Contents 1 Different definitions 2 History 3 Geography 4 Biodiversity 4.1 Flora 4.2 Fauna 5 Geology 6 Demographics 6.1 Languages 6.2 Ethnic groups 6.3 Religious groups 7 Culture 7.1 Sport 8 Politics 8.1 Central American Integration 8.2 Foreign relations 8.3 Central American Parliament 9 Economy 9.1 Tourism 10 Transport 10.1 Roads 10.2 Waterways 10.3 Ports and harbors 10.4 Airports 10.5 Railways 11 Education 12 See also 13 Notes 14 References 15 Further reading 16 External links

Different definitions[edit] "Central America" may mean different things to various people, based upon different contexts: The United Nations geoscheme for the Americas defines the region as all states of mainland North America south of the United States and specifically includes all of Mexico.[4] Middle America is usually thought to comprise Mexico to the north of the 7 states of Central America as well as Colombia and Venezuela to the south. Usually the whole of the Caribbean to the north-east and sometimes the Guyanas are also included. According to one source, the term "Central America" was used as a synonym for "Middle America" at least as recently as 1962.[5] In Ibero-America (Latin America and Iberia), the Americas is considered a single continent, and Central America is considered a subcontinent separate from North America comprising the seven countries south of Mexico and north of Colombia.[6] In Brazil, Central America comprises all countries between Mexico and Colombia, including those in the Caribbean. Mexico, in whole or in part, is sometimes included by British people.[7][8][9][not in citation given][10] For the people living in the five countries formerly part of the Federal Republic of Central America there is a distinction between the Spanish language terms "América Central" and "Centroamérica". While both can be translated into English as "Central America", "América Central" is generally used to refer to the geographical area of the seven countries between Mexico and Colombia, while "Centroamérica" is used when referring to the former members of the Federation emphasizing the shared culture and history of the region.

History[edit] Main article: History of Central America Central America, 1798 Tikal, Guatemala. In the Pre-Columbian era, the northern areas of Central America were inhabited by the indigenous peoples of Mesoamerica. Most notable among these were the Mayans, who had built numerous cities throughout the region, and the Aztecs, who had created a vast empire. The pre-Columbian cultures of eastern El Salvador, eastern Honduras, Caribbean Nicaragua, most of Costa Rica and Panama were predominantly speakers of the Chibchan languages at the time of European contact and are considered by some[11] culturally different and grouped in the Isthmo-Colombian Area. Following Christopher Columbus's voyages to the Americas, the Spanish sent many expeditions to the region, and they began their conquest of Maya territory in 1523. Soon after the conquest of the Aztec Empire, Spanish conquistador Pedro de Alvarado commenced the conquest of northern Central America for the Spanish Empire. Beginning with his arrival in Soconusco in 1523, Alvarado's forces systematically conquered and subjugated most of the major Maya kingdoms, including the K'iche', Tz'utujil, Pipil, and the Kaqchikel. By 1528, the conquest of Guatemala was nearly complete, with only the Petén Basin remaining outside the Spanish sphere of influence. The last independent Maya kingdoms – the Kowoj and the Itza people – were finally defeated in 1697, as part of the Spanish conquest of Petén.[citation needed] In 1538, Spain established the Real Audiencia of Panama, which had jurisdiction over all land from the Strait of Magellan to the Gulf of Fonseca. This entity was dissolved in 1543, and most of the territory within Central America then fell under the jurisdiction of the Audiencia Real de Guatemala. This area included the current territories of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and the Mexican state of Chiapas, but excluded the lands that would become Belize and Panama. The president of the Audiencia, which had its seat in Antigua Guatemala, was the governor of the entire area. In 1609 the area became a captaincy general and the governor was also granted the title of captain general. The Captaincy General of Guatemala encompassed most of Central America, with the exception of present-day Belize and Panama. The Captaincy General of Guatemala lasted for more than two centuries, but began to fray after a rebellion in 1811 which began in the intendancy of San Salvador. The Captaincy General formally ended on 15 September 1821, with the signing of the Act of Independence of Central America. Mexican independence was achieved at virtually the same time with the signing of the Treaty of Córdoba and the Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire, and the entire region was finally independent from Spanish authority by 28 September 1821. From its independence from Spain in 1821 until 1823, the former Captaincy General remained intact as part of the short-lived First Mexican Empire. When the Emperor of Mexico abdicated on 19 March 1823, Central America again became independent. On 1 July 1823, the Congress of Central America peacefully seceded from Mexico and declared absolute independence from all foreign nations, and the region formed the Federal Republic of Central America.[citation needed] The Federal Republic of Central America was a representative democracy with its capital at Guatemala City. This union consisted of the provinces of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Los Altos, Mosquito Coast, and Nicaragua. The lowlands of southwest Chiapas, including Soconusco, initially belonged to the Republic until 1824, when Mexico annexed most of Chiapas and began its claims to Soconusco. The Republic lasted from 1823 to 1838, when it disintegrated as a result of civil wars.[citation needed] Historic Coat of Arms of Central American Unions The United Providences of Central America United Provinces of Central America Federal Republic of Central America Greater Republic of Central America Coat of Arms of modern Central America Guatemala El Salvador Honduras Nicaragua Costa Rica Panama Belize The territory that now makes up Belize was heavily contested in a dispute that continued for decades after Guatemala achieved independence (see History of Belize (1506–1862). Spain, and later Guatemala, considered this land a Guatemalan department. In 1862, Britain formally declared it a British colony and named it British Honduras. It became independent as Belize in 1981.[citation needed] Panama, situated in the southernmost part of Central America on the Isthmus of Panama, has for most of its history been culturally linked to South America. Panama was part of the Province of Tierra Firme from 1510 until 1538 when it came under the jurisdiction of the newly formed Audiencia Real de Panama. Beginning in 1543, Panama was administered as part of the Viceroyalty of Peru, along with all other Spanish possessions in South America. Panama remained as part of the Viceroyalty of Peru until 1739, when it was transferred to the Viceroyalty of New Granada, the capital of which was located at Santa Fé de Bogotá. Panama remained as part of the Viceroyalty of New Granada until the disestablishment of that viceroyalty in 1819. A series of military and political struggles took place from that time until 1822, the result of which produced the republic of Gran Colombia. After the dissolution of Gran Colombia in 1830, Panama became part of a successor state, the Republic of New Granada. From 1855 until 1886, Panama existed as Panama State, first within the Republic of New Granada, then within the Granadine Confederation, and finally within the United States of Colombia. The United States of Colombia was replaced by the Republic of Colombia in 1886. As part of the Republic of Colombia, Panama State was abolished and it became the Isthmus Department. Despite the many political reorganizations, Colombia was still deeply plagued by conflict, which eventually led to the secession of Panama on 3 November 1903. Only after that time did some begin to regard Panama as a North or Central American entity.[citation needed] By the 1930s the United Fruit Company owned 3.5 million acres of land in Central America and the Caribbean and was the single largest land owner in Guatemala. Such holdings gave it great power over the governments of small countries. That was one of the factors that led to the coining of the phrase Banana Republic.[12] After more than two hundred years of social unrest, violent conflict and revolution, Central America today remains in a period of political transformation. Poverty, social injustice and violence are still widespread.[13] Nicaragua is the second poorest country in the western hemisphere (only Haiti is poorer).[14]

