Contents 1 Etymology and pronunciation 2 History 2.1 Middle Ages 2.2 Start of the modern era 2.3 French state: 19th to 20th centuries 2.4 Spanish state: 18th to 20th centuries 2.5 Present day 3 Classification and relationship with other Romance languages 3.1 Relationship with other Romance languages 4 Geographic distribution 4.1 Catalan-speaking territories 4.2 Number of speakers 4.2.1 Level of knowledge 4.2.2 Social use 4.2.3 Native language 5 Phonology 5.1 Vowels 5.2 Consonants 5.3 Phonological evolution 6 Sociolinguistics 6.1 Preferential subjects of study 6.2 Dialects 6.2.1 Overview 6.3 Pronunciation 6.3.1 Vowels 6.3.2 Consonants 6.4 Morphology 6.5 Vocabulary 7 Standards 8 Status of Valencian 9 Vocabulary 9.1 Word choices 9.2 Latin and Greek loanwords 9.3 Word formation 10 Writing system 11 Grammar 11.1 Gender and number inflection 11.2 Determiners 11.3 Personal pronouns 11.4 Verbs 11.5 Syntax 12 Catalan names 13 Sample text 14 Loanwords in Catalan and English 15 See also 16 References 17 Bibliography 18 External links

Etymology and pronunciation[edit] Main article: Catalonia § Etymology and pronunciation Catalan Countries (Països Catalans): (In orange, strict Catalan-speaking area) NE modern Spain (Catalonia, Valencian Community and Balearic Islands), SE. France (Roussillon, touching the Pyrenees) and Comune of Alghero (NW coast of Sardinia, Island belonging to Italy) The Crown of Aragon in 1443. King James the Conqueror [1208-1276] dictated his autobiographical chronicles entirely in Catalan. Much of this territory nowadays makes up the Catalan Countries. The word Catalan derives from the territory of Catalonia, itself of disputed etymology. The main theory suggests that Catalunya (Latin Gathia Launia) derives from the name Gothia or Gauthia ("Land of the Goths"), since the origins of the Catalan counts, lords and people were found in the March of Gothia, whence Gothland > Gothlandia > Gothalania > Catalonia theoretically derived.[9][10] In English, the term referring to a person first appears in the mid 14th century as Catelaner, followed in the 15th century as Catellain (from French). It is attested a language name since at least 1652. Catalan can be pronounced as /ˈkætəlæn/, /kætəˈlæn/ or /ˈkætələn/.[4] The endonym is pronounced /kə.təˈɫa/ in the Eastern Catalan dialects, and /ka.taˈɫa/ in the Western dialects. In the Valencian Community, the term valencià (/va.len.siˈa/) is frequently used instead. The names "Catalan" and "Valencian" are two names for the same language.[11][12] See also status of Valencian below.

History[edit] Further information: History of Catalan Homilies d'Organyà (12th century) Fragment of the Greuges de Guitard Isarn (ca. 1080–1095), one of the earliest texts written almost completely in Catalan,[13][14] predating the famous Homilies d'Organyà by a century Middle Ages[edit] Further information: Old Catalan and Phonological history of Catalan By the 9th century, Catalan had evolved from Vulgar Latin on both sides of the eastern end of the Pyrenees, as well as the territories of the Roman province of Hispania Tarraconensis to the south.[15] From the 8th century onwards the Catalan counts extended their territory southwards and westwards at the expense of the Muslims, bringing their language with them.[15] This process was given definitive impetus with the separation of the County of Barcelona from the Carolingian Empire in 988.[8] In the 11th century, documents written in macaronic Latin begin to show Catalan elements,[14] with texts written almost completely in Romance appearing by 1080.[14] Old Catalan shared many features with Gallo-Romance, diverging from Old Occitan between the 11th and 14th centuries.[16] During the 11th and 12th centuries the Catalan rulers expanded up to north of the Ebro river,[15] and in the 13th century they conquered the Land of Valencia and the Balearic Islands.[8] The city of Alghero in Sardinia was repopulated with Catalan speakers in the 14th century. The language also reached Murcia, which became Spanish-speaking in the 15th century.[17] In the Low Middle Ages, Catalan went through a golden age, reaching a peak of maturity and cultural richness.[15] Examples include the work of Majorcan polymath Ramon Llull (1232–1315), the Four Great Chronicles (13th–14th centuries), and the Valencian school of poetry culminating in Ausiàs March (1397–1459).[15] By the 15th century, the city of Valencia had become the sociocultural center of the Crown of Aragon, and Catalan was present all over the Mediterranean world.[15] During this period, the Royal Chancery propagated a highly standardized language.