Contents 1 Speakers 2 Revitalization efforts 3 Classification 4 Phonology 4.1 Vowels 4.2 Consonants 5 Orthography 6 Grammar 7 Basic phrases 8 Numbers 9 Months 10 Chamorro studies 11 See also 12 References 12.1 Notes 12.2 General references 13 External links

Speakers[edit] "Hafa Adai" sign at Antonio B. Won Pat International Airport in Guam The Chamorro language is threatened, with a precipitous drop in language fluency over the past century. It is estimated that 75% of the population of Guam was literate in the Chamorro language around the time the United States captured the island during the Spanish–American War[5] (there are no similar language fluency estimates for other areas of the Mariana Islands during this time). A century later, the 2000 U.S. Census showed that fewer than 20% of Chamorros living in Guam speak their heritage language fluently, and the vast majority of those were over the age of 55. A number of forces have contributed to the steep, post-World War II decline of Chamorro language fluency. A colonial legacy, beginning with the Spanish colonization of Guam in 1668, and eventually the American acquisition of the islands (whose power continues to this day), imposed power structures privileging the language of the region's colonizers. It is of worthy note that according to estimates, a large majority, as stated above (75%), maintained active knowledge of the Chamorro language even during the Spanish colonial era, but this was all to change with advent of American imperialism and enforcement of the English language. In Guam, the language suffered additional suppression when the U.S. government banned the Chamorro language in schools in 1922. They collected and burned all Chamorro dictionaries.[6] Similar policies were undertaken by the Japanese government when they controlled the region during World War II. After World War II, when Guam was ceded back to the United States, the American administrators of the island continued to impose “no Chamorro” language restrictions in local schools, teaching only English and disciplining students for speaking their indigenous tongue.[7] Even though these oppressive language policies were progressively lifted, the damage had been done. Subsequent generations were often raised in households where only the oldest family members were fluent. Lack of exposure made it increasingly difficult to pick up Chamorro as a second language. Within a few generations, English replaced Chamorro as the language of daily life.[citation needed] There is a difference in the rate of Chamorro language fluency between Guam and the other Mariana Islands. On Guam (called Guåhan by Chamorro speakers, from the word guaha, meaning "have"; its English meaning is "We have" from the idea that they had everything they needed[8][9]) the number of native Chamorro speakers has dwindled in the last decade or so. In the Northern Mariana Islands (NMI), young Chamorros speak the language fluently. Chamorro is common among Chamorro households in the Northern Marianas, but fluency has greatly decreased among Guamanian Chamorros during the years of American rule in favor of American English, which is commonplace throughout the inhabited Marianas. Today, the NMI Chamorros and Guamanian Chamorros disagree strongly on each other's linguistic fluency. An NMI Chamorro would say that Guamanian Chamorros do not speak the language correctly (or speak "broken Chamorro"), whereas the Guamanian Chamorros believe that the NMI Chamorros are using an archaic form of the language.

Revitalization efforts[edit] Representatives from Guam have unsuccessfully lobbied the United States to take action to promote and protect the language.[citation needed] In 2013, "Guam will be instituting Public Law 31-45, which increases the teaching of the Chamorro language and culture in Guam schools," extending instruction to include grades 7–10.[10] Other efforts have been made in recent times, most notably Chamorro immersion schools. One example is the Huråo Guåhan Academy, at the Chamorro Village in Hagåtña, GU. This program is led by Ann Marie Arceo and her husband, Ray Arceo. According to Huråo's official YouTube page, "Huråo Academy is one if not the first Chamoru Immersion Schools that focus on the teaching of Chamoru language and Self-identity on Guam. Huråo was founded as a non-profit in June 2005." [11] The academy has been praised by many for the continuity of the Chamoru language. Other creative ways to incorporate and promote the Chamorro language have been found in the use of applications for smartphones, internet videos and television. From Chamorro dictionaries,[12] to the most recent "Speak Chamorro" app,[13] efforts are growing and expanding in ways to preserve and protect the Chamorro language and identity. On YouTube, a popular Chamorro soap opera Siha[14] has received mostly positive feedback from native Chamorro speakers on its ability to weave dramatics, the Chamorro language, and island culture into an entertaining program. On TV, Nihi! Kids is a first-of-its-kind show, because it is targeted "for Guam’s nenis that aims to perpetuate Chamoru language and culture while encouraging environmental stewardship, healthy choices and character development."[15]