Geography[edit] See also: Geography of Belize, Geography of Costa Rica, Geography of El Salvador, Geography of Guatemala, Geography of Honduras, Geography of Nicaragua, Geography of Panama, List of islands of Central America, and List of mountain peaks of Central America The seven countries of Central America and their capitals Central America is the tapering isthmus of southern North America, with unique and varied geographic features. The Pacific Ocean lies to the southwest, the Caribbean Sea lies to the northeast, and the Gulf of Mexico lies to the north. Some physiographists define the Isthmus of Tehuantepec as the northern geographic border of Central America,[7] while others use the northwestern borders of Belize and Guatemala. From there, the Central American land mass extends southeastward to the Isthmus of Panama, where it connects to the Pacific Lowlands in northwestern South America. Of the many mountain ranges within Central America, the longest are the Sierra Madre de Chiapas, the Cordillera Isabelia and the Cordillera de Talamanca. At 4,220 meters (13,850 ft), Volcán Tajumulco is the highest peak in Central America. Other high points of Central America are as listed in the table below: High points in Central America Country Name Elevation (meters) Range  Belize Doyle's Delight 1124 Cockscomb Range  Costa Rica Cerro Chirripó 3820 Cordillera de Talamanca  El Salvador Cerro El Pital 2730 Sierra Madre de Chiapas  Guatemala Volcán Tajumulco 4220 Sierra Madre de Chiapas  Honduras Cerro Las Minas 2780 Cordillera de Celaque  Nicaragua Mogotón 2107 Cordillera Isabelia  Panama Volcán Barú 3474 Cordillera de Talamanca Between the mountain ranges lie fertile valleys that are suitable for the raising of livestock and for the production of coffee, tobacco, beans and other crops. Most of the population of Honduras, Costa Rica and Guatemala lives in valleys.[15] Trade winds have a significant effect upon the climate of Central America. Temperatures in Central America are highest just prior to the summer wet season, and are lowest during the winter dry season, when trade winds contribute to a cooler climate. The highest temperatures occur in April, due to higher levels of sunlight, lower cloud cover and a decrease in trade winds.[16]

