Contents 1 Overview 2 Standardization and licensing 3 Implementations 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References

Overview[edit] Visual overview of the Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) Among other things, the CLI specification describes the following four aspects: The Common Type System (CTS) A set of data types and operations that are shared by all CTS-compliant programming languages. The Metadata Information about program structure is language-agnostic, so that it can be referenced between languages and tools, making it easy to work with code written in a language the developer is not using. The Common Language Specification (CLS) A set of base rules to which any language targeting the CLI should conform in order to interoperate with other CLS-compliant languages. The CLS rules define a subset of the Common Type System. The Virtual Execution System (VES) The VES loads and executes CLI-compatible programs, using the metadata to combine separately generated pieces of code at runtime. All compatible languages compile to Common Intermediate Language (CIL), which is an intermediate language that is abstracted from the platform hardware. When the code is executed, the platform-specific VES will compile the CIL to the machine language according to the specific hardware and operating system.

Standardization and licensing[edit] In August 2000, Microsoft, Hewlett-Packard, Intel, and others worked to standardize CLI. By December 2001, it was ratified by the ECMA, with ISO standardization following in April 2003. Microsoft and its partners hold patents for CLI. ECMA and ISO require that all patents essential to implementation be made available under "reasonable and non-discriminatory (RAND) terms." It is common for RAND licensing to require some royalty payment, which could be a cause for concern with Mono. As of January 2013, neither Microsoft nor its partners have identified any patents essential to CLI implementations subject to RAND terms. As of July 2009,[3] Microsoft added C# and CLI to the list of specifications that the Microsoft Community Promise applies to,[4] so anyone can safely implement specified editions of the standards without fearing a patent lawsuit from Microsoft. To implement the CLI standard requires conformance to one of the supported and defined profiles of the standard, the minimum of which is the kernel profile. The kernel profile is actually a very small set of types to support in comparison to the well known core library of default .NET installations. However, the conformance clause of the CLI allows for extending the supported profile by adding new methods and types to classes, as well as deriving from new namespaces. But it does not allow for adding new members to interfaces. This means that the features of the CLI can be used and extended, as long as the conforming profile implementation does not change the behavior of a program intended to run on that profile, while allowing for unspecified behavior from programs written specifically for that implementation. In 2012, ECMA and ISO published the new edition of the CLI standard,[1][2] which is not covered by the Community Promise.[4]

Implementations[edit] .NET Framework is Microsoft's original commercial implementation of the CLI. Its Virtual Execution System is the Common Language Runtime and its implementation of the Standard Libraries is the Framework Class Library. .NET Compact Framework is Microsoft's commercial implementation of the CLI for portable devices and Xbox 360. .NET Micro Framework is an open source implementation of the CLI for resource-constrained devices. Shared Source Common Language Infrastructure is a reference implementation of the CLI available from Microsoft, under the Shared Source licensing program. .NET Core is a portable and modular free and open-source fork of Microsoft's .NET Framework by the .NET Foundation under an MIT license Mono development platform is an open source implementation of CLI and accompanying technologies, sponsored by Xamarin. Portable.NET, part of the dotGNU project, is a free software implementation of ECMA-335 by Free Software Foundation.

See also[edit] Standard Libraries (CLI) List of CLI languages

Notes[edit] ^ a b ISO/IEC 23271:2012 - Information technology -- Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) ^ a b Standard ECMA-335 - 6th edition (June 2012) ^ "The ECMA C# and CLI Standards - Port 25: The Open Source Community at Microsoft". 2009-07-06.  ^ a b Covered Specifications | Microsoft Open Specifications

