Contents 1 Etymology 2 History 2.1 Dionysiac origins, Aristophanes and Aristotle 2.2 Classical Sanskrit Dramas, Plays, and Epics of Ancient India 2.3 Shakespearean and Elizabethan comedy 2.4 19th to early 20th century 2.5 20th century film and television 3 Studies on the theory of the comic 4 Forms 5 Performing arts 5.1 Historical forms 5.2 Plays 5.3 Opera 5.4 Improvisational comedy 5.5 Joke 5.6 Stand-up comedy 6 Events and awards 7 List of comedians 8 Mass media 8.1 Literature 8.2 Film 8.3 Television and radio 8.3.1 Comedy networks 9 See also 10 Footnotes 11 Notations 12 External links

Etymology[edit] Tragic Comic Masks of Ancient Greek Theatre represented in the Hadrian's Villa mosaic. The word "comedy" is derived from the Classical Greek κωμῳδία kōmōidía, which is a compound either of κῶμος kômos (revel) or κώμη kṓmē (village) and ᾠδή ōidḗ (singing); it is possible that κῶμος itself is derived from κώμη, and originally meant a village revel. The adjective "comic" (Greek κωμικός kōmikós), which strictly means that which relates to comedy is, in modern usage, generally confined to the sense of "laughter-provoking".[4] Of this, the word came into modern usage through the Latin comoedia and Italian commedia and has, over time, passed through various shades of meaning.[5] The Greeks and Romans confined their use of the word "comedy" to descriptions of stage-plays with happy endings. Aristotle defined comedy as an imitation of men worse than the average (where tragedy was an imitation of men better than the average). However, the characters portrayed in comedies were not worse than average in every way, only insofar as they are Ridiculous, which is a species of the Ugly. The Ridiculous may be defined as a mistake or deformity not productive of pain or harm to others; the mask, for instance, that excites laughter, is something ugly and distorted without causing pain.[6] In the Middle Ages, the term expanded to include narrative poems with happy endings. It is in this sense that Dante used the term in the title of his poem, La Commedia. As time progressed, the word came more and more to be associated with any sort of performance intended to cause laughter.[5] During the Middle Ages, the term "comedy" became synonymous with satire, and later with humour in general. Aristotle's Poetics was translated into Arabic in the medieval Islamic world, where it was elaborated upon by Arabic writers and Islamic philosophers, such as Abu Bischr, and his pupils Al-Farabi, Avicenna, and Averroes. They disassociated comedy from Greek dramatic representation and instead identified it with Arabic poetic themes and forms, such as hija (satirical poetry). They viewed comedy as simply the "art of reprehension", and made no reference to light and cheerful events, or to the troubling beginnings and happy endings associated with classical Greek comedy. After the Latin translations of the 12th century, the term "comedy" gained a more general meaning in medieval literature.[7] In the late 20th century, many scholars preferred to use the term laughter to refer to the whole gamut of the comic, in order to avoid the use of ambiguous and problematically defined genres such as the grotesque, irony, and satire.[8][9]