Biodiversity[edit] See also: Central America bioregion El Chorreron in El Salvador Central America is part of the Mesoamerican biodiversity hotspot, boasting 7% of the world's biodiversity.[17] The Pacific Flyway is a major north-south flyway for migratory birds in the Americas, extending from Alaska to Tierra del Fuego. Due to the funnel-like shape of its land mass, migratory birds can be seen in very high concentrations in Central America, especially in the spring and autumn. As a bridge between North America and South America, Central America has many species from the Nearctic and the Neotropic ecozones. However the southern countries (Costa Rica and Panama) of the region have more biodiversity than the northern countries (Guatemala and Belize), meanwhile the central countries (Honduras, Nicaragua and El Salvador) have the least biodiversity.[17] The table below shows recent statistics: Biodiversity in Central America (number of different species of terrestrial vertebrate animals and vascular plants) Country Amphibian species Bird species Mammal species Reptile species Total terrestrial vertebrate species Vascular plants species Biodiversity  Belize[18] 46 544 147 140 877 2894 3771  Costa Rica[19] 183 838 232 258 1511 12119 13630  El Salvador[20] 30 434 137 106 707 2911 3618  Guatemala[21] 133 684 193 236 1246 8681 9927  Honduras[22] 101 699 201 213 1214 5680 6894  Nicaragua[23] 61 632 181 178 1052 7590 8642  Panama[24] 182 904 241 242 1569 9915 11484 Over 300 species of the region's flora and fauna are threatened, 107 of which are classified as critically endangered. The underlying problems are deforestation, which is estimated by FAO at 1.2% per year in Central America and Mexico combined, fragmentation of rainforests and the fact that 80% of the vegetation in Central America has already been converted to agriculture.[25] Efforts to protect fauna and flora in the region are made by creating ecoregions and nature reserves. 36% of Belize's land territory falls under some form of official protected status, giving Belize one of the most extensive systems of terrestrial protected areas in the Americas. In addition, 13% of Belize's marine territory are also protected.[26] A large coral reef extends from Mexico to Honduras: the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System. The Belize Barrier Reef is part of this. The Belize Barrier Reef is home to a large diversity of plants and animals, and is one of the most diverse ecosystems of the world. It is home to 70 hard coral species, 36 soft coral species, 500 species of fish and hundreds of invertebrate species. So far only about 10% of the species in the Belize barrier reef have been discovered.[27] Flora[edit] One of the hanging bridges of the skywalk at the Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve in Monteverde, Costa Rica disappearing into the clouds From 2001 to 2010, 5,376 square kilometers (2,076 sq mi) of forest were lost in the region. In 2010 Belize had 63% of remaining forest cover, Costa Rica 46%, Panama 45%, Honduras 41%, Guatemala 37%, Nicaragua 29%, and El Salvador 21%. Most of the loss occurred in the moist forest biome, with 12,201 square kilometers (4,711 sq mi). Woody vegetation loss was partially set off by a gain in the coniferous forest biome with 4,730 square kilometers (1,830 sq mi), and a gain in the dry forest biome at 2,054 square kilometers (793 sq mi). Mangroves and deserts contributed only 1% to the loss in forest vegetation. The bulk of the deforestation was located at the Caribbean slopes of Nicaragua with a loss of 8,574 square kilometers (3,310 sq mi) of forest in the period from 2001 to 2010. The most significant regrowth of 3,050 square kilometers (1,180 sq mi) of forest was seen in the coniferous woody vegetation of Honduras.[28] The Central American pine-oak forests ecoregion, in the tropical and subtropical coniferous forests biome, is found in Central America and southern Mexico. The Central American pine-oak forests occupy an area of 111,400 square kilometers (43,000 sq mi),[29] extending along the mountainous spine of Central America, extending from the Sierra Madre de Chiapas in Mexico's Chiapas state through the highlands of Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras to central Nicaragua. The pine-oak forests lie between 600–1,800 metres (2,000–5,900 ft) elevation,[29] and are surrounded at lower elevations by tropical moist forests and tropical dry forests. Higher elevations above 1,800 metres (5,900 ft) are usually covered with Central American montane forests. The Central American pine-oak forests are composed of many species characteristic of temperate North America including oak, pine, fir, and cypress. Laurel forest is the most common type of Central American temperate evergreen cloud forest, found in almost all Central American countries, normally more than 1,000 meters (3,300 ft) above sea level. Tree species include evergreen oaks, members of the laurel family, and species of Weinmannia, Drimys, and Magnolia.[30] The cloud forest of Sierra de las Minas, Guatemala, is the largest in Central America. In some areas of southeastern Honduras there are cloud forests, the largest located near the border with Nicaragua. In Nicaragua, cloud forests are situated near the border with Honduras, but many were cleared to grow coffee. There are still some temperate evergreen hills in the north. The only cloud forest in the Pacific coastal zone of Central America is on the Mombacho volcano in Nicaragua. In Costa Rica, there are laurel forests in the Cordillera de Tilarán and Volcán Arenal, called Monteverde, also in the Cordillera de Talamanca. The Central American montane forests are an ecoregion of the tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests biome, as defined by the World Wildlife Fund.[31] These forests are of the moist deciduous and the semi-evergreen seasonal subtype of tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests and receive high overall rainfall with a warm summer wet season and a cooler winter dry season. Central American montane forests consist of forest patches located at altitudes ranging from 1,800–4,000 metres (5,900–13,100 ft), on the summits and slopes of the highest mountains in Central America ranging from Southern Mexico, through Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras, to northern Nicaragua. The entire ecoregion covers an area of 13,200 square kilometers (5,100 sq mi) and has a temperate climate with relatively high precipitation levels.[31] Fauna[edit] See also: List of Central American mammals and List of Central American monkey species Ecoregions are not only established to protect the forests themselves but also because they are habitats for an incomparably rich and often endemic fauna. Almost half of the bird population of the Talamancan montane forests in Costa Rica and Panama are endemic to this region. Several birds are listed as threatened, most notably the resplendent quetzal (Pharomacrus mocinno), three-wattled bellbird (Procnias tricarunculata), bare-necked umbrellabird (Cephalopterus glabricollis), and black guan (Chamaepetes unicolor). Many of the amphibians are endemic and depend on the existence of forest. The golden toad that once inhabited a small region in the Monteverde Reserve, which is part of the Talamancan montane forests, has not been seen alive since 1989 and is listed as extinct by IUCN. The exact causes for its extincition are unknown. Global warming may have played a role, because the development of fog that is typical for this area may have been compromised. Seven small mammals are endemic to the Costa Rica-Chiriqui highlands within the Talamancan montane forest region. Jaguars, cougars, spider monkeys, as well as tapirs, and anteaters live in the woods of Central America.[30] The Central American red brocket is a brocket deer found in Central America's tropical forest.

Geology[edit] Central America and the Caribbean Plate See also: Central America Volcanic Arc, List of earthquakes in Costa Rica, List of earthquakes in El Salvador, List of earthquakes in Guatemala, and List of earthquakes in Nicaragua Central America is geologically very active, with volcanic eruptions and earthquakes occurring frequently, and tsunamis occurring occasionally. Many thousands of people have died as a result of these natural disasters. Most of Central America rests atop the Caribbean Plate. This tectonic plate converges with the Cocos, Nazca, and North American plates to form the Middle America Trench, a major subduction zone. The Middle America Trench is situated some 60–160 kilometers (37–99 mi) off the Pacific coast of Central America and runs roughly parallel to it. Many large earthquakes have occurred as a result of seismic activity at the Middle America Trench.[32] For example, subduction of the Cocos Plate beneath the North American Plate at the Middle America Trench is believed to have caused the 1985 Mexico City earthquake that killed as many as 40,000 people. Seismic activity at the Middle America Trench is also responsible for earthquakes in 1902, 1942, 1956, 1982, 1992, 2001, 2007, 2012, 2014, and many other earthquakes throughout Central America. The Middle America Trench is not the only source of seismic activity in Central America. The Motagua Fault is an onshore continuation of the Cayman Trough which forms part of the tectonic boundary between the North American Plate and the Caribbean Plate. This transform fault cuts right across Guatemala and then continues offshore until it merges with the Middle America Trench along the Pacific coast of Mexico, near Acapulco. Seismic activity at the Motagua Fault has been responsible for earthquakes in 1717, 1773, 1902, 1976, 1980, and 2009. Another onshore continuation of the Cayman Trough is the Chixoy-Polochic Fault, which runs parallel to, and roughly 80 kilometers (50 mi) to the north, of the Motagua Fault. Though less active than the Motagua Fault, seismic activity at the Chixoy-Polochic Fault is still thought to be capable of producing very large earthquakes, such as the 1816 earthquake of Guatemala.[33] Managua, the capital of Nicaragua, was devastated by earthquakes in 1931 and 1972. Volcanic eruptions are also common in Central America. In 1968 the Arenal Volcano, in Costa Rica, erupted killing 87 people as the 3 villages of Tabacon, Pueblo Nuevo and San Luis were buried under pyroclastic flows and debris. Fertile soils from weathered volcanic lava have made it possible to sustain dense populations in the agriculturally productive highland areas.

