaiadr) Cantrefoed Powys Gwennwynwyn Kymwt Uch Raeadyr (Cwmwd Mochnant Uwch Rhaiadr) Kymwt Deu Dyswr (Cwmwd Deuddwr in cantref Ystlyg) Kymwt Llannerchwdwl (Cwmwd Llanerch Hudol in cantref Ystlyg) Kymwt Ystrad Marchell (in cantref Ystlyg) Kymwt Mecheyn (Cwmwd Mechain Is Coed and Cwmwd Mechain Uwch Coed) Kymwt Caer Einon (Caereinion) Kymwt Uch Affes Kymwt Is Affes Kymwt Uch Coet (Cwmwd Uwch Coed in cantref Arwystli) Kymwt Is Coet (Cwmwd Is Coed in cantref Arwystli) Maelienydd[edit] Cantrefoed Maelenyd Kymwt Ceri Kymwt Gwerthrynnyon Kymwt Swyd Uudugre Kymwt Swyd Yethon Kymwt Llwythyfnwc Buellt[edit] Cantref Buellt Kymwt Penn Buellt (Cwmwd Pen Buellt) Kymwt Swydman (Cwmwd Swyddfan(?) : Cwmwd Dinan) Kymwt Treflys (Cwmwd Treflys) Kymwt Is Iruon (Cwmwd Is Irfon) Elfael[edit] Cantref Eluael (Cantref Elfael) Kymwt Uch Mynyd (Cwmwd Uwch Mynydd) Kymwt Is Mynyd (Cwmwd Is Mynyd) Brecheinawc (Brycheiniog)[edit] Cantref Selyf Kymwt Brwynllys (Cwmwd Brwynllys) Kymwt Talgarth (Cwmwd Talgarth) Cantref Tewdos Kymwt Dyffryn Hodni (Cwmwd Dyffryn Hoddni) Kymwt Llywel (Cwmwd Llys Hywel) Kymwt Tir Rawlf (Cwmwd Tir Rawlff) Cantref Ida Kymwt Ystrat Yw (Cwmwd Ystrad Yw) Kymwt Cruc Howel (Cwmwd Crughywel) Kymwt Evyas (Cwmwd Euyas) Ystrad Tywi[edit] Cantref Bychan Kymwt Hirvryn Kymwt Perued Kymwt Iskennen Cantref Eginawc Kymwt Kedweli Kymwt Carnywyllawn Kymwt Gwhyr Cantref Mawr Kymwt Mallaen Kymwt Caeaw Kymwt Maenawr Deilaw Kymwt Cetheinawc Kymwt Mab Eluyw Kymwt Mab Utryt Kymwt Widigada Ceredigyawn (Ceredigion)[edit] Cantref Penweddig Kymwt Geneurglyn (Cwmwd Genau'r Glyn) Kymwt Perued (Cwmwd Perfedd) Kymwt Creudyn (Cwmwd Creuddyn) Cantref Mabwynyon (Cantref Mabwnion) Kymwt Meuenyd (Cwmwd Mefenydd) Kymwt Anhunyawc (Cwmwd Anhuniog) Kymwt Pennard (Cwmwd Penardd) Cantref Caer Wedros (Cantref Caerwedros) Kymwt Wenyionid (Cwmwd Gwinionydd) Kymwt Is Coed (Cwmwd Is Coed) Dyfed[edit] Cantref Cemeis (Cemais) Kymwt Is Neuer (Cemais Is Nyfer) Kymwt Uch Neuer (Cemais Uwch Nyfer) Cantref Deugledyf (Daugleddyf) Kymwt Castel Hu (Castell Gwis) Kymwt Llan y Hadein (Llanhuadain) Cantref Emlyn Kymwt Is Cuch (Emlyn Is Cuch) Kymwt Uch Cuch (Emlyn Uwch Cuch) Cantref Wartha (Gwarthaf) Kymwt Amgoet (Amgoed) Kymwt Derllys (Derllys) Kymwt y Uelfre (Efelfre) Kymwt Eluyd (Elfed) Kymwt Pennryn (Penrhyn) Kymwt Peluneawc (Peuliniog) Kymwt Talacharn (Talacharn) Kymwt Estyrlwyf (Ystlwys) Cantref Pebideawc (Pebidiog) Kymwt Menew (Mynyw) Kymwt Penncaer (Pencaer) Cantref Pennbrwc (Penfro) Coedrath Penfro Cantref Rhos (Rhos) Kymwt Castell Gwalchmei (Castell Gwalchmei) Kymwt Hawlfford (Hwlffordd) Morgannwg[edit] Cantref Gorvynyd Kymwt Rwng Net A Thawy Kymwt Tir Yr Hwndryt Kymwt Rwng Neth ac Avyn Kymwt Tir Yr Iarll Kymwt Y Coety Kymwt Maenawr Glyn Ogwr Cantref Penn Ychen Kymwt Meisgyn Kymwt Glyn Rodne Kymwt Maenawr Tal y Vann Kymwt Maenawr Ruthyn Cantref Breinyawl Kymwt Is Caech Kymwt Uch Caech Kymwt Kibwr (Ceibwr; later Kibbor) Cantref Gwynllwc Kymwt Yr Heid Kymwt Ydref Berued Kymwt Edelygyon Kymwt Eithyaf Kymwt Y Mynyd Cantref Gwent Kymwt Is Coed Kymwt Llemynyd Kymwt Tref y Gruc Kymwt Uch Coed


Citations[edit] ^ a b Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru (University of Wales Dictionary), p. 643 ^ Brown, Lesley (ed), "New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary", Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1993 ISBN 0-19-861134-X ^ Rhys 1906:401–402, The Welsh People ^ a b Richards 1964:9–10 ^ Richards 1964:17–18 ^ Richards 1964:18 ^ Rhys 1890:407–412, Red Book of Hergest, Cantreds and Commotes of Wales.