[15] Catalan was widely used as an official language in Sicily until the 15th century, and in Sardinia until the 17th.[17] During this period, the language was what Costa Carreras terms "one of the 'great languages' of medieval Europe".[8] Martorell's outstanding[15] novel of chivalry Tirant lo Blanc (1490) shows a transition from Medieval to Renaissance values, something that can also be seen in Metge's work.[15] The first book produced with movable type in the Iberian Peninsula was printed in Catalan.[18][8] Start of the modern era[edit] With the union of the crowns of Castille and Aragon (1479), the use of Spanish gradually became more prestigious[17] and marked the start of the decline of the Catalan.[8][7] Starting in the 16th century, Catalan literature came under the influence of Spanish, and the urban and literary classes became bilingual.[17] With the Treaty of the Pyrenees (1659), Spain ceded the northern part of Catalonia to France, and soon thereafter the local Catalan varieties came under the influence of French, which in 1700 became the sole official language of the region.[5][19] Shortly after the French Revolution (1789), the French First Republic prohibited official use of, and enacted discriminating policies against, the regional languages of France, such as Catalan, Alsatian, Breton, Occitan, Flemish, and Basque. French state: 19th to 20th centuries[edit] Official Decree Prohibiting the Catalan Language in France "Speak French, be clean", school wall in Ayguatébia-Talau, 2010 See also: Language policy in France, Vergonha, and Patois Following the French capture of Algeria (1833), that region saw several waves of Catalan-speaking settlers. People from the Spanish Alacant province settled around Oran, whereas Algiers received immigration from Northern Catalonia and Menorca. Their speech was known as patuet. By 1911, the number of Catalan speakers was around 100,000. After the declaration of independence of Algeria in 1962, almost all the Catalan speakers fled to Northern Catalonia (as Pieds-Noirs) or Alacant.[20] Nowadays, France recognizes only French as an official language. Nevertheless, on 10 December 2007, the General Council of the Pyrénées-Orientales officially recognized Catalan as one of the languages of the department[21] and seeks to further promote it in public life and education. Spanish state: 18th to 20th centuries[edit] See also: Nueva Planta decrees, Language politics in Spain under Franco, and Anti-Catalanism The decline of Catalan continued in the 16th and 17th centuries. The defeat of the pro-Habsburg coalition in the War of Spanish Succession (1714) initiated a series of laws which, among other centralizing measures, imposed the use of Spanish in legal documentation all over Spain. In parallel, however, the 19th century saw a Catalan literary revival (Renaixença), which has continued up to the present day.[5] This period starts with Aribau's Ode to the Homeland (1833); followed in the second half of the 19th century, and the early 20th by the work of Verdaguer (poetry), Oller (realist novel), and Guimerà (drama).[22] In the 19th century, the region of Carche, in the province of Murcia was repopulated with Catalan speakers from the Land of Valencia.[23] The Second Spanish Republic (1931–1939) saw a brief period of tolerance, with most restrictions against Catalan being lifted.[5] Despite orthographic standardization in 1913 and the official status of the language during the Second Spanish Republic (1931–39) the Francoist dictatorship banned the use of Catalan in schools and in the public administration between 1939 and 1975.[24][7] Present day[edit] Since the Spanish transition to democracy (1975–1982), Catalan has been institutionalizated as an official language, language of education, and language of mass media; all of which have contributed to its increased prestige.[25] In Catalonia, there is an unparalleled large bilingual European non-state speech community.[25] The teaching of Catalan is mandatory in all schools,[5] but it is possible to use Spanish for studying in the public education system of Catalonia in two situations – if the teacher assigned to a class chooses to use Spanish, or during the learning process of one or more recently arrived immigrant students.[26] There is also some intergenerational shift towards Catalan.[5] According to the Statistical Institute of Catalonia, in 2013 the Catalan language is the second most commonly used in Catalonia, after Spanish, as a native or self-defining language: 7% of the population self-identifies with both Catalan and Spanish equally, 36.4% with Catalan and 47.5% only Spanish.