History[edit] Dionysiac origins, Aristophanes and Aristotle[edit] See also: Old Comedy, Menander, and Ancient Greek comedy Roman-era mosaic depicting a scene from Menander's comedy Samia ("The Woman from Samos") Starting from 425 BCE, Aristophanes, a comic playwright and satirical author of the Ancient Greek Theater wrote 40 comedies, 11 of which survive. Aristophanes developed his type of comedy from the earlier satyr plays, which were often highly obscene.[10] The only surviving examples of the satyr plays are by Euripides, which are much later examples and not representative of the genre.[11] In ancient Greece, comedy originated in bawdy and ribald songs or recitations apropos of phallic processions and fertility festivals or gatherings.[12] Around 335 BCE, Aristotle, in his work Poetics, stated that comedy originated in Phallic processions and the light treatment of the otherwise base and ugly. He also adds that the origins of comedy are obscure because it was not treated seriously from its inception.[13] However, comedy had its own Muse: Thalia. Aristotle taught that comedy was generally a positive for society, since it brings forth happiness, which for Aristotle was the ideal state, the final goal in any activity. For Aristotle, a comedy did not need to involve sexual humor. A comedy is about the fortunate arise of a sympathetic character. Aristotle divides comedy into three categories or subgenres: farce, romantic comedy, and satire. On the contrary, Plato taught that comedy is a destruction to the self. He believed that it produces an emotion that overrides rational self-control and learning. In The Republic, he says that the Guardians of the state should avoid laughter, " 'for ordinarily when one abandons himself to violent laughter, his condition provokes a violent reaction.' " Plato says comedy should be tightly controlled if one wants to achieve the ideal state. Also in Poetics, Aristotle defined Comedy as one of the original four genres of literature. The other three genres are tragedy, epic poetry, and lyric poetry. Literature in general is defined by Aristotle as a mimesis, or imitation of life. Comedy is the third form of literature, being the most divorced from a true mimesis. Tragedy is the truest mimesis, followed by epic poetry, comedy and lyric poetry. The genre of comedy is defined by a certain pattern according to Aristotle's definition. Comedies begin with low or base characters seeking insignificant aims, and end with some accomplishment of the aims which either lightens the initial baseness or reveals the insignificance of the aims. Classical Sanskrit Dramas, Plays, and Epics of Ancient India[edit] See also: Sanskrit Drama, Mahabharata, and Bhagavata Purana By 200 BCE,[14] in ancient Sanskrit drama, Bharata Muni's Natya Shastra defined humour (hāsyam) as one of the nine nava rasas, or principle rasas (emotional responses), which can be inspired in the audience by bhavas, the imitations of emotions that the actors perform. Each rasa was associated with a specific bhavas portrayed on stage. In the case of humour, it was associated with mirth (hasya). Shakespearean and Elizabethan comedy[edit] Title page of the first quarto of Shakespeare's Midsummer Night's Dream (1600) "Comedy", in its Elizabethan usage, had a very different meaning from modern comedy. A Shakespearean comedy is one that has a happy ending, usually involving marriages between the unmarried characters, and a tone and style that is more light-hearted than Shakespeare's other plays.[15] The Punch and Judy show has roots in the 16th-century Italian commedia dell'arte. The figure of Punch derives from the Neapolitan stock character of Pulcinella.[16] The figure who later became Mr. Punch made his first recorded appearance in England in 1662.[17] Punch and Judy are performed in the spirit of outrageous comedy — often provoking shocked laughter — and are dominated by the anarchic clowning of Mr. Punch.[18] Appearing at a significant period in British history, professor Glyn Edwards states: "[Pulcinella] went down particularly well with Restoration British audiences, fun-starved after years of Puritanism. We soon changed Punch's name, transformed him from a marionette to a hand puppet, and he became, really, a spirit of Britain - a subversive maverick who defies authority, a kind of puppet equivalent to our political cartoons."[17] 19th to early 20th century[edit] In early 19th century England, pantomime acquired its present form which includes slapstick comedy and featured the first mainstream clown Joseph Grimaldi, while comedy routines also featured heavily in British music hall theatre which became popular in the 1850s.[19] British comedians who honed their skills in music hall sketches include Charlie Chaplin, Stan Laurel and Dan Leno.[20] English music hall comedian and theatre impresario Fred Karno developed a form of sketch comedy without dialogue in the 1890s, and Chaplin and Laurel were among the comedians who worked for his company.[20] Karno was a pioneer of slapstick, and in his biography Laurel stated, "Fred Karno didn't teach Charlie [Chaplin] and me all we know about comedy. He just taught us most of it".[21] Film producer Hal Roach stated: "Fred Karno is not only a genius, he is the man who originated slapstick comedy. We in Hollywood owe much to him."[22] American vaudeville emerged in the 1880s and remained popular until the 1930s, and featured comedians such as W. C. Fields, Buster Keaton and the Marx Brothers. 20th century film and television[edit] Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis (ca. 1950) Jim Carrey mugs for the camera Rowan Atkinson as Mr. Bean Jackie Chan at the 2008 Cannes Film Festival Stand-up comedian Margaret Cho Popov the Clown in 2009 Barry Humphries in character in London as "Dame Edna Everage" on the day of the 2011 Wedding of Prince William and Kate Middleton Jordan Peele at the Peabody awards. The advent of cinema in the late 19th century, and later radio and television in the 20th century broadened the access of comedians to the general public. Charlie Chaplin, through silent film, became one of the best known faces on earth. The silent tradition lived on well in to the 20th century through mime artists like Marcel Marceau, and the physical comedy of artists like Rowan Atkinson as Mr. Bean. The tradition of the circus clown also continued, with such as Bozo the Clown in the United States and Oleg Popov in Russia. Radio provided new possibilities - with Britain producing the influential Goon Show after the Second World War. American cinema has produced a great number of globally renowned comedy artists, from Laurel and Hardy, the Three Stooges, Abbott and Costello, Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis, as well as Bob Hope during the mid-20th century, to performers like George Carlin, Robin Williams, and Eddie Murphy at the end of the century. Hollywood attracted many international talents like the British comics Peter Sellers, Dudley Moore and Sacha Baron Cohen, Canadian comics Dan Aykroyd, Jim Carrey, and Mike Myers, and the Australian comedian Paul Hogan, famous for Crocodile Dundee. Other centres of creative comic activity have been the cinema of Hong Kong, Bollywood, and French farce. American television has also been an influential force in world comedy: with American series like M*A*S*H, Seinfeld and The Simpsons achieving large followings around the world. British television comedy also remains influential, with quintessential works including Fawlty Towers, Monty Python, Dad's Army, Blackadder, and The Office. Australian satirist Barry Humphries, whose comic creations include the housewife and "gigastar" Dame Edna Everage, For his delivery of Dadaist and absurdist humour to millions, was described by biographer Anne Pender in 2010 as not only "the most significant theatrical figure of our time ... [but] the most significant comedian to emerge since Charlie Chaplin".[23]

