Contents 1 Examples 1.1 California 1.2 China 2 Governance and administrative structure 3 Development potential 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links


Examples[edit] California[edit] For example, in California, cities which have not adopted a charter are organized by state law. Such a city is called a General Law City, which will be managed by a 5-member city council. A city organized under a charter may choose different systems, including the "strong mayor" or "city manager" forms of government.[1][2] As of 22 February 2013, 121 of California's 478 cities are charter cities.[3] A few examples include Norco, Oakland, Newport Beach, Palo Alto, Huntington Beach, Alameda, San Francisco, Irvine, Los Angeles, San Jose, and the capital, Sacramento.[4] However, charter cities that are subordinate to the rules of larger institutions (such as provinces or nations) have limited flexibility to adopt new governance structures. China[edit] Outside the United States, some cities function in a somewhat analogous way. Hong Kong and Macau both are current examples of special administrative regions, similar to charter cities, in China, although their Basic Laws do not originate in these cities and they are not referred to as "charter cities" either in legal contexts or common usage. Under the one country, two systems policy, they are able to maintain their capitalist economies, which previously existed under British and Portuguese rule. China also has several special economic zones, but these do not enjoy as much autonomy as special administrative regions.


Governance and administrative structure[edit] The range of what is considered a "charter city" may lead to definitional ambiguities. Most times, however, a charter city is founded by charter before large-scale development takes place. While a city may adopt a new "charter" long after its first codification of rules, as in the cases of many cities in California, generally the designation of a charter city is reserved for those municipalities whose charter guides development decisions or influences the creation of social structure from the beginning. A charter city may have some exemptions from some state or provincial laws, which varies entirely for each particular region. With the help of a guiding charter, cities may be able to avoid administrative inefficiencies and establish rules with alternative social motivations. Thus, one benefit of charter cities is the freedom they offer in establishment of rules of governance. For example, many charter cities use alternative forms of property taxation. Because charter cities are often founded with a goal of large-scale urban development, efficient use of the city's limited land is of utmost importance, for both the economic sustainability of the citizens and the government units. Thus, rather than using the traditional tax on both property and land, charter cities may use land value taxation, which taxes only the value of land, thus not providing disincentives for development.


Development potential[edit] Economist Paul Romer proposes founding many new charter cities in developing countries. Romer suggests that a developing country pass a law that sets aside a tract of land for a new charter city. This charter city would be administered by a developed third-party guarantor government, and citizens from the host country (and maybe other countries) could move in and out as they please. The point of the charter cities idea is to give citizens the choice about where they want to live and to provide the basic rules and amenities required for economic growth. Ideally, by establishing a city with highly developed rules and governance in an underdeveloped region, living and working in a charter city may provide a closer and more attractive alternative to moving far away to more developed countries.[5][6] In Romer’s conception, there are three main factors in the creation of a charter city. First, there is the developing host country. The host country provides the land, and designates that land as a special reform zone, subject to the foundational set of rules. Second, the developed guarantor country administers the region, perhaps with a board of governors and an appointed chairman like the Federal Reserve System in the United States. Third, the source country will be where the charter city’s residents come from. This may be predominantly from the host country, but there also may be a number of source countries.[6] In practice, some countries have been receptive to Romer's idea. After a meeting of Romer with president Marc Ravalomanana, Madagascar considered creating two charter cities, but the plan was scrapped when the political leadership that supported the idea was removed from power.[7] More recently, the government of Honduras has considered creating a charter city, though without the oversight of a third-party government. In 2011 Honduras made the necessary legal changes. Romer served as chair of a "transparency committee" but resigned in September 2012 when the Honduran government agency responsible for the project signed agreements with international developers without knowledge of the committee.[8] In October 2012 the Honduran Supreme Court declared charter cities to be unconstitutional because the laws of Honduras would not be applicable there.[9][10]


See also[edit] City-state Dillon's Rule Free imperial city Home rule Micronation Zone for Employment and Economic Development (Honduras) Southern African Special Administrative Region Special administrative region Urban Enterprise Zone