Classification[edit] Unlike most of its neighbors, Chamorro is not classified as a Micronesian or Polynesian language. Rather, like Palauan, it constitutes a possibly independent branch of the Malayo-Polynesian language family. Its indigenous origins are thus somewhat obscure. At the time the Spanish rule over Guam ended, it was thought that Chamorro was a semi-Creole language, with a substantial amount of the vocabulary of Spanish origin and beginning to have a high level of mutual intelligibility with Spanish. It is reported that even in the early 1920s Spanish was reported to be a living language in Guam for commercial transactions, but the use of Spanish and Chamorro was rapidly declining as a result of English pressure. Spanish influences in the language exist due to three centuries of Spanish colonial rule. Many words in the Chamorro lexicon are of Latin etymological origin via Spanish, but their use conforms with indigenous grammatical structures. Furthermore, indigenous pronunciation has "nativized" most words of foreign origin that haven't conformed to the ways that indigenous speakers of the language are accustomed to making sounds. By some it may be considered a mixed language[16] under a historical point of view, even though it remains independent and unique. In his Chamorro Reference Grammar, Donald M. Topping states: "The most notable influence on Chamorro language and culture came from the Spanish. ... There was wholesale borrowing of Spanish words and phrases into Chamorro, and there was even some borrowing from the Spanish sound system. But this borrowing was linguistically superficial. The bones of the Chamorro language remained intact. ... In virtually all cases of borrowing, Spanish words were forced to conform to the Chamorro sound system. ... While Spanish may have left a lasting mark on Chamorro vocabulary, as it did on many Philippine and South American languages, it had virtually no effect on Chamorro grammar. ... Japanese influence on Chamorro was much greater than that of German, but much less than Spanish. Once again, the linguistic influence was restricted exclusively to vocabulary items, many of which refer to manufactured objects...[17] In contrast, in the essays found in Del español al chamorro. Lenguas en contacto en el Pacífico (2009), Dr. Rafael Rodríguez-Ponga—the Complutense-trained linguist and Secretary-General of Spain's Instituto Cervantes—refers to modern Chamorro as a "mixed language" of "Hispanic-Austronesian" origins, while estimating that approximately 50% of the Chamorro lexicon comes from the Spanish language and that the contribution of this language goes far beyond loanwords. Rafael Rodríguez-Ponga considers Chamorro a Spanish-Austronesian or a Spanish-Austronesian mixed language or at least a language that has emerged from a process of contact and creolization on the island of Guam, since modern Chamorro is influenced in vocabulary, and it has in its grammar many elements of Spanish origin: verbs, articles, prepositions, numerals, conjunctions, etc.[18] This process, which began in the 17th century and ended in the early 20th century, meant a profound change from the old Chamorro (paleo-Chamorro) to modern Chamorro (neo-Chamorro) in its grammar, phonology and vocabulary.[19]

Phonology[edit] This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA. Chamorro has 24 phonemes: 18 are consonants and 6 are vowels. Vowels[edit] Chamorro has at least 6 vowels, which include: /ɑ/, open back unrounded vowel equivalent to the "a" in the Received Pronunciation of "father." /æ/, near-open front unrounded vowel equivalent to the "a" in the Received Pronunciation of "cat." /e/, close-mid front unrounded vowel equivalent to the "é" in the French pronunciation of "café". /i/, close front unrounded vowel equivalent to the "ee" in "sleep." /o/, close-mid back unrounded vowel equivalent to the "o" in the Japanese word "kodomo" or Spanish "todo." /u/, close back rounded vowel equivalent to the "u" in the Received Pronunciation of "flu." Consonants[edit] Below is a chart of Chamorro consonants; all are unaspirated. Table of consonant phonemes of Chamorro Labial Dental/ Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal Stop p b t d k ɡ ɡʷ ʔ Nasal m n ɲ ŋ Fricative f s h Affricate t̪͡s̪ d̪͡z̪ Tap ɾ~ɻ Approximant l