Demographics[edit] See also: Ethnic groups in Central America and Latin Americans The population of Central America is estimated at 47,448,333 as of 2016.[34] With an area of 523,780 square kilometers (202,230 sq mi),[2] it has a population density of 81 per square kilometer (210/sq mi). Countries of Central America Name of territory, with flag Area (km²)[35] Population (2016 est.)[34] Population density (per km²) Capital Official language Human Development Index  Belize 7004229660000000000♠22,966 366,954 7001130000000000000♠13 Belmopan English 0,715 High  Costa Rica 7004511000000000000♠51,100 4,857,274 7001820000000000000♠82 San José Spanish 0,766 High  El Salvador 7004210400000000000♠21,040 6,344,722 7002292000000000000♠292 San Salvador Spanish 0,666 Medium  Guatemala 7005108890000000000♠108,890 16,582,469 7002129000000000000♠129 Guatemala City Spanish 0,627 Medium  Honduras 7005112090000000000♠112,090 9,112,867 7001670000000000000♠67 Tegucigalpa Spanish 0,606 Medium  Nicaragua 7005130373000000000♠130,373 6,149,928 7001440000000000000♠44 Managua Spanish 0,631 Medium  Panama 7004782000000000000♠78,200 4,034,119 7001440000000000000♠44 Panama City Spanish 0,780 High Total 7005523780000000000♠523,780 7007474483330000000♠47,448,333 7001800000000000000♠80 - - - Largest metropolitan areas in Central America City Country Population Census Year % of National population (1) Guatemala City  Guatemala 5,700,000 2010 26% (2) San Salvador  El Salvador 2,415,217 2009 39% (3) Managua  Nicaragua 1,918,000 2012 34% (4) Tegucigalpa  Honduras 1,819,000 2010 24% (5) San Pedro Sula  Honduras 1,600,000 2010 21%+4 (6) Panama City  Panama 1,400,000 2010 37% (7) San José  Costa Rica 1,275,000 2013 30% Languages[edit] Linguistic variations of classic Central American Spanish. See also: Central American Spanish The official language majority in all Central American countries is Spanish, except in Belize, where the official language is English. Mayan languages constitute a language family consisting of about 26 related languages. Guatemala formally recognized 21 of these in 1996. Xinca and Garifuna are also present in Central America. Languages in Central America (2010) Pos. Countries Population % Spanish % Mayan languages % English % Xinca % Garifuna 1 Guatemala 17,284,000 64.7% 34.3% 0.0% 0.7% 0.3% 2 Honduras 8,447,000 97.1% 2.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.9% 3 El Salvador 6,108,000 99.0% 1.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 4 Nicaragua 6,028,000 87.4% 7.1% 5.5% 0.0% 0.0% 5 Costa Rica 4,726,000 97.2% 1.8% 1.0% 0.0% 0.0% 6 Panamá 3,652,000 86.8% 9.2% 4.0% 0.0 0.0% 7 Belize 334,000 52.1% 8.9% 37.0% 0.0% 2.0% Ethnic groups[edit] Central America map of indigenous people before European contact This region of the continent is very rich in terms of ethnic groups. The majority of the population is mestizo, with sizable Mayan and White populations present, including Xinca and Garifuna minorities. The immigration of Arabs, Jews, Chinese, Europeans and others brought additional groups to the area. Ethnic groups in Central America (2010) Country Population1 % Amerindian % White % Mestizo/Mixed % Black % Other  Belize 324,528 6.3% 5.0% 49.6% 32.0% 4.1%  Costa Rica 4,301,712 4.0% 65.8% 13.8% 7.2% 9.0%  El Salvador 6,340,889 1.0% 12.0% 86.0% 0.0% 1.0%  Guatemala 15,700,000 38.5% 18.5% 40.0% 1.0% 2.0%  Honduras 8,143,564 6.0% 5.5% 82.0% 6.0% 0.5%  Nicaragua 5,815,500 5.0% 17.0% 69.0% 9.0% 0.0%  Panama 3,474,562 6.0% 10.0% 65.0% 14.0% 5.0% Total 42,682,190 16.24% 20.18% 58.05% 4.43% 1.17% Religious groups[edit] Further information: Anglican Church in Central America, Bahá'í Faith in Central America, Buddhism in Central America, and Roman Catholicism in North America The predominant religion in Central America is Christianity (95.6%).[36] Beginning with the Spanish colonization of Central America in the 16th century, Roman Catholicism became the most popular religion in the region until the first half of the 20th century. Since the 1960s, there has been an increase in other Christian groups, particularly Protestantism, as well as other religious organizations, and individuals identifying themselves as having no religion.[37] Countries % Roman Catholicism (2010) % Protestantism (2010) % Non-affiliated (2010) % Other (2010)  Belize 40% 31% 15% 14%  Costa Rica 69% 17% 11% 3%  El Salvador 46% 29% 24% 1%  Guatemala 47% 39% 12% 2%  Honduras 52% 35% 10% 3%  Nicaragua 58% 23% 13% 4%  Panama 77% 14% 6% 3%