References[edit] ^ "Charter Cities". League of California Cities. 2007-05-09. Retrieved 2008-04-17.  ^ "California Government Code, Title 4 Government of Cities, Chapter 2 Classification". State of California. Retrieved 2008-04-17.  ^ "Charter Cities List". League of California Cities. 22 February 2013. Retrieved 2016-06-23.  ^ "Charter Cities". League of California Cities. Archived from the original on 2008-11-14. Retrieved 2008-11-14.  ^ Sebastian Mallaby (July–August 2010). "The Politically Incorrect Guide to Ending Poverty". The Atlantic.  ^ a b Concept Archived May 11, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. from chartercities.org ^ http://aidwatchers.com/2010/06/the-lure-of-starting-from-scratch/ ^ "Plan for Charter City to Fight Honduras Poverty Loses Its Initiator". New York Times. 30 September 2012.  ^ "Honduran supreme court rejects 'model cities' idea". Yahoo News. 18 October 2012.  ^ Brian Doherty (June 2013). "The Blank Slate State". reason.com. Retrieved 2013-05-16. 


Further reading[edit] Lang, Diane (December 1991). "Dillon's Rule...and the Birth of Home Rule" (PDF). New Mexico Municipal League. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-05-30. Retrieved 2008-12-26.  Discussion of Dillon's rule, charter cities and home rule in New Mexico.


