Contents 1 Sampling 2 Residence definitions 3 Enumeration strategies 4 Technology 5 Census and development 6 Uses of census data 6.1 Census data and research 7 Privacy 8 Historical censuses 8.1 Egypt 8.2 Ancient Greece 8.3 Ancient Israel 8.4 China 8.5 India 8.6 Rome 8.7 Rashidun and Umayyad Caliphates 8.8 Medieval Europe 8.9 Inca Empire 8.10 Spanish Empire 9 World population estimates 10 Modern implementation 11 See also 12 Notes 13 References 14 External links

Sampling A census is often construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population. This is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data. The use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is already known. However, a census is also used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation. This process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, which was a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, and the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is almost always an address register. Thus it is not known if there is anyone resident or how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed. As a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed 'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc. As these are not easily enumerated by a single householder, they are often treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately.

Residence definitions Individuals are normally counted within households and information is typically collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of population and housing. Normally the census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; de jure residence; and, permanent residence. This is important to consider individuals who have multiple or temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address, perhaps a family home for students or long term migrants. It is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, refugees, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, and people without a fixed address. People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are difficult to fix at a particular address sometimes causing double counting or houses being mistakenly identified as vacant. Another problem is where people use a different address at different times e.g. students living at their place of education in term time but returning to a family home during vacations or children whose parents have separated who effectively have two family homes. Census enumeration has always been based on finding people where they live as there is no systematic alternative - any list you could use to find people is derived from census activities in the first place. Recent UN guidelines provide recommendation on enumerating such complex households.[5]

Technology Censuses have evolved in their use of technology with the latest censuses, the 2010 round, using many new types of computing. In Brazil, handheld devices were used by enumerators to locate residences on the ground. In many countries, census returns could be made via the Internet as well as in paper form. DSE is facilitated by computer matching techniques which can be automated, such as propensity score matching. In the UK, all census formats are scanned and stored electronically before being destroyed, replacing the need for physical archives. The record linking to perform an administrative census would not be possible without large databases being stored on computer systems. New technology is not without problems in its introduction. The US census had intended to use the handheld computers but cost escalated and this was abandoned, with the contract being sold to Brazil. Online response is a good idea but one of the functions of census is to make sure everyone is counted accurately. A system which allowed people to enter their address without verification would be open to abuse. Therefore, households have to be verified on the ground, typically by an enumerator visit or post out. Paper forms are still necessary for those without access to Internet connections. It is also possible that the hidden nature of an administrative census means that users are not engaged with the importance of contributing their data to official statistics. Alternatively, population estimations may be carried out remotely with GIS and remote sensing technologies.[18]

Census and development According to UNFPA, “The information generated by a population and housing census – numbers of people, their distribution, their living conditions and other key data – is critical for development.” [19] This is because this type of data is essential for policymakers so that they know where to invest. Unfortunately, many countries have outdated or inaccurate data about their populations and therefore, without accurate data are unable to address the needs of their population. UNFPA stated that,[19] “The unique advantage of the census is that it represents the entire statistical universe, down to the smallest geographical units, of a country or region. Planners need this information for all kinds of development work, including: assessing demographic trends; analysing socio-economic conditions;[20] designing evidence-based poverty-reduction strategies; monitoring and evaluating the effectiveness of policies; and tracking progress toward national and internationally agreed development goals.” In addition to making policymakers aware about population issues, it is also an important tool for identifying forms of social, demographic or economic exclusions, such as inequalities relating to race, ethics and religion as well as disadvantaged groups such as those with disabilities and the poor. An accurate census can empower local communities by providing them with the necessary information to participate in local decision-making and ensuring they are represented.

World population estimates The earliest estimate of the world population was made by Giovanni Battista Riccioli in 1661; the next by Johann Peter Süssmilch in 1741, revised in 1762; the third by Karl Friedrich Wilhelm Dieterici in 1859.[41] In 1931 Walter Willcox published a table in his book, International Migrations: Volume II Interpretations, that estimated the 1929 world population to be roughly 1.8 billion. League of Nations and International Statistical Institute estimates of the world population in 1929

Modern implementation Main article: Population and housing censuses by country Nigerian leaders cannot put a number on the amount of Nigerian women and girls that have gone missing. Nigeria has never had a credible, successful census. —Olúfémi Táíwò, professor of Africana studies at Cornell University[42]

See also Languages in censuses Liber Censuum Race and ethnicity in censuses Social research