[27] In 2003 the same studies concluded no language preference for self-identification within the population above 15 years old: 5% self-identified with both languages, 44.3% with Catalan and 47.5 with Spanish.[28] In order to promote use of Catalan, the Generalitat de Catalunya (Catalonia's official Autonomous government) spends part of its annual budget on the promotion of the use of Catalan in Catalonia and in other territories.[29] In Andorra, Catalan has always been the sole official language.[5] Since the promulgation of the 1993 constitution, several policies favouring Catalan have been enforced, like Catalan medium education.[5] On the other hand, there are several language shift processes currently taking place. In the Northern Catalonia area of France, Catalan has followed the same trend as the other minority languages of France, with most of its native speakers being 60 or older (as of 2004).[5] Catalan is studied as a foreign language by 30% of the primary education students, and by 15% of the secondary.[5] The cultural association La Bressola promotes a network of community-run schools engaged in Catalan language immersion programs. In Alicante province Catalan is being replaced by Spanish, and in Alghero by Italian.[25] There are also well ingrained diglossic attitudes against Catalan in the Valencian Community, Ibiza, and to a lesser extent, in the rest of the Balearic islands.[5]

Classification and relationship with other Romance languages[edit] Chart of Romance languages based on structural and comparative criteria (not on socio-functional ones). Koryakov (2001) includes Catalan in Occitano-Romance, distinct from Iberian Romance.[30] The ascription of Catalan to the Occitano-Romance branch of Gallo-Romance languages is not shared by all linguists and philologists, particularly among Spanish ones, such as Ramón Menéndez Pidal. According to Pèire Bèc, its specific classification is as follows: Romance languages Italo-Western languages Western Romance languages Gallo-Iberian languages Gallo-Romance languages (alternatively classified as Iberian Romance language) Occitano-Romance languages (alternatively classified as East Iberian language) Catalan language Catalan bears varying degrees of similarity to the linguistic varieties subsumed under the cover term Occitan language (see also differences between Occitan and Catalan and Gallo-Romance languages). Thus, as it should be expected from closely related languages, Catalan today shares many traits with other Romance languages. Relationship with other Romance languages[edit] Catalan shares many traits with the other neighboring Romance languages (Italian, Sardinian, Occitan, and Spanish).[23] However, despite being spoken mostly on the Iberian Peninsula, Catalan has marked differences with the Iberian Romance group (Spanish and Portuguese) in terms of pronunciation, grammar, and especially vocabulary; showing instead its closest affinity with Occitan[31][32][33] and to a lesser extent Gallo-Romance (French, Franco-Provençal, Gallo-Italian).[34][35][36][37][31][32][33] According to Ethnologue, the lexical similarity between Catalan and other Romance languages is: 87% with Italian; 85% with Portuguese and Spanish; 76% with Ladin; 75% with Sardinian; and 73% with Romanian.[38] Lexical comparison of 24 words among Western Romance languages: 17 cognates with Gallo-Romance, 5 isoglosses with Iberian Romance, 3 isoglosses with Occitan, and 1 unique word.[35][36] Gloss Catalan Occitan (Campidanese) Sardinian Italian French Spanish Portuguese Romanian cousin cosí cosin fradili cugino cousin primo primo văr brother germà fraire fradi fratello frère hermano irmão frate nephew nebot nebot nebodi nipote neveu sobrino sobrinho nepot summer estiu estiu beranu estate été verano, estío[39] verão, estio[39] vară evening vespre ser, vèspre seru sera soir tarde-noche[40] tarde, serão[40] seară morning matí matin mangianu mattina matin mañana manhã, matina dimineață frying pan paella padena paella padella poêle sartén frigideira, fritadeira tigaie bed llit lièch, lèit letu letto lit cama, lecho cama, leito pat bird ocell, pardal aucèl pilloni uccello oiseau ave, pájaro ave, pássaro pasăre dog gos, ca gos, canh cani cane chien perro, can cão, cachorro câine plum pruna pruna pruna prugna prune ciruela ameixa prună butter mantega bodre burru, butiru burro beurre mantequilla, manteca manteiga unt Gloss Catalan Occitan (Campidanese) Sardinian Italian French Spanish Portuguese