Studies on the theory of the comic[edit] The phenomena connected with laughter and that which provokes it have been carefully investigated by psychologists. They agree the predominant characteristics are incongruity or contrast in the object and shock or emotional seizure on the part of the subject. It has also been held that the feeling of superiority is an essential factor: thus Thomas Hobbes speaks of laughter as a "sudden glory". Modern investigators have paid much attention to the origin both of laughter and of smiling, as well as the development of the "play instinct" and its emotional expression. George Meredith said that "One excellent test of the civilization of a country ... I take to be the flourishing of the Comic idea and Comedy; and the test of true Comedy is that it shall awaken thoughtful laughter." Laughter is said to be the cure to being sick. Studies show that people who laugh more often get sick less.[24][25] American literary theorist Kenneth Burke writes that the "comic frame" in rhetoric is "neither wholly euphemistic, nor wholly debunking—hence it provides the charitable attitude towards people that is required for purposes of persuasion and co-operation, but at the same time maintains our shrewdness concerning the simplicities of ‘cashing in.’" [26] The purpose of the comic frame is to satirize a given circumstance and promote change by doing so. The comic frame makes fun of situations and people, while simultaneously provoking thought.[27] The comic frame does not aim to vilify in its analysis, but rather, rebuke the stupidity and foolery of those involved in the circumstances.[28] For example, on The Daily Show, Jon Stewart uses the "comic frame" to intervene in political arguments, often offering crude humor in sudden contrast to serious news. In a segment on President Obama's trip to China Stewart remarks on America's debt to the Chinese government while also having a weak relationship with the country. After depicting this dismal situation, Stewart shifts to speak directly to President Obama, calling upon him to "shine that turd up."[29] For Stewart and his audience, introducing coarse language into what is otherwise a serious commentary on the state of foreign relations serves to frame the segment comically, creating a serious tone underlying the comedic agenda presented by Stewart.

Forms[edit] Main article: Comedic genres Comedy may be divided into multiple genres based on the source of humor, the method of delivery, and the context in which it is delivered. The different forms of comedy often overlap, and most comedy can fit into multiple genres. Some of the subgenres of comedy are farce, comedy of manners, burlesque, and satire. Some comedy apes certain cultural forms: for instance, parody and satire often imitate the conventions of the genre they are parodying or satirizing. For example, in the United States, parodies of newspapers and television news include The Onion, and The Colbert Report; in Australia, shows such as Kath & Kim, Utopia, and Shaun Micallef's Mad As Hell perform the same role. Self-deprecation is a technique of comedy used by many comedians who focus on their misfortunes and foibles in order to entertain.