External links[edit] California State Constitution, Article 11: Local government Charter Cities global Information The Atlantic: The Politically Incorrect Way to End Poverty Paul Romer about Charter Cities TED talks v t e Designations for types of administrative territorial entities English terms Common English terms1 Area Insular area Local government area Protected area Special area Statistical area Combined statistical area Metropolitan statistical area Micropolitan statistical area Urban area Canton Half-canton Borough County borough Metropolitan borough Capital Federal capital Imperial capital City City state Autonomous city Charter city Independent city Incorporated city Imperial city Free imperial city Royal free city Community Autonomous community Residential community County Administrative county Autonomous county Consolidated city-county Metropolitan county Non-metropolitan Viscountcy Country Overseas country Department Overseas department District Capital district City district Congressional district Electoral district Federal district Indian government district Land district Metropolitan district Non-metropolitan district Military district Municipal district Police district Regional district Rural district Sanitary district Subdistrict Urban district Special district Division Census division Police division Subdivision Municipality County municipality Norway Nova Scotia Regional county municipality Direct-controlled municipality District municipality Mountain resort municipality Neutral municipality Regional municipality Resort municipality Rural municipality Specialized municipality Prefecture Autonomous prefecture Subprefecture Super-prefecture Praetorian prefecture Province Autonomous province Overseas province Roman province Region Administrative region Autonomous region Capital region Development region Economic region Mesoregion Microregion Overseas region Planning region Special administrative region Statistical region Subregion Reserve Biosphere reserve Ecological reserve Game reserve Indian reserve Nature reserve State Federal state Free state Sovereign state Territory Capital territory Federal capital territory Dependent territory Federal territory Military territory Organized incorporated territory Overseas territory Union territory Unorganized territory Town Census town Market town Township Charter township Civil township Paper township Survey township Urban township Unit Autonomous territorial unit Local administrative unit Municipal unit Regional unit Zone Economic zone Exclusive economic zone Free economic zone Special economic zone Free-trade zone Neutral zone Self-administered zone Other English terms Current Alpine resort Bailiwick Banner Autonomous Block Cadastre Circle Circuit Colony Commune Condominium Constituency Duchy Eldership Emirate Federal dependency Governorate Hamlet Ilkhanate Indian reservation Manor Royal Muftiate Neighbourhood Parish Periphery Precinct Principality Protectorate Quarter Regency Autonomous republic Riding Sector Autonomous Shire Sultanate Suzerainty Townland Village Administrative Summer Ward Historical Agency Barony Burgh Exarchate Hide Hundred Imperial Circle March Monthon Presidency Residency Roman diocese Seat Tenth Tithing Non-English or loanwords Current Amt Bakhsh Barangay Bezirk Regierungsbezirk Comune Frazione Fu Gemeinde Județ Kunta / kommun Finland Sweden Län Località Megye Muban Oblast Autonomous Okrug Ostān Poblacion Purok Shahrestān Sum Sýsla Tehsil Vingtaine Historical Commote Gau Heerlijkheid Köping Maalaiskunta Nome Egypt Greece Pagus Pargana Plasă Satrapy Socken Subah Syssel Zhou v t e Arabic terms for country subdivisions First-level Muhafazah (محافظة governorate) Wilayah (ولاية province) Mintaqah (منطقة region) Mudiriyah (مديرية directorate) Imarah (إمارة emirate) Baladiyah (بلدية municipality) Shabiyah (شعبية "popularate") Second / third-level Mintaqah (منطقة region) Qadaa (قضاء district) Nahiyah (ناحية subdistrict) Markaz (مركز district) Mutamadiyah (معتمدية "delegation") Daerah/Daïra (دائرة circle) Liwa (لواء banner / sanjak) City / township-level Amanah (أمانة municipality) Baladiyah (بلدية municipality) Ḥai (حي neighborhood / quarter) Mahallah (محلة) Qarya (قرية) Sheyakhah (شياخة "neighborhood subdivision") English translations given are those most commonly used. v t e French terms for country subdivisions arrondissement département préfecture subprefectures v t e Greek terms for country subdivisions Modern apokentromenes dioikiseis / geniki dioikisis§ / diamerisma§ / periphereia nomos§ / periphereiaki enotita demos / eparchia§ / koinotita§ Historical archontia/archontaton bandon demos despotaton dioikesis doukaton droungos eparchia exarchaton katepanikion kephalatikion kleisoura meris naukrareia satrapeia strategis thema toparchia tourma § signifies a defunct institution v t e Portuguese terms for country subdivisions Regional subdivisions Estado Distrito federal Província Região Distrito Comarca Capitania Local subdivisions Município Concelho Freguesia Comuna Circunscrição Settlements Cidade Vila Aldeia Bairro Lugar Historical subdivisions in italics. v t e Slavic terms for country subdivisions Current dzielnica gmina krai kraj krajina / pokrajina městys obec oblast / oblast' / oblasti / oblys / obwód / voblast' okręg okres okrug opština / općina / občina / obshtina osiedle powiat / povit raion selsoviet / silrada sołectwo voivodeship / vojvodina županija Historical darugha gromada guberniya / gubernia jurydyka khutor obshchina okolia opole pogost prowincja sorok srez starostwo / starostva uyezd volost ziemia župa v t e Spanish terms for country subdivisions National, Federal Comunidad autónoma Departamento Distrito federal Estado Provincia Región Regional, Metropolitan Cantón Comarca Comuna Corregimiento Delegación Distrito Mancomunidad Merindad Municipalidad Municipio Parroquia Ecuador Spain Urban, Rural Aldea Alquería Anteiglesia Asentamiento Asentamiento informal Pueblos jóvenes Barrio Campamento Caserío Ciudad Ciudad autónoma Colonia Lugar Masía Pedanía Población Ranchería Sitio Vereda Villa Village (Pueblito/Pueblo) Historical subdivisions in italics. v t e Turkish terms for country subdivisions Modern il (province) ilçe (district) şehir (city) kasaba (town) belediye (municipality) belde (community) köy (village) mahalle (neighbourhood/quarter) Historical ağalık (feudal district) bucak (subdistrict) beylerbeylik (province) kadılık (subprovince) kaza (sub-province) hidivlik (viceroyalty) mutasarrıflık (subprovince) nahiye (nahiyah) paşalık (province) reya (Romanian principalities) sancak (prefecture) vilayet (province) voyvodalık (Romanian provinces) 1 Used by ten or more countries or having derived terms. Historical derivations in italics. See also: Census division, Electoral district, Political division, and List of administrative divisions by country Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Charter_city&oldid=823549546" Categories: Local government in the United StatesTypes of country subdivisionsEconomic development in the United StatesPlanned citiesForms of local governmentHidden categories: Webarchive template wayback linksWikipedia articles needing rewrite from February 2018All articles needing rewrite


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