Romanian piece tros tròç, petaç arrogu pezzo morceau, pièce pedazo, trozo[41] pedaço, bocado bucată gray gris gris canu grigio gris gris, pardo[42] cinza, gris gri hot calent caud callenti caldo chaud caliente quente cald too much massa tròp tropu troppo trop demasiado demais, demasiado prea to want voler vòler bolli(ri) volere vouloir querer querer a voi to take prendre prene, prendre pigai prendere prendre tomar, prender apanhar, levar a prinde, a lua to pray pregar pregar pregai pregare prier rezar/rogar orar, rezar,pregar a se ruga to ask demanar/preguntar demandar dimandai, preguntai domandare demander pedir, preguntar pedir, perguntar a cere, a întreba to search cercar/buscar cercar circai cercare chercher buscar procurar, buscar a cerceta, a căuta to arrive arribar arribar arribai arrivare arriver llegar, arribar chegar a ajunge to speak parlar parlar chistionnai, fueddai parlare parler hablar, parlar falar, palrar a vorbi to eat menjar manjar pappai mangiare manger comer (manyar in lunfardo; papear in slang) comer (papar in slang), manjar a mânca Catalan and Spanish cognates with different meanings[37] Latin Catalan Spanish accostare acostar "to bring closer" acostar "to put to bed" levare llevar "to remove; wake up" llevar "to take" trahere traure "to remove" traer "to bring" circare cercar "to search" cercar "to fence" collocare colgar "to bury" colgar "to hang" mulier muller "wife" mujer "woman or wife" During much of its history, and especially during the Francoist dictatorship (1939–1975), the Catalan language was ridiculed as a mere dialect of Spanish.[32][33] This view, based on political and ideological considerations, has no linguistic validity.[32][33] Spanish and Catalan have important differences in their sound systems, lexicon, and grammatical features, placing the language in features closer to Occitan (and French).[32][33] There is evidence that, at least from the 2nd century a.d., the vocabulary and phonology of Roman Tarraconensis was different from the rest of Roman Hispania.[31] Differentiation arose generally because Spanish, Asturian, and Galician-Portuguese share certain peripheral archaisms (Spanish hervir, Asturian/Portuguese ferver vs. Catalan bullir, Occitan bolir "to boil") and innovatory regionalisms (Sp novillo, Ast nuviellu vs. Cat torell, Oc taurèl "bullock"), while Catalan has a shared history with the Western Romance innovative core, especially Occitan.[43][31] Like all Romance languages, Catalan has a handful of native words which are rare or only found in Catalan. These include: verbs: cōnfīgere ‘to fasten; transfix’ > confegir ‘to compose, write up’, congemināre > conjuminar ‘to combine, conjugate’, de-ex-somnitare > deixondar/-ir ‘to wake; awaken’, dēnsāre ‘to thicken; crowd together’ > desar ‘to save, keep’, īgnōrāre > enyorar ‘to miss, yearn, pine for’, indāgāre ‘to investigate, track’ > Old Catalan enagar ‘to incite, induce’, odiāre > OCat ujar ‘to exhaust, fatigue’, pācificāre > apaivagar ‘to appease, mollify’, repudiāre > rebutjar ‘to reject, refuse’; nouns: brīsa > brisa ‘pomace’, buda > boga ‘reedmace’, catarrhu > cadarn ‘catarrh’, congesta > congesta ‘snowdrift’, dēlīrium > deler ‘ardor, passion’, fretu > freu ‘brake’, lābem > (a)llau ‘avalanche’, ōra > vora ‘edge, border’, pistrice > pestriu ‘fish species’, prūna ‘live coal’ > espurna ‘spark’, tardātiōnem > tardaó > tardor ‘autumn’.[44] The Gothic superstrate produced different outcomes in Spanish and Catalan. For example, Catalan fang "mud" and rostir "to roast", of Germanic origin, contrast with Spanish lodo and asar, of Latin origin; whereas Catalan filosa "spinning wheel" and pols "temple", of Latin origin, contrast with Spanish rueca and sien, of Germanic origin.[31] The same happens with Arabic loanwords. Thus, Catalan alfàbia "large earthenware jar" and rajola "tile", of Arabic origin, contrast with Spanish tinaja and teja, of Latin origin; whereas Catalan oli "oil" and oliva "olive", of Latin origin, contrast with Spanish aceite and aceituna.[31] However, the Arabic element in Spanish is generally much more prevalent.[31] Situated between two large linguistic blocks (Iberian Romance and Gallo-Romance), Catalan has many unique lexical choices, such as enyorar "to miss somebody", apaivagar "to calm somebody down", and rebutjar "reject".[31]