Performing arts[edit] Performing arts Ballet Circus skills Clown Dance Magic Mime Music Opera Puppetry Speech Theatre Ventriloquism v t e Main article: Comedy (drama) This section is in a list format that may be better presented using prose. You can help by converting this section to prose, if appropriate. Editing help is available. (April 2008) Historical forms[edit] Ancient Greek comedy, as practiced by Aristophanes and Menander Ancient Roman comedy, as practiced by Plautus and Terence Burlesque, from Music hall and Vaudeville to Performance art Citizen comedy, as practiced by Thomas Dekker, Thomas Middleton and Ben Jonson Clowns such as Richard Tarlton, William Kempe, and Robert Armin Comedy of humours, as practiced by Ben Jonson and George Chapman Comedy of intrigue, as practiced by Niccolò Machiavelli and Lope de Vega Comedy of manners, as practiced by Molière, William Wycherley and William Congreve Comedy of menace, as practiced by David Campton and Harold Pinter comédie larmoyante or 'tearful comedy', as practiced by Pierre-Claude Nivelle de La Chaussée and Louis-Sébastien Mercier Commedia dell'arte, as practiced in the twentieth century by Dario Fo, Vsevolod Meyerhold, and Jacques Copeau Farce, from Georges Feydeau to Joe Orton and Alan Ayckbourn Jester Laughing comedy, as practiced by Oliver Goldsmith and Richard Brinsley Sheridan Restoration comedy, as practiced by George Etherege, Aphra Behn and John Vanbrugh Sentimental comedy, as practiced by Colley Cibber and Richard Steele Shakespearean comedy, as practiced by William Shakespeare Stand-up comedy Dadaist and Surrealist performance, usually in cabaret form Theatre of the Absurd, used by some critics to describe Samuel Beckett, Harold Pinter, Jean Genet and Eugène Ionesco[30] Sketch comedy Plays[edit] Comic theatre Musical comedy and palace Opera[edit] Comic opera Improvisational comedy[edit] Improvisational theatre Bouffon comedy Clowns Joke[edit] One-liner joke Blonde jokes Shaggy-dog story Paddy Irishman joke Polish jokes Light bulb jokes Stand-up comedy[edit] Stand-up comedy is a mode of comic performance in which the performer addresses the audience directly, usually speaking in their own person rather than as a dramatic character. Impressionist (entertainment) Alternative comedy Comedy club Comedy albums

Events and awards[edit] American Comedy Awards British Comedy Awards Canadian Comedy Awards Cat Laughs Comedy Festival The Comedy Festival, in Aspen, formerly the HBO Comedy Arts Festival Edinburgh Festival Fringe Edinburgh Comedy Festival Halifax Comedy Festival Halloween Howls Comedy Festival Just for Laughs festival, in Montreal Leicester Comedy Festival Mark Twain Prize for American Humor Melbourne International Comedy Festival New Zealand International Comedy Festival New York Underground Comedy Festival HK International Comedy Festival

List of comedians[edit] List of stand-up comedians List of musical comedians List of Australian comedians List of British comedians List of Canadian comedians List of Finnish comedians List of German language comedians List of Indian comedians List of Italian comedians List of Mexican comedians List of Puerto Rican comedians List of Filipino Comedian

Mass media[edit] Literature Major forms Novel Poem Drama Short story Novella Genres Comedy Drama Epic Erotic Nonsense Lyric Mythopoeia Romance Satire Tragedy Tragicomedy Media Performance play Book Techniques Prose Poetry History and lists History modern Outline Glossary of terms Books Writers Literary awards poetry Discussion Criticism Theory (critical theory) Sociology Magazines Literature portal v t e This section is in a list format that may be better presented using prose. You can help by converting this section to prose, if appropriate. Editing help is available. (April 2008) Literature[edit] This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (April 2010) Comic novel Light poetry Film[edit] Comedy film Anarchic comedy film Gross-out film Parody film Romantic comedy film Screwball comedy film Slapstick film Television and radio[edit] Television comedy Situation comedy Radio comedy Comedy networks[edit] British sitcom British comedy Comedy Central - A television channel devoted strictly to comedy. Comedy Nights with Kapil - An Indian television program German television comedy List of British TV shows remade for the American market Paramount Comedy (Spain). Paramount Comedy 1 and 2. TBS (TV network) The Comedy Channel (Australia) The Comedy Channel (UK) The Comedy Channel (United States) – merged into Comedy Central. HA! – merged into Comedy Central The Comedy Network, a Canadian TV channel. Gold