References[edit] Rhŷs, John; Evans, John Gwenogvryn, eds. (1890), Y Llyvyr Coch o Hergest, II, Oxford: J. G. Evans  Rhys, John; Brynmor-Jones, David (1906), The Welsh People (Fourth ed.), London: T. Fisher Unwin  Richards, Melville (1964). Williams, Glanmor, ed. "The significance of is and uwch in Welsh commote and cantref names". The Welsh History Review. Cardiff: University of Wales Press. 2 (1): 9–18.  Richards, G. Melville (1969). Welsh Administrative and Territorial Units, Medieval and Modern. Cardiff: University of Wales Press. 


External links[edit] Koch, John T., ed. (2005), Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia, ABL-CLIO (published 2006), ISBN 978-1-85109-440-0  — discussions of the terms 'cantref' and 'commote', with maps. Lloyd, John Edward (1911), A History of Wales from the Earliest Times to the Edwardian Conquest, I (2nd ed.), London: Longmans, Green, and Co (published 1912)  — discusses (but does not give a pure list) the cantrefi known to him, with passing references to several of the cymydau. v t e Designations for types of administrative territorial entities English terms Common English terms1 Area Insular area Local government area Protected area Special area Statistical area Combined statistical area Metropolitan statistical area Micropolitan statistical area Urban area Canton Half-canton Borough County borough Metropolitan borough Capital Federal capital Imperial capital City City state Autonomous city Charter city Independent city Incorporated city Imperial city Free imperial city Royal free city Community Autonomous community Residential community County Administrative county Autonomous county Consolidated city-county Metropolitan county Non-metropolitan Viscountcy Country Overseas country Department Overseas department District Capital district City district Congressional district Electoral district Federal district Indian government district Land district Metropolitan district Non-metropolitan district Military district Municipal district Police district Regional district Rural district Sanitary district Subdistrict Urban district Special district Division Census division Police division Subdivision Municipality County municipality Norway Nova Scotia Regional county municipality Direct-controlled municipality District municipality Mountain resort municipality Neutral municipality Regional municipality Resort municipality Rural municipality Specialized municipality Prefecture Autonomous prefecture Subprefecture Super-prefecture Praetorian prefecture Province Autonomous province Overseas province Roman province Region Administrative region Autonomous region Capital region Development region Economic region Mesoregion Microregion Overseas region Planning region Special administrative region Statistical region Subregion Reserve Biosphere reserve Ecological reserve Game reserve Indian reserve Nature reserve State Federal state Free state Sovereign state Territory Capital territory Federal capital territory Dependent territory Federal territory Military territory Organized incorporated territory Overseas territory Union territory Unorganized territory Town Census town Market town Township Charter township Civil township Paper township Survey township Urban township Unit Autonomous territorial unit Local administrative unit Municipal unit Regional unit Zone Economic zone Exclusive economic zone Free economic zone Special economic zone Free-trade zone Neutral zone Self-administered zone Other English terms Current Alpine resort Bailiwick Banner Autonomous Block Cadastre Circle Circuit Colony Commune Condominium Constituency Duchy Eldership Emirate Federal dependency Governorate Hamlet Ilkhanate Indian reservation Manor Royal Muftiate Neighbourhood Parish Periphery Precinct Principality Protectorate Quarter Regency Autonomous republic Riding Sector Autonomous Shire Sultanate Suzerainty Townland Village Administrative Summer Ward Historical Agency Barony Burgh Exarchate Hide Hundred Imperial Circle March Monthon Presidency Residency Roman diocese Seat Tenth Tithing Non-English or loanwords Current Amt Bakhsh Barangay Bezirk Regierungsbezirk Comune Frazione Fu Gemeinde Județ Kunta / kommun Finland Sweden Län Località Megye Muban Oblast Autonomous Okrug Ostān Poblacion Purok Shahrestān Sum Sýsla Tehsil Vingtaine Historical Commote Gau Heerlijkheid Köping Maalaiskunta Nome Egypt Greece Pagus Pargana Plasă Satrapy Socken Subah Syssel Zhou v t e Arabic terms for