Geographic distribution[edit] Catalan-speaking territories[edit] Main article: Catalan Countries Traditionally Catalan-speaking territories in dark grey; non-Catalan-speaking territories belonging to traditionally Catalan-speaking regions in light grey Northern Catalonia Catalonia Alghero La Franja Valencian Community Carche Sardinia (Italy) Aragon (Spain) Murcia (Spain) France Andorra Balearic Islands Traditionally Catalan-speaking territories are sometimes called the Països Catalans (Catalan Countries), a denomination based on cultural affinity and common heritage, that has also had a subsequent political interpretation but no official status. Various interpretations of the term may include some or all of these regions. Territories where Catalan is spoken[23] State Territory Catalan name Notes Andorra Andorra Andorra A sovereign state where Catalan is the national and the sole official language. The Andorrans speak a Western Catalan variety. France Northern Catalonia Catalunya Nord Roughly corresponding to the département of Pyrénées-Orientales.[23] Spain Catalonia Catalunya In the Aran Valley (northwest corner of Catalonia), in addition to Occitan, which is the local language, Catalan, Spanish and French are also spoken.[23] Valencian Community Comunitat Valenciana Excepting some regions in the west and south which have been Aragonese/Spanish-speaking since at least the 18th century.[23] The Western Catalan variety spoken there is known as "Valencian". La Franja La Franja A part of the Autonomous Community of Aragon, specifically a strip bordering Western Catalonia. It comprises the comarques of Ribagorça, Llitera, Baix Cinca, and Matarranya. Balearic Islands Illes Balears Comprising the islands of Mallorca, Menorca, Ibiza and Formentera. Carche El Carxe A small region of the Autonomous Community of Murcia, settled in the 19th century.[23] Italy Alghero L'Alguer A city in the Province of Sassari, on the island of Sardinia, where the peculiar Alguerese dialect is spoken. Number of speakers[edit] The number of people known to be fluent in Catalan varies depending on the sources used. A 2004 study did not count the total number of speakers, but estimated a total of 9–9.5 million by matching the percentage of speakers to the population of each area where Catalan is spoken.[45] The web site of the Generalitat de Catalunya estimated that as of 2004 there were 9,118,882 speakers of Catalan.[46] These figures only reflect potential speakers; today it is the native language of only 35.6% of the Catalan population.[47] According to Ethnologue, Catalan had four million native speakers and five million second-language speakers in 2012.[38] The most important social characteristic of the Catalan language is that all the areas where it is spoken are bilingual in practice: together with the French language in Roussillon, with Italian in Alghero, with Spanish and French in Andorra and with Spanish in the rest of the territories. Territory State Understand 1[48] Can speak 2[48]  Catalonia  Spain 6,502,880 5,698,400  Valencian Community  Spain 3,448,780 2,407,951  Balearic Islands  Spain 852,780 706,065 Roussillon  France 203,121 125,621  Andorra  Andorra 75,407 61,975 La Franja (Aragon)  Spain 47,250 45,000 Alghero (Sardinia)  Italy 20,000 17,625 Carche (Murcia)  Spain No data No data Total Catalan-speaking territories 11,150,218 9,062,637 Rest of World No data 350,000 Total 11,150,218 9,412,637 1.^ The number of people who understand Catalan includes those who can speak it. 2.^ Figures relate to all self-declared capable speakers, not just native speakers. Level of knowledge[edit] Area Speak Understand Read Write Catalonia 84.7 97.4 90.5 62.3 Valencian Community 57.5 78.1 54.9 32.5 Balearic Islands 74.6 93.1 79.6 46.9 Roussillon 37.1 65.3 31.4 10.6 Andorra 78.9 96.0 89.7 61.1 Franja Oriental of Aragón 88.8 98.5 72.9 30.3 Alghero 67.6 89.9 50.9 28.4 (% of the population 15 years old and older). Social use[edit] Area At home Outside home Catalonia 45 51 Valencian Community 37 32 Balearic Islands 44 41 Roussillon 1 1 Andorra 38 51 Franja Oriental of Aragón 70 61 Alghero 8 4 (% of the population 15 years old and older). Native language[edit] Area People Percentage Catalonia 2 813 000 38.5% Valencian Community 1 047 000 21.1% Balearic Islands 392 000 36.1% Andorra 26 000 33.8% Franja Oriental of Aragon 33 000 70.2% Roussillon 35 000 8.5% Alghero 8 000 20% TOTAL 4 353 000 31.2% [49][50][51]