See also[edit] Comedy portal Lists of comedy films List of comedy television series List of genres Theories of humor Women in comedy

Footnotes[edit] ^ Henderson, J. (1993) Comic Hero versus Political Elite pp. 307–19 in Sommerstein, A.H.; S. Halliwell; J. Henderson; B. Zimmerman, eds. (1993). Tragedy, Comedy and the Polis. Bari: Levante Editori.  ^ (Anatomy of Criticism, 1957) ^ Marteinson, 2006 ^ Cornford (1934)[page needed] ^ a b Oxford English Dictionary ^ McKeon, Richard. The Basic Works Of Aristotle, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2001, p. 1459. ^ Webber, Edwin J. (January 1958). "Comedy as Satire in Hispano-Arabic Spain". Hispanic Review. University of Pennsylvania Press. 26 (1): 1–11. doi:10.2307/470561. JSTOR 470561.  ^ Herman Braet, Guido Latré, Werner Verbeke (2003) Risus mediaevalis: laughter in medieval literature and art p.1 quotation: The deliberate use by Menard of the term 'le rire' rather than 'l'humour' reflects accurately the current evidency to incorporate all instances of the comic in the analysis, while the classification in genres and fields such as grotesque, humour and even irony or satire always poses problems. The terms humour and laughter are therefore pragmatically used in recent historiography to cover the entire spectrum. ^ Ménard, Philippe (1988) Le rire et le sourire au Moyen Age dans la littérature et les arts. Essai de problématique in Bouché, T. and Charpentier H. (eds., 1988) Le rire au Moyen Âge, Actes du colloque international de Bordeaux, pp.7-30 ^ Aristophanes (1996) Lysistrata, Introduction, p.ix, published by Nick Hern Books ^ Reckford, Kenneth J. (1987)Aristophanes' Old-and-new Comedy: Six essays in perspective p.105 ^ Cornford, F.M. (1934) The Origin of Attic Comedy pp.3-4 quotation: That Comedy sprang up and took shape in connection with Dionysiac or Phallic ritual has never been doubted. ^ "Aristotle, Poetics, lines beginning at 1449a". Retrieved 2012-06-30.  ^ Robert Barton, Annie McGregor. Theatre in Your Life. CengageBrain. p. 218.  ^ Regan, Richard. "Shakespearean comedy" ^  Wheeler, R. Mortimer (1911). "Punch (puppet)". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 22 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 648–649.  ^ a b "Punch and Judy around the world". The Telegraph. 11 June 2015.  ^ "Mr Punch celebrates 350 years of puppet anarchy". BBC. 11 June 2015.  ^ Jeffrey Richards (2014). "The Golden Age of Pantomime: Slapstick, Spectacle and Subversion in Victorian England". I.B.Tauris, ^ a b McCabe, John. "Comedy World of Stan Laurel". p. 143. London: Robson Books, 2005, First edition 1975 ^ Burton, Alan (2000). Pimple, pranks & pratfalls: British film comedy before 1930. Flicks Books. p. 51.  ^ J. P. Gallagher (1971). "Fred Karno: master of mirth and tears". p. 165. Hale. ^ Meacham, Steve (2010-09-15). "Absurd moments: in the frocks of the dame". Retrieved 2011-12-20.  ^ "An impolite interview with Lenny Bruce". The Realist (15): 3. February 1960. Retrieved 2011-12-30.  ^ Meredith, George (1987). "Essay on Comedy, Comic Spirit". Encyclopedia of the Self, by Mark Zimmerman. Retrieved 2011-12-30.  ^ ^ ^ ^ Trischa Goodnow Knapp (2011). The Daily Show and Rhetoric: Arguments, Issues, and Strategies. p. 327. Lexington Books, 2011 ^ This list was compiled with reference to The Cambridge Guide to Theatre (1998).