Orthography[edit] Chamorro Alphabet ' Aa Åå Bb Chch Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Kk Ll Mm Nn Ññ Ngng Oo Pp Rr Ss Tt Uu Yy /ʔ/ (glottal stop) /æ/ /ɑ/ /b/ /ts/ and /tʃ/ /d/ /e/ /f/ /ɡ/ /h/ /i/ /k/ /l/ /m/ /n/ / ɲ/ /ŋ/ /o/ /p/ /ɾ/ ~ /ɻ / /s/ /t/ /u/ /dz/, /z/ and /dʒ/ Additionally, some letter combinations in Chamoru sometimes represent single phonemes. For instance, "ci+[vowel]" and "ti+[vowel]" are both pronounced [ʃ], as in "hustisia" (justice) and the surname Concepcion (Spanish influence). The letter ⟨y⟩ is usually (though not always) pronounced more like dz (an approximation of the regional Spanish pronunciation of y as [dʒ]); it is also sometimes used to represent the same sound as the letter i by Guamanian speakers. The phonemes represented by ⟨n⟩ and ⟨ñ⟩ as well as ⟨a⟩ and ⟨å⟩ are not always distinguished in print. Thus the Guamanian place name spelled Yona is pronounced "Dzonia"/[dzoɲa], not *[jona] as might be expected. ⟨Ch⟩ is usually pronounced like ts rather than like English ch. Chamorro ⟨r⟩ is usually a flap [ɾ], like Spanish r between vowels, and a retroflex approximant [ɻ ], like English r, at the beginning of words. Chamorro has geminate consonants which are written double (GG, DD, KK, MM, NGNG, PP, SS, TT), native diphthongs AI and AO, plus OI, OE, IA, IU, IE in loanwords; penultimate stress, except where marked otherwise, if marked at all in writing, usually with an acute accent, as in asút "blue" or dángkulo "big". Unstressed vowels are limited to /ə i u/, though they are often spelled A E O. Syllables may be consonant-vowel-consonant, as in che’lu "sibling", diskatga "unload", mamahlao "shy", or oppop "lie face down", gatus (old word for 100), Hagåtña (Capital of Guam); B, D, and G are not distinguished from P, T, and K in that position.[vague]. Today, there is an ongoing issue on the Chamorro language orthography (example: Mt. Tapochau vs. Mt. Tapochao). Also note that "Ññ" and "Åå" are not always used, leading to further confusion for modern learners of the language.

Grammar[edit] Chamorro is a VSO or verb–subject–object language. However, the word order can be very flexible and so change to SVO (subject-verb-object), like English, if necessary to convey different types of relative clauses depending on context and stressing parts of what someone is trying to say or convey. Again, this is subject to debate as those on Guam believe the language is flexible whereas those in the CNMI do not. Chamorro is also an agglutinative language, grammatically allowing root words to be modified by a number of affixes. For example, masanganenñaihon "talked awhile (with/to)", passive marking prefix ma-, root verb sangan, referential suffix i "to" (forced morphophonemically to change to e) with excrescent consonant n, and suffix ñaihon "a short amount of time". Thus Masanganenñaihon gue' "He/she was told (something) for a while". Chamorro has many Spanish loanwords and other words have Spanish etymological roots (e.g., tenda "shop/store" from Spanish tienda), which may lead some to mistakenly conclude that the language is a Spanish Creole: Chamorro very much uses its loanwords in a Micronesian way (e.g., bumobola "playing ball" from bola "ball, play ball" with verbalizing infix -um- and reduplication of first syllable of root). Chamorro is a predicate-initial, head-marking language. It has a rich agreement system in the nominal and in the verbal domains. The following table gives the possessor-noun agreement suffixes:[20] Person/Number Suffix 1 sg -hu / -ku 2 sg -mu 3 sg -ña 1 incl du/pl -ta 1 excl du/pl -(n)mami 2 du/pl -(n)miyu 3 du/pl -(n)ñiha Chamorro is also known for its wh-agreement in the verb: These agreement morphemes agree with features (roughly, the grammatical case feature) of the question phrase, and 'replace' the regular subject–verb agreement:[21] (1) Ha-fa'gasi si Juan i kareta. 3sSA[22]-wash PND[23] Juan the car 'Juan washed the car.' (2) Hayi fuma'gasi i kareta? who? WH[nom].[24] wash the car 'Who washed the car?'