Phonology[edit] Main article: Catalan phonology This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA. Catalan phonology varies by dialect. Notable features include:[52] Marked contrast of the vowel pairs /ɛ e/ and /ɔ o/, as in other Western Romance languages, other than Spanish.[52] Lack of diphthongization of Latin short ĕ, ŏ, as in Galician and Portuguese, but unlike French, Spanish, or Italian.[52] Abundance of diphthongs containing /w/, as in Galician and Portuguese.[52] In contrast to other Romance languages, Catalan has many monosyllabic words, and these may end in a wide variety of consonants, including some consonant clusters.[52] Additionally, Catalan has final obstruent devoicing, which gives rise to an abundance of such couplets as amic "(male friend") vs. amiga ("female friend").[52] Central Catalan pronunciation is considered to be standard for the language.[53] The descriptions below are mostly representative of this variety.[54] For the differences in pronunciation between the different dialects, see the section on pronunciation of dialects in this article. Vowels[edit] Vowels of Standard Eastern Catalan[55] Catalan has inherited the typical vowel system of Vulgar Latin, with seven stressed phonemes: /a ɛ e i ɔ o u/, a common feature in Western Romance, except Spanish.[52] Balearic also has instances of stressed /ə/.[56] Dialects differ in the different degrees of vowel reduction,[57] and the incidence of the pair /ɛ e/.[58] In Central Catalan, unstressed vowels reduce to three: /a e ɛ/ > [ə]; /o ɔ u/ > [u]; /i/ remains distinct.[59] The other dialects have different vowel reduction processes (see the section pronunciation of dialects in this article). Examples of vowel reduction processes in Central Catalan[60] The root is stressed in the first word and unstressed in the second Front vowels Back vowels Word pair gel ("ice") gelat ("ice cream") pedra ("stone") pedrera ("quarry") banya ("he bathes") banyem ("we bathe") cosa ("thing") coseta ("little thing") tot ("everything") total ("total") IPA transcription [ˈʒɛl] [ʒəˈlat] [ˈpeðɾə] [pəˈðɾeɾə] [ˈbaɲə] [bəˈɲɛm] [ˈkɔzə] [kuˈzɛtə] [ˈtot] [tuˈtal] Consonants[edit] Catalan consonants[61] Bilabial Alveolar / Dental Palatal Velar Nasal m n ɲ ŋ Plosive voiceless p t c ~ k voiced b d ɟ ~ ɡ Affricate voiceless ts tʃ voiced dz dʒ Fricative voiceless f s ʃ voiced (v) z ʒ Approximant central j w lateral l ʎ Tap ɾ Trill r The consonant system of Catalan is rather conservative, shared with most modern Western Romance languages. /l/ has a velarized allophone in syllable coda position in most dialects.[62] However, /l/ is velarized irrespective of position in Eastern dialects like Majorcan[63] and standard Eastern Catalan. /v/ occurs in Balearic,[64] Alguerese, standard Valencian and some areas in southern Catalonia.[65] It has merged with /b/ elsewhere.[66] Voiced obstruents undergo final-obstruent devoicing: /b/ > [p], /d/ > [t], /ɡ/ > [k].[67] Voiced stops become lenited to approximants in syllable onsets, after continuants: /b/ >[β], /d/ > [ð], /ɡ/ > [ɣ].[68] Exceptions include /d/ after lateral consonants, and /b/ after /f/. In coda position, these sounds are realized as stops,[69] except in some Valencian dialects where they are lenited.[70] There is some confusion in the literature about the precise phonetic characteristics of /ʃ/, /ʒ/, /tʃ/, /dʒ/. Some sources[71] describe them as "postalveolar". Others[72][73] as "back alveolo-palatal", implying that the characters ⟨ɕ ʑ tɕ dʑ⟩ would be more accurate. However, in all literature only the characters for palato-alveolar affricates and fricatives are used, even when the same sources use ⟨ɕ ʑ⟩ for other languages like Polish and Chinese.[74][75][76] The distribution of the two rhotics /r/ and /ɾ/ closely parallels that of Spanish. Between vowels, the two contrast, but they are otherwise in complementary distribution: in the onset of the first syllable in a word, [r] appears unless preceded by a consonant. Dialects vary in regards to rhotics in the coda with Western Catalan generally featuring [ɾ] and Central Catalan dialects featuring a weakly trilled [r] unless it precedes a vowel-initial word in the same prosodic unit, in which case [ɾ] appears.[77] In careful speech, /n/, /m/, /l/ may be geminated. Geminated /ʎ/ may also occur.[71] Some analyze intervocalic [r] as the result of gemination of a single rhotic phoneme.[78] This is similar to the common analysis of Spanish and Portuguese rhotics.[79] Phonological evolution[edit] Main article: Phonological history of Catalan