Culture[edit] Central American music Central American cuisine List of cuisines of the Americas – Central American cuisine Sport[edit] Central American Games Central American and Caribbean Games 1926 Central American and Caribbean Games – the first time this event occurred Central American Football Union Surfing

Politics[edit] Central American Integration[edit] Central American Integration System Sistema de Integración Centroamericana Coat of arms Motto(s): "Peace, Development, Liberty and Democracy" Anthem: La Granadera Countries  Belize  Costa Rica  El Salvador  Guatemala  Honduras  Nicaragua  Panama  Dominican Republic Area  • Total 560,988 km2 (216,599 sq mi) Population  • Total 50,807,778  • Density 91/km2 (230/sq mi) Main article: Central American Integration System Central America is currently undergoing a process of political, economic and cultural transformation that started in 1907 with the creation of the Central American Court of Justice. In 1951 the integration process continued with the signature of the San Salvador Treaty, which created the ODECA, the Organization of Central American States. However, the unity of the ODECA was limited by conflicts between several member states. In 1991, the integration agenda was further advanced by the creation of the Central American Integration System (Sistema para la Integración Centroamericana, or SICA). SICA provides a clear legal basis to avoid disputes between the member states. SICA membership includes the 7 nations of Central America plus the Dominican Republic, a state that is traditionally considered part of the Caribbean. Central American flags Guatemala El Salvador Honduras Nicaragua Costa Rica Panama Belize On 6 December 2008 SICA announced an agreement to pursue a common currency and common passport for the member nations[38]. No timeline for implementation was discussed. Central America already has several supranational institutions such as the Central American Parliament, the Central American Bank for Economic Integration and the Central American Common Market. On 22 July 2011 President Mauricio Funes of El Salvador became the first president pro tempore to SICA. El Salvador also became the headquarters of SICA with the inauguration of a new building.[39] Foreign relations[edit] See also: China–Latin America relations Until recently, all Central American countries have maintained diplomatic relations with Taiwan instead of China. President Óscar Arias of Costa Rica, however, established diplomatic relations with China in 2007, severing formal diplomatic ties with Taiwan.[40] After breaking off relations with the Republic of China in 2017, Panama established diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China.[41] Central American Parliament[edit] Flag of the Central American Parliament Main article: Central American Parliament The Central American Parliament (also known as PARLACEN) is a political and parliamentary body of SICA. The parliament started around 1980, and its primary goal was to resolve conflicts in Nicaragua, Guatemala, and El Salvador. Although the group was disbanded in 1986, ideas of unity of Central Americans still remained, so a treaty was signed in 1987 to create the Central American Parliament and other political bodies. Its original members were Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua and Honduras. The parliament is the political organ of Central America, and is part of SICA. New members have since then joined including Panama and the Dominican Republic.

Economy[edit] See also: Economy of Belize, Economy of Costa Rica, Economy of El Salvador, Economy of Guatemala, Economy of Honduras, Economy of Nicaragua, and Economy of Panama Signed in 2004, the Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA) is an agreement between the United States, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and the Dominican Republic. The treaty is aimed at promoting free trade among its members. Guatemala has the largest economy in the region.[42][43] Its main exports are coffee, sugar, bananas, petroleum, clothing, and cardamom. Of its 10.29 billion dollar annual exports,[44] 40.2% go to the United States, 11.1% to neighboring El Salvador, 8% to Honduras, 5.5% to Mexico, 4.7% to Nicaragua, and 4.3% to Costa Rica.[45] Economic growth in Central America is projected to slow slightly in 2014–15, as country-specific domestic factors offset the positive effects from stronger economic activity in the United States.[9] Economy size for Latin American countries per Gross domestic product Country GDP (nominal)[42][a] GDP (nominal) per capita[46][47] GDP (PPP)[43][a]  Belize 1,552 $4,602 2,914  Costa Rica 44,313 $10,432 57,955  El Salvador 24,421 $3,875 46,050  Guatemala 50,303 $3,512 78,012  Honduras 18,320 $2,323 37,408  Nicaragua 7,695 $1,839 19,827  Panama 34,517 $10,838 55,124 Tourism[edit] See also: Tourism in Belize, Tourism in Costa Rica, Ecotourism in Costa Rica, and Tourism in Panama The Great Blue Hole off the coast of Belize is a prime ecotourism destination. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site Semuc Champey, Guatemala. Tourism in Belize has grown considerably in more recent times, and it is now the second largest industry in the nation. Belizean Prime Minister Dean Barrow has stated his intention to use tourism to combat poverty throughout the country.[48] The growth in tourism has positively affected the agricultural, commercial, and finance industries, as well as the construction industry. The results for Belize's tourism-driven economy have been significant, with the nation welcoming almost one million tourists in a calendar year for the first time in its history in 2012.[49] Belize is also the only country in Central America with English as its official language, making this country a comfortable destination for English-speaking tourists.[50] Costa Rica is the most visited nation in Central America.[51] Tourism in Costa Rica is one of the fastest growing economic sectors of the country,[52] having become the largest source of foreign revenue by 1995.[53] Since 1999, tourism has earned more foreign exchange than bananas, pineapples and coffee exports combined.[54] The tourism boom began in 1987,[53] with the number of visitors up from 329,000 in 1988, through 1.03 million in 1999, to a historical record of 2.43 million foreign visitors and $1.92-billion in revenue in 2013.[51] In 2012 tourism contributed with 12.5% of the country's GDP and it was responsible for 11.7% of direct and indirect employment.[55] Tourism in Nicaragua has grown considerably recently, and it is now the second largest industry in the nation. Nicaraguan President Daniel Ortega has stated his intention to use tourism to combat poverty throughout the country.[56] The growth in tourism has positively affected the agricultural, commercial, and finance industries, as well as the construction industry. The results for Nicaragua's tourism-driven economy have been significant, with the nation welcoming one million tourists in a calendar year for the first time in its history in 2010.[57]