Basic phrases[edit] Håfa Adai! / Håfa dai! (phonetic spelling) "Hello!" Buenas [Spanish introduced] Greetings Kåu mamaolek håu? How are you? [lit.: Are you doing well?][informal] Håfa tatatmanu håu? How are you?[formal] Håyi na'ån mu? What is your name? I na'ån hu si Chris My name is Chris. Ñålang yu' I'm hungry. Må'o yu' I'm thirsty. Adios [Spanish Introduced] påt Esta Good bye. Pot Fabot [Spanish introduced formal] påt Fan [Chamoru Informal] please Fanatåtti [Indigenous] leave later [informal] Buenas dias [Spanish introduced] påt Manana si Yu'us (mostly used on Guam) Good morning. Buenas tåtdes [Spanish introduced] Good afternoon. Buenas noches [Spanish introduced] påt Puengen Yu'us Good night. Asta agupa' Until tomorrow Si Yu'us ma'åsi' Thank you (lit: God have mercy) Buen probechu [Spanish introduced] påt Hågu mås "You're welcome"

Numbers[edit] Current common Chamorro uses only number words of Spanish origin: unu, dos, tres, etc. Old Chamorro used different number words based on categories: "Basic numbers" (for date, time, etc.), "living things", "inanimate things", and "long objects". English Modern Chamorro Old Chamorro Basic Numbers Living Things Inanimate Things Long Objects one unu/una (time) håcha maisa hachiyai takhachun two dos hugua hugua hugiyai takhuguan three tres tulu tatu to'giyai taktulun four kuåttro' fatfat fatfat fatfatai takfatun five singko' lima lalima limiyai takliman six sais gunum guagunum gonmiyai ta'gunum seven sietti fiti fafiti fitgiyai takfitun eight ocho' guålu' guagualu guatgiyai ta'gualun nine nuebi sigua sasigua sigiyai taksiguan ten dies månot maonot manutai takmaonton hundred siento gåtus gåtus gåtus gåtus/manapo The number 10 and its multiples up to 90 are dies (10), benti (20), trenta (30), kuårenta (40), sinkuenta (50), sisenta (60), sitenta (70), ochenta (80), nubenta (90) Similar to Spanish terms diez (10), veinte (20), treinta (30), cuarenta (40), cincuenta (50), sesenta (60), setenta (70), ochenta (80), noventa (90).

Months[edit] Before the Spanish-based 12-month calendar became predominant, the Chamoru 13-month lunar calendar was commonly used. The first month in the left column below corresponds with January. On the right are the Spanish-based months. 1 Tumaiguini 2 Maimu' 3 Umatalaf 4 Lumuhu 5 Makmamao 6 Fananaf/Mananaf 7 Semu 8 Tenhos 9 Lumamlam 10 Fangualu/Fa'gualu 11 Sumongsong 12 Umayanggan 13 Umagahaf [25] January Ineru February Fibreru March Måtsu April Abrit May Måyu June Huño July Hulio August Agosto September Septembre October Oktubri November Nubembre December Disembre

Chamorro studies[edit] Chamorro is studied at the University of Guam and in several academic institutions of Guam and the Northern Marianas. Researchers in several countries are studying aspects of Chamorro. In 2009, the Chamorro Linguistics International Network (CHIN) was established in Bremen, Germany. CHiN was founded on occasion of the Chamorro Day (27 September 2009) which was part of the programme of the Festival of Languages. The foundation ceremony was attended by people from Germany, Guam, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Spain, Switzerland, and the United States of America.[26]