References[edit] "Standard ECMA-335, Common Language Infrastructure (CLI)". ECMA International. Retrieved August 31, 2005.  "ISO/IEC 23271, Common Language Infrastructure". ISO. Retrieved September 27, 2006.  "ECMA C# and Common Language Infrastructure Standards". Microsoft Corporation. Retrieved October 13, 2009.  v t e Common Language Infrastructure Architecture Application domain Code Access Security Common Intermediate Language (CIL) CIL instructions Common Type System (CTS) Platform Invocation Services (P/Invoke) Virtual Execution System (VES) Components Assembly Delegate Global Assembly Cache (GAC) Manifest Metadata Standard Libraries Kernel Profile Base Class Library (BCL) Runtime Infrastructure Library Compact Profile Network Library Reflection Library XML Library Extended Array Library Extended Numerics Library Parallel Library Vararg Library Implementations Microsoft .NET Framework .NET Compact Framework .NET Micro Framework Shared Source Common Language Infrastructure Other .NET Core Mono Portable.NET Languages Microsoft C# Visual Basic .NET C++/CLI Managed F# Q# J# JScript .NET PowerShell Other Axum A# Boo Cobra IronScheme IronLisp IronPython IronRuby Nemerle Oxygene Phalanger P# Scala Comparison C# and Java C# and Visual Basic .NET Java and .NET platforms Visual Basic and Visual Basic .NET Organizations .NET Foundation DotGNU Microsoft Xamarin v t e Standards of Ecma International Application interfaces ANSI escape code Common Language Infrastructure Office Open XML OpenXPS File systems (tape) Advanced Intelligent Tape DDS DLT Super DLT Holographic Versatile Disc Linear Tape-Open (Ultrium-1) VXA File systems (disk) CD-ROM CD File System (CDFS) FAT FAT12 FAT16 FAT16B FD UDF Ultra Density Optical Universal Media Disc Graphics Universal 3D Programming languages C++/CLI C# Eiffel JavaScript (E4X, ECMAScript) Radio link interfaces NFC UWB Other ECMA-35 List of Ecma standards (1961 - Present) v t e ISO standards by standard number List of ISO standards / ISO romanizations / IEC standards 1–9999 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 16 31 -0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 -10 -11 -12 -13 128 216 217 226 228 233 259 269 302 306 428 518 519 639 -1 -2 -3 -5 -6 646 690 732 764 843 898 965 1000 1004 1007 1073-1 1413 1538 1745 1989 2014 2015 2022 2047 2108 2145 2146 2240 2281 2709 2711 2788 2848 2852 3029 3103 3166 -1 -2 -3 3297 3307 3602 3864 3901 3977 4031 4157 4217 4909 5218 5428 5775 5776 5800 5964 6166 6344 6346 6385 6425 6429 6438 6523 6709 7001 7002 7098 7185 7200 7498 7736 7810 7811 7812 7813 7816 8000 8178 8217 8571 8583 8601 8632 8652 8691 8807 8820-5 8859 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -8-I -9 -10 -11 -12 -13 -14 -15 -16 8879 9000/9001 9075 9126 9293 9241 9362 9407 9506 9529 9564 9594 9660 9897 9899 9945 9984 9985 9995 10000–19999 10005 10006 10007 10116 10118-3 10160 10161 10165 10179 10206 10218 10303 -11 -21 -22 -28 -238 10383 10487 10585 10589 10646 10664 10746 10861 10957 10962 10967 11073 11170 11179 11404 11544 11783 11784 11785 11801 11898 11940 (-2) 11941 11941 (TR) 11992 12006 12182 12207 12234-2 13211 -1 -2 13216 13250 13399 13406-2 13450 13485 13490 13567 13568 13584 13616 14000 14031 14224 14289 14396 14443 14496 -2 -3 -6 -10 -11 -12 -14 -17 -20 14644 14649 14651 14698 14750 14764 14882 14971 15022 15189 15288 15291 15292 15398 15408 15444 -3 15445 15438 15504 15511 15686 15693 15706 -2 15707 15897 15919 15924 15926 15926 WIP 15930 16023 16262 16612-2 16750 16949 (TS) 17024 17025 17100 17203 17369 17442 17799 18000 18004 18014 18245 18629 18916 19005 19011 19092 (-1 -2) 19114 19115 19125 19136 19439 19500 19501 19502 19503 19505 19506 19507 19508 19509 19510 19600:2014 19752 19757 19770 19775-1 19794-5 19831 20000+ 20000 20022 20121 20400 21000 21047 21500 21827:2002 22000 23270 23271 23360 24517 24613 24617 24707 25178 25964 26000 26300 26324 27000 series 27000 27001 27002 27006 27729 28000 29110 29148 29199-2 29500 30170 31000 32000 38500 40500 42010 55000 80000 -1 -2 -3 Category Retrieved from "" Categories: Common Language InfrastructureEcma standardsIEC standardsISO standards

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