Transport[edit] See also: Transport in Belize, Transport in Costa Rica, Transport in El Salvador, Transport in Guatemala, Transport in Honduras, Transport in Nicaragua, and Transport in Panama Roads[edit] See also: Roads in Belize The Inter-American Highway is the Central American section of the Pan-American Highway, and spans 5,470 kilometers (3,400 mi) between Nuevo Laredo, Mexico, and Panama City, Panama. Because of the 87 kilometers (54 mi) break in the highway known as the Darién Gap, it is not possible to cross between Central America and South America in an automobile. Waterways[edit] See also: Category:Water transport in Belize, Category:Water transport in Costa Rica, Category:Water transport in Guatemala, Category:Water transport in Honduras, Category:Water transport in Nicaragua, Category:Water transport in Panama, List of rivers of Belize, List of rivers of Costa Rica, List of rivers of El Salvador, List of rivers of Guatemala, List of rivers of Honduras, List of rivers of Nicaragua, List of rivers of Panama, Ecocanal, Nicaragua Canal, and Panama Canal Ports and harbors[edit] See also: Ports of Belize, Category:Ports and harbours of Guatemala, and Category:Ports and harbours of Panama Airports[edit] See also: List of airports in Belize, List of airports in Costa Rica, List of airports in El Salvador, List of airports in Guatemala, List of airports in Honduras, List of airports in Nicaragua, and List of airports in Panama Railways[edit] Main article: Rail transport in Central America See also: Rail transport in Belize, Rail transport in Costa Rica, Rail transport in El Salvador, Rail transport in Guatemala, Rail transport in Honduras, Rail transport in Nicaragua, and Rail transport in Panama City rail in La Ceiba, Honduras is one of the few remaining passenger train services in Central America

Education[edit] List of Architecture schools in Central America List of universities in Belize List of universities in Costa Rica List of universities in El Salvador List of universities in Guatemala List of universities in Honduras List of universities in Nicaragua List of universities in Panama

See also[edit] North America portal Latin America portal Geography portal Americas (terminology) Central American Seaway List of largest cities in Central America List of cities in Belize List of cities in Costa Rica List of cities in El Salvador List of places in Guatemala List of cities in Honduras List of cities in Nicaragua List of cities in Panama Index of Central America-related articles Index of Belize-related articles Index of Costa Rica-related articles Index of El Salvador-related articles Index of Guatemala-related articles Index of Honduras-related articles Index of Nicaragua-related articles Index of Panama-related articles

Notes[edit] ^ a b Values listed in millions USD.

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Retrieved 2015-01-01.  ^ Central Intelligence Agency (2014). "World exports by country". The world factbook. Washington, D.C.: Central Intelligence Agency.  ^ Central Intelligence Agency (2014). "Export partners of Guatemala". The world factbook. Washington, D.C.: Central Intelligence Agency.  ^ Data mostly refers to IMF staff estimates for the year 2013, made in April 2014. World Economic Outlook Database-April 2014, International Monetary Fund. Accessed on 9 April 2014. ^ Data refers mostly to the year 2012. World Development Indicators database, World Bank. Database updated on 18 December 2013. Accessed on 18 December 2013. ^ Cuellar, M (1 March 2013). "Foreign direct investments and tourism up". Channel 5 Belize. Belize: Great Belize Productions Ltd. Retrieved 2015-01-04.  ^ "2012: a remarkable year for Belize's tourism industry". The San Pedro Sun. San Pedro, Belize. 8 February 2013. Retrieved 2015-01-04.  ^ "Belize | Tours & Activities - Project Expedition". Project Expedition. Retrieved 2016-06-30.  ^ a b Rodríguez, A (16 January 2014). "Costa Rica registró la llegada de más de 2,4 millones de turistas en 2013" [Costa Rica registered the arrival of more than 2.4 million tourists in 2013]. La Nación (in Spanish). San José, Costa Rica. Retrieved 2015-01-02.  ^ Rojas, JE (29 December 2004). "Turismo, principal motor de la economía durante el 2004" [Tourism, the principal engine of the economy in 2004]. La Nación (in Spanish). San José, Costa Rica. Retrieved 2015-01-02.  ^ a b Inman, C (1997). "Impacts on developing countries of changing production and consumption patterns in developed countries: the case of ecotourism in Costa Rica" (PDF). Alajuela, Costa Rica: INCAE Business School. Retrieved 2015-01-01.  ^ Departamento de Estadísticas ICT (2006). "Anuário estadísticas de demanda 2006" (PDF) (in Spanish). Intituto Costarricense de Turismo. Retrieved 2008-06-13.  ^ Jennifer Blanke and Thea Chiesa, Editors (2013). "Travel & tourism competitiveness report 2013" (PDF). World Economic Forum, Geneva, Switzerland. Retrieved 2013-04-14. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Carroll, R (6 January 2007). "Ortega banks on tourism to beat poverty". The Guardian. London: Retrieved 2015-01-03.  ^ Nicaragua exceeds one mn foreign tourists for first time

Further reading[edit] Central America. Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. 2001–6. New York: Columbia University Press. American Heritage Dictionaries, Central America. WordNet Princeton University: Central America[permanent dead link]. Central America. Columbia Gazetteer of the World Online. 2006. New York: Columbia University Press. Hernández, Consuelo (2009). Reconstruyendo a Centroamérica a través de la poesía. Voces y perspectivas en la poesia latinoamericana del siglo XX. Madrid: Visor.