See also[edit] Micronesia portal Language portal

References[edit] Notes[edit] ^ Chamorro at Ethnologue (19th ed., 2016) ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Chamorro". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ "chamorro". Unabridged. Random House. Retrieved 2017-08-11.  ^ Chung, Sandra. 1998. The design of agreement: Evidence from Chamorro. University of Chicago Press: Chicago. ^ Carano, Paul and Sanchez, Pedro A Complete History of Guam. Tokyo and Rutland, VT: Charles Tuttle Co., 1964. ^ Skutnabb-Kangas 2000: 206; Mühlhäusler 1996: 109; Benton 1981: 122 ^ "Education during the US Naval Era | Guampedia: The Encyclopedia of Guam". Guampedia. Retrieved 2013-04-22.  ^ Tamondong, Dionesis (16 February 2010). "Camacho: Name change will affirm identity". Pacific Daily News. Retrieved 2010-02-18. [dead link] ^ José Antonio Saco. Colección de papeles científicos, históricos, políticos y de otros ramos sobre la isla de Cuba. 1859. ^ "Guam to Increase Education in Indigenous Language and Culture". Open Equal Free. Education. Development. 29 August 2012. Retrieved 2012-09-06.  ^ ^ ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 19 April 2015. Retrieved 19 April 2015.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 19 April 2015. Retrieved 19 April 2015.  ^ ^ Rafael Rodriguez-Ponga Salamanca, Del español al chamorro: Lenguas en contacto en el Pacífico. Madrid, Ediciones Gondo, 2009, ^ Topping, Donald (1973). Chamorro Reference Grammar. University Press of Hawaii. pp. 6 and 7. ISBN 978-0-8248-0269-1.  ^ Rafael Rodríguez-Ponga, The Spanish element in the Chamorro language, CD-Rom, Madrid, Publishing Service of the Complutense University, 2003. eprints.ucm [1] ^ Rafael Rodríguez-Ponga, Of Spanish to Chamorro: Language in contact in the Pacific. Madrid, Ediciones Gondo, 2009, [2][3] ^ Chung 1998:49 ^ Chung 1998:236 and passim ^ '3sSA' stands for 3rd singular Subject Agreement. ^ 'PND' stands for Proper Noun Determiner, a special article used with names in Chamorro. ^ The '-um-' in 'fumagasi' is an infix, glossed as WH[nom], meaning that it is a WH-agreement morpheme for nominative question phrases. ^ Cunningham, Lawrence J. (1992). Ancient Chamorro Society. Honolulu, Hawaii: The Bess Press. p. 144. ISBN 1-880188-05-8.  ^ The Maga’låhi (president) is Dr. Rafael Rodríguez-Ponga Salamanca (Madrid, Spain); Maga’låhi ni onrao (honorary president): Dr. Robert A. Underwood (president, University of Guam); Teniente maga’låhi (vice-president): Prof. Dr. Thomas Stolz (Universität Bremen). General references[edit] Aguon, K. B. (1995). Chamorro: a complete course of study. Agana, Guam: K.B. Aguon. Chung, Sandra. 1998. The design of agreement: Evidence from Chamorro. University of Chicago Press: Chicago. Rodríguez-Ponga, Rafael (2003). El elemento español en la lengua chamorra. Madrid: Servicio de Publicaciones, Universidad Complutense (Complutense University of Madrid). Rodríguez-Ponga, Rafael (2009). Del español al chamorro. Lenguas en contacto en el Pacífico. Madrid: Ediciones Gondo. Topping, Donald M. (1973). Chamorro reference grammar. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. Topping, Donald M., Pedro M. Ogo, and Bernadita C. Dungca (1975). Chamorro-English dictionary. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. Topping, Donald M. (1980). Spoken Chamorro: with grammatical notes and glossary, rev. ed. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. Hunt, Mike (2008). "Speaking Chamoru Moru Moru". San Roque, Saipan.