Notes ^ United Nations (2008). Principles and Recommendations for Population and Housing Censuses. Statistical Papers: Series M No. 67/Rev.2. p8. ISBN 978-92-1-161505-0. ^ "CES 2010 Census Recommendations" (PDF). Unece.org. Retrieved 2013-11-19.  ^ "History and Development of the Census in England and Wales". theforgottenfamily.wordpress.org. Retrieved 2017-01-20.  ^ Salant, Priscilla, and Don A. Dillman. "How to Conduct your own Survey: Leading professional give you proven techniques for getting reliable results." (1995). ^ "Measurement of emerging forms of families and households". UNECE. Retrieved 2012-12-12.  ^ "Census Quality Evaluation: considerations from an international perspective". Unstats.un.org. Retrieved 2012-02-19.  ^ Breiman, Leo (1994). "The 1991 Census Adjustment: Undercount or Bad Data?". Statistical Science. 9 (4): 458–475.  ^ World Population and Housing Census Programme (2010) Post Enumeration Surveys: Operational guidelines, United Nations Secretariat, Dept of Economic and Social Affairs, Statistics Division, Tech Report ^ Benton, P. Trout, Catfish and Roach: The beginner’s guide to census population estimates, Office for National Statistics, UK ^ Other methods of census taking, Office for National Statistics, UK ^ "Introduction to Census 2001". Ons.gov.uk. 2001-04-29. Retrieved 2012-12-12.  ^ The Canadian Press (2010-07-21). "Text of Munir Sheikh's resignation statement". 680News. Archived from the original on 2011-12-19. Retrieved 2012-02-19.  ^ "[INED] Population and Societies". Ined.fr. Retrieved 2012-02-19.  ^ Kukutai, Tahu (2014). "Whither the census? Continuity and change in census methodologies worldwide, 1985–2014". Journal of Population Research. 32: 3–22. doi:10.1007/s12546-014-9139-z.  ^ "Register-based statistics in the Nordic countries" (PDF). Unece.org. 2007. Retrieved 2012-12-12.  ^ Durr, Jean-Michel and François Clanché. "The French Rolling Census: a decade of experience" (PDF).  ^ "2010 Population Census Round - Confluence". .unece.org. Retrieved 2012-12-12.  ^ Biljecki, F.; Arroyo Ohori, K.; Ledoux, H.; Peters, R.; Stoter, J. (2016). "Population Estimation Using a 3D City Model: A Multi-Scale Country-Wide Study in the Netherlands". PLOS ONE. 11 (6): e0156808. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0156808. PMC 4890761 . PMID 27254151.  ^ a b "Census | UNFPA - United Nations Population Fund". UNFPA.org. Retrieved 2016-07-20.  ^ Corcos, Nick (2017). "Excavations and Watching Brief at the Corner of Wade Street and Little Anne Street, St Jude's, Bristol, 2014". Internet Archaeology (45). doi:10.11141/ia.45.3.  ^ Kathrin Levitan (auth.), A Cultural History of the British Census: Envisioning the Multitude in the Nineteenth Century, 978-1-349-29824-2, 978-0-230-33760-2 Palgrave Macmillan US 2011. ^ Jennifer Ditchburn (June 29, 2010). "Tories scrap mandatory long-form census". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved September 23, 2017.  ^ Morphy, Frances. "Agency, Contingency and Census Process: Observations of the 2006 Indigenous Enumeration Strategy in Remote Aboriginal Australia". ANU E Press, 2007. Retrieved 19 July 2016. One researcher spent time observing... the training of Census Field Officers (CFO) and their assistants....  ^ "The Census and Privacy". EPIC.org. Retrieved 2016-07-20.  ^ "Managing Confidentiality and Learning about SEIFA". Abs.gov.au. 2006-04-18. Retrieved 2010-11-30.  ^ Grim J, Hora J, Somol P, Boček P, Pudil, P (2010). "Statistical Model of the 2001 Czech Census for Interactive Presentation". Journal of Official Statistics, vol. 26, no. 4. pp. 673–694.  ^ D. Valbelle. "Les recensements dans l'Egypte pharaonique des troisième et deuxième millénaires" CRIPEL 9 (1987) 37 - 49. ^ Herodotus, Histories II, 177, 2 ^ Paul Cartledge,Peter Garnsey,Erich S. Gruen Hellenistic Constructs: Essays in Culture, History, and Historiography 242 ss. ^ Missiakoulis, Spyros (2010). "Cecrops, King of Athens: the First (?) Recorded Population Census in History". International Statistical Review. 78 (3): 413–418. doi:10.1111/j.1751-5823.2010.00124.x.  ^ Robert Hymes (2000). John Stewart Bowman, ed. Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture. Columbia University Press. p. 12. ISBN 978-0-231-11004-4.  ^ Jeffrey Hays. "China - Facts and Details: Han Dynasty (206 B.C. - A.D. 220)". Archived from the original on 2010-11-23.  ^ Twitchett, D., Loewe, M., and Fairbank, J.K. Cambridge History of China: The Ch'in and Han Empires 221 B.C.-A.D. 220. Cambridge University Press (1986), p. 240. ^ Nishijima (1986), 595–596.[full citation needed] ^ Yoon, H. (1985). "An early Chinese idea of a dynamic environmental cycle". GeoJournal. 10 (2): 211–212. doi:10.1007/bf00150742.  ^ "Census Commissioner of India - Historical Background". Govt. of India. The records of census conducted appears from 300 BC.  ^ Scheidel, Walter (2009) Rome and China: comparative perspectives on ancient world empires. Oxford University Press, p. 28. ^ Livy Ab urbe condita 1.42 ^ Livy Ab urbe condita 1.42, citing Fabius Pictor ^ al-Qādī1, Wadād (July 2008). "Population Census and Land Surveys under the Umayyads (41–132/661–750)". Der Islam. 83 (2): 341–416. doi:10.1515/ISLAM.2006.015.  ^ Willcox, Walter (1931). "International Migrations, Volume II: Interpretations" (PDF). NBER.  ^ "Africana professor issues call for modernity in Africa". Cornell. 28 May 2015. Retrieved 5 June 2015.

References Alterman, Hyman, (1969). Counting People: The Census in History. Harcourt, Brace & Company. Bielenstein, Hans, (1978). "Wang Mang, the restoration of the Han dynasty, and Later Han." In The Cambridge History of China, vol. 1, eds. Denis Twitchett and John K. Fairbank, p. 223-90, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Krüger, Stephen, (Fall 1991). "The Decennial Census", 19 Western State University Law Review 1; available at HeinOnline (subscription required). Effects of UK 'Jedi' hoax on 2001 UK census from ONS. U.S. Census Press Release on 1930 Census. U.S. Census Press Release on Soundex and WPA.

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