Sociolinguistics[edit] Catalan sociolinguistics studies the situation of Catalan in the world and the different varieties that this language presents. It is a subdiscipline of Catalan philology and other affine studies and has as an objective to analyse the relation between the Catalan language, the speakers and the close reality (including the one of other languages in contact). Preferential subjects of study[edit] Dialects of Catalan Variations of Catalan by class, gender, profession, age and level of studies Process of linguistic normalisation Relations between Catalan and Spanish or French Perception on the language of Catalan speakers and non-speakers Presence of Catalan in several fields: tagging, public function, media, professional sectors Dialects[edit] Main article: Catalan dialects Overview[edit] Main dialects of Catalan[80][81][82] The dialects of the Catalan language feature a relative uniformity, especially when compared to other Romance languages;[37] both in terms of vocabulary, semantics, syntax, morphology, and phonology.[83] Mutual intelligibility between dialects is very high,[23][84][53] estimates ranging from 90% to 95%.[85] The only exception is the isolated idiosyncratic Alguerese dialect.[37] Catalan is split in two major dialectal blocks: Eastern Catalan, and Western Catalan.[53][83] The main difference lies in the treatment of unstressed a and e; which have merged to /ə/ in Eastern dialects, but which remain distinct as /a/ and /e/ in Western dialects.[37][53] There are a few other differences in pronunciation, verbal morphology, and vocabulary.[23] Western Catalan comprises the two dialects of Northwestern Catalan and Valencian; the Eastern block comprises four dialects: Central Catalan, Balearic, Rossellonese, and Alguerese.[53] Each dialect can be further subdivided in several subdialects. The terms "Catalan" and "Valencian" (respectively used in Catalonia and the Valencian Community) are two varieties of the same language.[86] There are two institutions regulating the two standard varieties, the Institute of Catalan Studies in Catalonia and the Valencian Academy of the Language in the Valencian Community. Central Catalan is considered the standard pronunciation of the language and has the highest number of speakers.[53] It is spoken in the densely populated regions of the Barcelona province, the eastern half of the province of Tarragona, and most of the province of Girona.[53] Catalan has an inflectional grammar. Nouns have two genders (masculine, feminine), and two numbers (singular, plural). Pronouns additionally can have a neuter gender, and some are also inflected for case and politeness, and can be combined in very complex ways. Verbs are split in several paradigms and are inflected for person, number, tense, aspect, mood, and gender. In terms of pronunciation, Catalan has many words ending in a wide variety of consonants and some consonant clusters, in contrast with many other Romance languages.[52] Main dialectal divisions of Catalan[53][87] Block Western Catalan Eastern Catalan Dialect Northwestern Valencian Central Balearic Northern/Rossellonese Alguerese Area Spain France Italy Provinces of Lleida, western half of Tarragona, La Franja Autonomous community of Valencia Provinces of Barcelona, eastern half of Tarragona, most of Girona Balearic islands Roussillon/Northern Catalonia City of Alghero in Sardinia Pronunciation[edit] Vowels[edit] Catalan has inherited the typical vowel system of Vulgar Latin, with seven stressed phonemes: /a ɛ e i ɔ o u/, a common feature in Western Romance, except Spanish.[52] Balearic has also instances of stressed /ə/.[56] Dialects differ in the different degrees of vowel reduction,[57] and the incidence of the pair /ɛ e/.[58] In Eastern Catalan (except Majorcan), unstressed vowels reduce to three: /a e ɛ/ > [ə]; /o ɔ u/ > [u]; /i/ remains distinct.[59] There are a few instances of unreduced [e], [o] in some words.[59] Alguerese has lowered [ə] to [a]. In Majorcan, unstressed vowels reduce to four: /a e ɛ/ follow the Eastern Catalan reduction pattern; however /o ɔ/ reduce to [o], with /u/ remaining distinct, as in Western Catalan.[88] In Western Catalan, unstressed vowels reduce to five: /e ɛ/ > [e]; /o ɔ/ > [o]; /a u i/ remain distinct.[89][90] This reduction pattern, inherited from Proto-Romance, is also found in Italian and Portuguese.[89] Some Western dialects present further reduction or vowel harmony in some cases.[89][91] Central, Western, and Balearic differ in the lexical incidence of stressed /e/ and /ɛ/.[58] Usually, words with /ɛ/ in Central Catalan correspond to /ə/ in Balearic and /e/ in Western Catalan.[58] Words with /e/ in Balearic almost always have /e/ in Central and Western Catalan as well.[vague][58] As a result, Central Catalan has a much higher incidence of /ɛ/.