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St Vincent Lefevre Peninsula Fleurieu Peninsula Yorke Peninsula Eyre Peninsula Mornington Peninsula Bellarine Peninsula Mount Henry Peninsula Melanesia Islands Region Bismarck Archipelago Solomon Islands Archipelago Fiji New Caledonia Papua New Guinea Vanuatu Micronesia Caroline Islands Federated States of Micronesia Palau Guam Kiribati Marshall Islands Nauru Northern Mariana Islands Wake Island Polynesia Easter Island Hawaiian Islands Cook Islands French Polynesia Austral Islands Gambier Islands Marquesas Islands Society Islands Tuamotu Kermadec Islands Mangareva Islands Samoa Tokelau Tonga Tuvalu Ring of Fire v t e Regions of South America East Amazon basin Atlantic Forest Caatinga Cerrado North Caribbean South America West Indies Los Llanos The Guianas Amazon basin Amazon rainforest Gulf of Paria Paria Peninsula Paraguaná Peninsula Orinoco Delta South Tierra del Fuego Patagonia Pampas Pantanal Gran Chaco Chiquitano dry forests Valdes Peninsula West Andes Tropical Andes Wet Andes Dry Andes Pariacaca mountain range Altiplano Atacama Desert Latin Hispanic American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC v t e Polar regions Antarctic Antarctic Peninsula East Antarctica West Antarctica Eklund Islands Ecozone Extreme points Islands Arctic Arctic Alaska British Arctic Territories Canadian Arctic Archipelago Finnmark Greenland Northern Canada Northwest Territories Nunavik Nunavut Russian Arctic Sakha Sápmi Yukon North American Arctic v t e Earth's oceans and seas Arctic Ocean Amundsen Gulf Barents Sea Beaufort Sea Chukchi Sea East Siberian Sea Greenland Sea Gulf of Boothia Kara Sea Laptev Sea Lincoln Sea Prince Gustav Adolf Sea Pechora Sea Queen Victoria Sea Wandel Sea White Sea Atlantic Ocean Adriatic Sea Aegean Sea Alboran Sea Archipelago Sea Argentine Sea Baffin Bay Balearic Sea Baltic Sea Bay of Biscay Bay of Bothnia Bay of Campeche Bay of Fundy Black Sea Bothnian Sea Caribbean Sea Celtic Sea English Channel Foxe Basin Greenland Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Gulf of Lion Gulf of Guinea Gulf of Maine Gulf of Mexico Gulf of Saint Lawrence Gulf of Sidra Gulf of Venezuela Hudson Bay Ionian Sea Irish Sea Irminger Sea James Bay Labrador Sea Levantine Sea Libyan Sea Ligurian Sea Marmara Sea Mediterranean Sea Myrtoan Sea North Sea Norwegian Sea Sargasso Sea Sea of Åland Sea of Azov Sea of Crete Sea of the Hebrides Thracian Sea Tyrrhenian Sea Wadden Sea Indian Ocean Andaman Sea Arabian Sea Bali Sea Bay of Bengal Flores Sea Great Australian Bight Gulf of Aden Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Oman Gulf of Suez Java Sea Laccadive Sea Mozambique Channel Persian Gulf Red Sea Timor Sea Pacific Ocean Arafura Sea Banda Sea Bering Sea Bismarck Sea Bohai Sea Bohol Sea Camotes Sea Celebes Sea Ceram Sea Chilean Sea Coral Sea East China Sea Gulf of Alaska Gulf of Anadyr Gulf of California Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf of Fonseca Gulf of Panama Gulf of Thailand Gulf of Tonkin Halmahera Sea Koro Sea Mar de Grau Molucca Sea Moro Gulf Philippine Sea Salish Sea Savu Sea Sea of Japan Sea of Okhotsk Seto Inland Sea Shantar Sea Sibuyan Sea Solomon Sea South China Sea Sulu Sea Tasman Sea Visayan Sea Yellow Sea Southern Ocean Amundsen Sea Bellingshausen Sea Cooperation Sea Cosmonauts Sea Davis Sea D'Urville Sea King Haakon VII Sea Lazarev Sea Mawson Sea Riiser-Larsen Sea Ross Sea Scotia Sea Somov Sea Weddell Sea Landlocked seas Aral Sea Caspian Sea Dead Sea Salton Sea   Book   Category Authority control WorldCat Identities VIAF: 315128178 GND: 4079486-6 NDL: 00573917 Retrieved from "" Categories: Central AmericaHidden categories: Pages with citations lacking titlesPages with citations having bare URLsCS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknownWebarchive template wayback linksCS1 Spanish-language sources (es)CS1 maint: Extra text: authors listUse dmy dates from January 2015Articles containing Spanish-language textAll articles with failed verificationArticles with failed verification from July 2016All articles with unsourced statementsArticles with 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AmericaTreaty Of CórdobaDeclaration Of Independence Of The Mexican EmpireFirst Mexican EmpireAgustín De IturbideFederal Republic Of Central AmericaWikipedia:Citation NeededRepresentative DemocracyGuatemala CityLos Altos, Central AmericaMosquito CoastWikipedia:Citation NeededFederal Republic Of Central AmericaGreater Republic Of Central AmericaGuatemalaEl SalvadorHondurasNicaraguaCosta RicaPanamaBelizeHistory Of Belize (1506–1862)Departments Of GuatemalaBritish HondurasWikipedia:Citation NeededIsthmus Of PanamaProvince Of Tierra FirmeViceroyalty Of PeruViceroyalty Of New GranadaBogotáBolívar's Campaign To Liberate New GranadaGran ColombiaRepublic Of New GranadaPanama StateGranadine ConfederationUnited States Of ColombiaColombiaIsthmus DepartmentSeparation Of Panama From ColombiaWikipedia:Citation NeededUnited Fruit CompanyBanana RepublicHaitiGeography Of BelizeGeography Of Costa RicaGeography Of El SalvadorGeography Of GuatemalaGeography Of HondurasGeography Of