country subdivisions First-level Muhafazah (محافظة governorate) Wilayah (ولاية province) Mintaqah (منطقة region) Mudiriyah (مديرية directorate) Imarah (إمارة emirate) Baladiyah (بلدية municipality) Shabiyah (شعبية "popularate") Second / third-level Mintaqah (منطقة region) Qadaa (قضاء district) Nahiyah (ناحية subdistrict) Markaz (مركز district) Mutamadiyah (معتمدية "delegation") Daerah/Daïra (دائرة circle) Liwa (لواء banner / sanjak) City / township-level Amanah (أمانة municipality) Baladiyah (بلدية municipality) Ḥai (حي neighborhood / quarter) Mahallah (محلة) Qarya (قرية) Sheyakhah (شياخة "neighborhood subdivision") English translations given are those most commonly used. v t e French terms for country subdivisions arrondissement département préfecture subprefectures v t e Greek terms for country subdivisions Modern apokentromenes dioikiseis / geniki dioikisis§ / diamerisma§ / periphereia nomos§ / periphereiaki enotita demos / eparchia§ / koinotita§ Historical archontia/archontaton bandon demos despotaton dioikesis doukaton droungos eparchia exarchaton katepanikion kephalatikion kleisoura meris naukrareia satrapeia strategis thema toparchia tourma § signifies a defunct institution v t e Portuguese terms for country subdivisions Regional subdivisions Estado Distrito federal Província Região Distrito Comarca Capitania Local subdivisions Município Concelho Freguesia Comuna Circunscrição Settlements Cidade Vila Aldeia Bairro Lugar Historical subdivisions in italics. v t e Slavic terms for country subdivisions Current dzielnica gmina krai kraj krajina / pokrajina městys obec oblast / oblast' / oblasti / oblys / obwód / voblast' okręg okres okrug opština / općina / občina / obshtina osiedle powiat / povit raion selsoviet / silrada sołectwo voivodeship / vojvodina županija Historical darugha gromada guberniya / gubernia jurydyka khutor obshchina okolia opole pogost prowincja sorok srez starostwo / starostva uyezd volost ziemia župa v t e Spanish terms for country subdivisions National, Federal Comunidad autónoma Departamento Distrito federal Estado Provincia Región Regional, Metropolitan Cantón Comarca Comuna Corregimiento Delegación Distrito Mancomunidad Merindad Municipalidad Municipio Parroquia Ecuador Spain Urban, Rural Aldea Alquería Anteiglesia Asentamiento Asentamiento informal Pueblos jóvenes Barrio Campamento Caserío Ciudad Ciudad autónoma Colonia Lugar Masía Pedanía Población Ranchería Sitio Vereda Villa Village (Pueblito/Pueblo) Historical subdivisions in italics. v t e Turkish terms for country subdivisions Modern il (province) ilçe (district) şehir (city) kasaba (town) belediye (municipality) belde (community) köy (village) mahalle (neighbourhood/quarter) Historical ağalık (feudal district) bucak (subdistrict) beylerbeylik (province) kadılık (subprovince) kaza (sub-province) hidivlik (viceroyalty) mutasarrıflık (subprovince) nahiye (nahiyah) paşalık (province) reya (Romanian principalities) sancak (prefecture) vilayet (province) voyvodalık (Romanian provinces) 1 Used by ten or more countries or having derived terms. Historical derivations in italics. See also: Census division, Electoral district, Political division, and List of administrative divisions by country Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Commote&oldid=812929464" Categories: CommotesFormer subdivisions of WalesMedieval WalesCommotes of Gwynedd


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EnlargeWelsh LanguageSecularMedievalWalesCantrefDomesday BookNormansHundred (county Subdivision)EnglandAnglo-NormansCarucateGloucestershireHerefordshireShropshireCheshireArchenfieldEwiasKingdom Of GwentCynllaithEdeirnionIâlTegeinglRhos (north Wales)RhufoniogCheshireConquest Of Wales By Edward IWelsh LawOwain GlyndŵrOwain GlyndŵrRed Book Of HergestKingdom Of GwyneddCantref TegeinglCantref Dyffryn ClwydCantref RhufoniogUwchaled Rural DistrictCantref RhosCreuddyn, RhosAngleseyCwmwd LlanfaesDindaethwyCwmwd PenrhosCantref ArllechweddCantref ArfonCantref LlŷnKingdom Of PowysPowys FadogCwmwd IâlHope, FlintshireCynllaithMochnantPowys WenwynwynMochnantDeuddwrYstlygLlanerchydolYstlygYstrad MarchellYstlygMechainCaereinionArwystliArwystliMaelienyddKerry, PowysBuelltCantref BuelltElfaelCantref ElfaelBrycheiniogYstrad TywiCantref MawrCeredigionPenweddig (cantref)Creuddyn (Ceredigion)Kingdom Of DyfedCemais (Dyfed Cantref)Cemais Is NyferCemais Uwch NyferDungleddy (hundred)EmlynCilgerran 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