External links[edit] Chamorro language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Wikivoyage has an entry for Chamorro phrasebook. Chamorro-English Online Dictionary Chamorro-English dictionary, partially available at Google Books. A Chamorro Reference Grammar, partially available at Google Books. Chamorro Wordlist at the Austronesian Basic Vocabulary Database Chamorro Linguistics International Network (CHIN). Text and software files from "Chamorro-English Dictionary (PALI Language Texts: Micronesia)" by Donald M. Topping, Pedro M. Ogo, and Bernadita C. Dungca, published in 1975 by University of Hawai'i Press archived at Kaipuleohone. Index cards of plant and animal names in Chamorro language in Kaipuleohone. v t e Languages of Oceania Sovereign states Australia Federated States of Micronesia Fiji Kiribati Marshall Islands Nauru New Zealand Palau Papua New Guinea Samoa Solomon Islands Tonga Tuvalu Vanuatu Associated states of New Zealand Cook Islands Niue Dependencies and other territories American Samoa Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Easter Island French Polynesia Guam Hawaii New Caledonia Norfolk Island Northern Mariana Islands Pitcairn Islands Tokelau Wallis and Futuna v t e Nuclear Malayo-Polynesian languages Malayo-Sumbawan Sundanese Sundanese (Bantenese, Baduy) Madurese Kangean Madurese Malayo-Chamic Chamic Acehnese Cham dialects Chru Haroi Jarai Rade Roglai Tsat (Utsat) Malayic Bamayo Banjar Brunei/Kedayan Malay Berau Malay Bangka Malay Balau Bengkulu Col Duano' Haji Iban Jambi Malay Jakun Kedah Malay Kutai Malay Kaur Kerinci Kelantan-Pattani Malay (Yawi) Kendayan Keninjal Kubu Orang Laut Lubu Malay (Malaysian & Indonesian) Minangkabau Musi Mualang Orang Kanaq Orang Seletar Pahang Malay Pekal Perak Malay Remun Sarawak Malay Seberuang Sebuyau Temuan Terengganu Malay Urak Lawoi' Bali–Sasak Balinese Sasak Sumbawa Northwest Sumatran Enggano Gayo Mentawai Nias Sikule Simeulue Batak Alas Batak Angkola Batak Dairi Batak Karo Batak Simalungun Batak Toba Mandailing Lampungic Lampung Api Lampung Nyo Komering Celebic (Disputed) Andio Badaic Bahonsuai Balaesang Balantak Banggai Batui Boano Bobongko Bonerate Bungku Busoa Cia-Cia Dampelas Dondo Kalao Kaili Kaimbulawa Kamaru Kodeoha Kulisusu Kumbewaha Lasalimu Laiyolo Lauje Liabuku Mbelala Moronene Mori Bawah Mori Atas Moma Muna Padoe Pancana Pendau Rahambuu Rampi Saluan Sarudu Sedoa Pamona Taje Tajio Tukang Besi Tolaki Tomadino Topoiyo Tomini Totoli Uma Waru Wawonii Wolio Wotu South Sulawesi Aralle-Tabulahan Bambam Bentong Budong-Budong Buginese Campalagian Dakka Duri Embaloh Enrekang Kalumpang Konjo Lemolang Maiwa (Sulawesi) Makassarese Malimpung Mamasa Mamuju Mandar Panasuan Pannei Selayar Seko Tae’ Talondo’ Taman Toraja-Sa’dan Ulumanda’ Moken Moken dialects Javanese Arekan Banyumasan Mataraman Kawi (Old Javanese) Kedu Osing Tenggerese Central–Eastern Malayo-Polynesian (over 700 languages) Eastern Malayo-Polynesian groups Halmahera–Cenderawasih Oceanic languages Central Malayo-Polynesian linkages Aru Central Maluku Kei-Tanimbar Kowiai Selaru Sumba–Flores Teor–Kur Timoric West Damar Unclassified Chamorro Hukumina † Palauan v t e Varieties of Spanish by continent Africa Canarian Equatoguinean Americas (Pan-American) Caribbean Cuban Dominican Puerto Rican Central America Belizean Costa Rican Guatemalan Honduran Nicaraguan Pachuco Panamanian Salvadoran North America American Caló (Chicano) New Mexican Puerto Rican Isleño Mexican South America Amazonic Andean Bolivian Chilean Chilote Chiloé Archipelago Colombian Cordobés Central Argentina Cuyano Central western Argentina Equatorial Coastal Ecuador Llanero Los Llanos Colombia/Venezuela Maracucho Zulia State Paisa Paisa Region Paraguayan Peruvian Ribereño Coastal Peru Rioplatense Coastal Argentina Uruguayan Venezuelan Asia Philippine Europe (Peninsular) Andalusian Canarian Castilian Castrapo (Galicia) Castúo (Extremadura) Murcian spoken by Catalan speakers Other Standard Caló (Para-Romani) Judaeo-Spanish Palenquero (creole) Chavacano (creole) Llanito Papiamento (Portuguese-based creole with Spanish influence) Spanglish Extinct Mediaeval Cocoliche and Lunfardo Coastal Argentina, Uruguay Malespín Central America Bozal Authority control NDL: 00573576 Retrieved from "" Categories: ChamorroMalayo-Polynesian languagesAgglutinative languagesLanguages of GuamLanguages of the Mariana IslandsVerb–subject–object languagesEndangered Austronesian languagesHidden categories: Language articles citing Ethnologue 19All articles with dead external linksArticles with dead external links from September 2010Use dmy dates from July 2013Articles containing Chamorro-language textLanguages with ISO 639-2 codeLanguages with ISO 639-1 codeAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from March 2013Articles with unsourced statements from February 2007All Wikipedia articles needing clarificationWikipedia articles needing clarification from April 2009

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