NicaraguaGeography Of PanamaList Of Islands Of Central AmericaList Of Mountain Peaks Of Central AmericaEnlargeGulf Of MexicoPhysical GeographyIsthmus Of TehuantepecIsthmus Of PanamaPacific/Chocó Natural RegionSierra Madre De ChiapasCordillera IsabeliaCordillera De TalamancaVolcán TajumulcoBelizeDoyle's DelightCosta RicaCerro ChirripóCordillera De TalamancaEl SalvadorCerro El PitalSierra Madre De ChiapasGuatemalaVolcán TajumulcoSierra Madre De ChiapasHondurasCerro Las MinasNicaraguaMogotónCordillera IsabeliaPanamaVolcán BarúCordillera De TalamancaTrade WindsWet SeasonDry SeasonCentral America BioregionEnlargeBiodiversity HotspotBiodiversityPacific FlywayFlywayBird MigrationAlaskaTierra Del FuegoNearctic EcozoneNeotropic EcozoneBelizeCosta RicaEl SalvadorGuatemalaHondurasNicaraguaPanamaDeforestationFAOHabitat FragmentationRainforestEcoregionMesoamerican Barrier Reef SystemBelize Barrier ReefEcosystemAlcyonaceaInvertebrateEnlargeMonteverde Cloud Forest ReserveMonteverde, Costa RicaBiomeDeforestation In Central 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PlateNazca PlateNorth American PlateMiddle America TrenchSubduction1985 Mexico City Earthquake1902 Guatemala Earthquake1942 Guatemala Earthquake1956 Nicaragua Earthquake1982 El Salvador Earthquake1992 Nicaragua Earthquake2001 El Salvador Earthquakes2007 Guatemala Earthquake2012 Guatemala EarthquakeOctober 2014 Nicaragua EarthquakeMotagua FaultCayman TroughTransform FaultAcapulco1717 Guatemala Earthquake1773 Guatemala Earthquake1902 Guatemala Earthquake1976 Guatemala Earthquake1980 Honduras Earthquake2009 Honduras EarthquakeChixoy-Polochic FaultManagua1931 Nicaragua Earthquake1972 Nicaragua EarthquakeArenal VolcanoEthnic Groups In Central AmericaLatin AmericansList Of Countries And Dependencies By AreaList Of Countries And Dependencies By PopulationList Of Sovereign States And Dependent Territories By Population DensityOfficial LanguageHuman Development IndexBelizeBelmopanCosta RicaSan José, Costa RicaEl SalvadorSan SalvadorGuatemalaGuatemala CityHondurasTegucigalpaNicaraguaManaguaPanamaPanama CityGuatemala CityGuatemalaSan SalvadorEl SalvadorManaguaNicaraguaTegucigalpaHondurasSan Pedro SulaHondurasPanama CityPanamaSan José, Costa RicaCosta RicaEnlargeCentral American SpanishCentral American SpanishSpanish LanguageEnglish LanguageMayan LanguagesLanguage FamilyXincan LanguagesGarifuna LanguageEnlargeMestizoAmerindianWhite PeopleMestizoBlack PeopleBelizeCosta RicaEl SalvadorGuatemalaHondurasNicaraguaPanamaAnglican Church In Central AmericaBahá'í Faith In Central AmericaBuddhism In Central AmericaRoman Catholicism In North AmericaChristianityCatholic ChurchProtestantismCatholic ChurchProtestantismIrreligionBelizeCosta RicaEl SalvadorGuatemalaHondurasNicaraguaPanamaCentral American MusicLatin American CuisineList Of Cuisines Of The AmericasCentral American GamesCentral American And Caribbean Games1926 Central American And Caribbean GamesCentral American Football UnionSurfingCentral American Integration SystemCoat Of Arms Of 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PanamaRail Transport In Central AmericaRail Transport In BelizeRail Transport In Costa RicaRail Transport In El SalvadorRail Transport In GuatemalaRail Transport In HondurasRail Transport In NicaraguaRail Transport In PanamaEnlargeLa CeibaList Of Architecture SchoolsList Of Universities In BelizeList Of Universities In Costa RicaList Of Universities In El SalvadorList Of Universities In GuatemalaList Of Universities In HondurasList Of Universities In NicaraguaList Of Universities In PanamaPortal:North AmericaPortal:Latin AmericaPortal:GeographyAmericas (terminology)Central American SeawayList Of Largest Cities In Central AmericaList Of Municipalities In BelizeList Of Cities In Costa RicaList Of Cities In El SalvadorList Of Places In GuatemalaList Of Cities In HondurasMunicipalities Of NicaraguaList Of Cities In PanamaIndex Of Central America-related ArticlesIndex Of Belize-related ArticlesIndex Of Costa Rica-related ArticlesIndex Of El Salvador-related ArticlesIndex Of 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American VolcanoesCentral America Volcanic ArcList Of Volcanoes In GuatemalaAcatenangoVolcán De AguaAlmolongaVolcán AtitlánChicabalCuilapa-BarbarenaVolcán De FuegoVolcán JumayMoyuta (volcano)PacayaSanta María (volcano)Volcán San PedroVolcán Santo TomásVolcán Siete OrejasVolcán TacanáVolcán TajumulcoTecuamburroVolcán TolimánList Of Volcanoes In El SalvadorSanta Ana VolcanoIzalco (volcano)San Salvador (volcano)San Vicente (volcano)Usulután (volcano)San Miguel (volcano)Conchagua (volcano)ChingoChinameca (volcano)List Of Volcanoes In NicaraguaCosigüinaSan Cristóbal VolcanoTelica (volcano)Cerro NegroMomotomboApoyequeMasaya VolcanoMombachoConcepción (volcano)MaderasList Of Volcanoes In Costa RicaRincón De La Vieja VolcanoMiravalles VolcanoArenal VolcanoPlatanarPoás VolcanoIrazú VolcanoLaguna Poco SolTurrialba VolcanoList Of Volcanoes In PanamaBarú (volcano)La YeguadaEl Valle (volcano)Template:Central American And Caribbean GamesTemplate Talk:Central American And Caribbean GamesCentral 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