Notations[edit] Aristotle. Poetics.  Buckham, Philip Wentworth (1827). Theatre of the Greeks.  Marteinson, Peter (2006). On the Problem of the Comic: A Philosophical Study on the Origins of Laughter. Ottawa: Legas Press. Pickard-Cambridge, Sir Arthur Wallace Dithyramb, Tragedy, and Comedy , 1927. The Theatre of Dionysus in Athens, 1946. The Dramatic Festivals of Athens, 1953. Raskin, Victor (1985). The Semantic Mechanisms of Humor. Springer. ISBN 978-90-277-1821-1.  Riu, Xavier (1999). Dionysism and Comedy.  Sourvinou-Inwood, Christiane (2003). Tragedy and Athenian Religion. Lexington Books. ISBN 978-0-7391-0400-2.  Trypanis, C.A. (1981). Greek Poetry from Homer to Seferis. University of Chicago Press.  Wiles, David (1991). The Masked Menander: Sign and Meaning in Greek and Roman Performance. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-40135-7. 

External links[edit] Wikisource has the text of the 1920 Encyclopedia Americana article Comedy. Learning materials related to Collaborative play writing at Wikiversity Find more aboutComedyat Wikipedia's sister projects Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Learning resources from Wikiversity Comedy Documentary Films at All Documentaries Comedy at Curlie (based on DMOZ) A Vocabulary for Comedy from a professor at Dallas Baptist University 6 Elements of Comedy by comedian Bobby Schimmel v t e Comedy Topics Comedian Comedic device Comedy festival Comic timing Farce Humorist Humour Impersonator Impressionist Irony Joke Prank call Punch line Satire Visual gag Wit Word play Film Country American British French Italian Genre Horror Parody Remarriage Romance Science fiction Screwball Sex Italian Silent Slapstick Stoner Theatre Country Europe Ancient Greek comedy Comédie-Française Comédie-Italienne Corral de comedias Theatre of ancient Rome Asia China Xiangsheng Mo lei tau Japan Kyōgen Manzai Owarai Rakugo Sarugaku Genre Boulevard theatre Comedy-drama Comedy of errors Comedy of humours Comedy of manners Comedy of menace Commedia dell'arte Double act Farce Improvisational Macchietta One-person show Pantomime Restoration comedy Sentimental comedy Comédie larmoyante Shadow play Shakespearean comedy Sketch comedy Spex Stand-up comedy Street theatre Theatre of the Absurd Tragicomedy Vaudeville Music & dance Ballad opera Cabaret Café-chantant Café-théâtre Comédie-ballet Comedy club Light music Music hall Musical theatre Opéra bouffe Opera buffa Opéra comique Operetta Revue Media Music Album Rock Novel Radio Television Roast Sitcom Subgenres Alternative Black Blue Character Christian Cringe Deadpan (dry humor) Documentary Gallows High / low Horror Insult Observational Physical Prop Shock Sick Slapstick Topics Surreal Zombie Category Portal v t e Theatre Outline of theatre History Greek Roman Medieval Commedia dell'arte English Renaissance Spanish Golden Age French Classicism Neoclassical Restoration Augustan Weimar Romanticism Melodrama Naturalism Realism Modernism Postmodern 19th century 20th century timeline Types Drama Musical theatre Comedy Tragedy Improvisation Regions Persia India China Thailand Japan Africa Stagecraft Cue Curtain Call Rehearsal Stage Theatrical constraints Theatrical superstitions Technical rehearsal Technical week Performance Lighting design Sound design Set construction Theatrical property Costume construction Personnel Performers Actor Dancer Singer Management Stage management Technical director production management house management company management Technical Carpenter (theatre) Electrician (theatre) Fly crew Make-up artist Property master Pyrotechnician Running crew Spotlight operator Stagehand Theatrical Technician Technical crew Wardrobe supervisor Design Costume Designer Lighting designer Scenic designer Sound Designer Sound engineer Video design Running crew Call boy Production manager Stage manager Stagehand Technical director Theatrical technician Carpenter Fly crew Electrician Light board operator Lighting technician Spotlight operator A2 Sound operator Property master Dresser Wardrobe supervisor Musicians Musical ensemble Orchestra Pit orchestra Category Commons Wiktionary WikiProject Authority control GND: 4031952-0 NDL: 00565704 Retrieved from "" Categories: ComedyHidden categories: Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from June 2011Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource referenceWikipedia indefinitely move-protected pagesArticles containing Greek-language textArticles needing cleanup from April 2008All pages needing cleanupArticles with sections that need to be turned into prose from April 2008Articles to be expanded from April 2010All articles to be expandedArticles using small message boxesArticles with Curlie linksWikipedia articles with GND identifiers

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