[58] Different incidence of stressed /e/, /ə/, /ɛ/[58] Word Western Majorcan Eastern except Majorcan set ("thirst") /ˈset/ /ˈsət/ /ˈsɛt/ ven ("he sells") /ˈven/ /ˈvən/ /ˈbɛn/ General differences in the pronunciation of unstressed vowels in different dialects[53][92] Word Western Catalan Eastern Catalan Northwestern Valencian Majorcan Central Northern mare ("mother") /ˈmaɾe/ /ˈmaɾə/ cançó ("song") /kanˈso/ /kənˈso/ posar ("to put") /poˈza(ɾ)/ /puˈza(ɾ)/ ferro ("iron") /ˈfɛro/ /ˈfɛru/ Detailed examples of vowel reduction processes in different dialects[60] Word pairs: the first with stressed root, the second with unstressed root Western Majorcan Central Front vowels gel ("ice") gelat ("ice cream") [ˈdʒɛl] [dʒeˈlat] [ˈʒɛl] [ʒəˈlat] [ˈʒɛl] [ʒəˈlat] pera ("pear") perera ("pear tree") [ˈpeɾa] [peˈɾeɾa] [ˈpəɾə] [pəˈɾeɾə] [ˈpɛɾə] [pəˈɾeɾə] pedra ("stone") pedrera ("quarry") [ˈpeðɾa] [peˈðɾeɾa] [ˈpeðɾə] [pəˈðɾeɾə] [ˈpeðɾə] [pəˈðɾeɾə] banya ("he bathes") banyem("we bathe") Majorcan: banyam("we bathe") [ˈbaɲa] [baˈɲem] [ˈbaɲə] [bəˈɲam] [ˈbaɲə] [bəˈɲɛm] Back vowels cosa ("thing") coseta ("little thing") [ˈkɔza] [koˈzeta] [ˈkɔzə] [koˈzətə] [ˈkɔzə] [kuˈzɛtə] tot ("everything") total ("total") [ˈtot] [toˈtal] [ˈtot] [toˈtal] [ˈtot] [tuˈtal] Consonants[edit] This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (March 2014) Morphology[edit] Western Catalan: In verbs, the ending for 1st-person present indicative is -e in verbs of the 1st conjugation and -∅ in verbs of the 2nd and 3rd conjugations in most of the Valencian Community, or -o in all verb conjugations in the Northern Valencian Community and Western Catalonia. E.g. parle, tem, sent (Valencian); parlo, temo, sento (Northwestern Catalan). Eastern Catalan: In verbs, the ending for 1st-person present indicative is -o, -i, or -∅ in all conjugations. E.g. parlo (Central), parl (Balearic), and parli (Northern), all meaning ('I speak'). 1st-person singular present indicative forms Conjugation Eastern Catalan Western Catalan Gloss Central Northern Balearic Valencian Northwestern 1st parlo parli parl parle or parlo parlo 'I speak' 2nd temo temi tem tem or temo temo 'I fear' 3rd pure sento senti sent sent or sento sento 'I feel', 'I hear' inchoative poleixo poleixi poleix or polesc polisc or pol(e)ixo pol(e)ixo 'I polish' Western Catalan: In verbs, the inchoative endings are -isc/-ixo, -ix, -ixen, -isca. Eastern Catalan: In verbs, the inchoative endings are -eixo, -eix, -eixen, -eixi. Western Catalan: In nouns and adjectives, maintenance of /n/ of medieval plurals in proparoxytone words. E.g. hòmens 'men', jóvens 'youth'. Eastern Catalan: In nouns and adjectives, loss of /n/ of medieval plurals in proparoxytone words. E.g. homes 'men', joves 'youth'. Vocabulary[edit] Despite its relative lexical unity, the two dialectal blocks of Catalan (Eastern and Western) show some differences in word choices.[31] Any lexical divergence within any of the two groups can be explained as an archaism. Also, usually Central Catalan acts as an innovative element.[31] Selection of different words between Western and Eastern Catalan Gloss "mirror" "boy" "broom" "navel" "to exit" Eastern Catalan mirall noi escombra melic sortir Western Catalan espill xiquet granera llombrígol eixir

Standards[edit] Main articles: Institut d'Estudis Catalans and Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua Casa de Convalescència, Headquarters of the Institut d'Estudis Catalans Written varieties Catalan (IEC) Valencian (AVL) gloss anglès anglés English conèixer conéixer to know treure traure take out néixer nàixer to be born càntir cànter pitcher rodó redó round meva meua my, mine ametlla ametla almond estrella estrela star cop colp hit llagosta llangosta lobster homes hòmens men servei servici service Standard Catalan, virtually accepted by all speakers,[25] is mostly based on Eastern Catalan,[53][93] which is the most widely used dialect. Nevertheless, the standards of the Valencian Community and the Balearics admit alternative forms, mostly traditional ones, which are not current in eastern Catalonia.[93] The most notable difference between both standards is some tonic ⟨e⟩ accentuation, for instance: francès, anglès (IEC) – francés, anglés (AVL). Nevertheless, AVL's standard keeps the grave accent ⟨è⟩, without pronouncing this ⟨e⟩ as /ɛ/, in some words like: què ('what'), or València. Other divergences include the use of ⟨tl⟩ (AVL) in some words instead of ⟨tll⟩ like in ametla/ametlla ('almond'), espatla/espatlla ('back'), the use of elided demonstratives (este 'this', eixe 'that') in the same level as reinforced ones (aquest, aqueix) or the use of many verbal forms common in Valencian, and some of these common in the rest of Western Catalan too, like subjunctive mood or inchoative conjugation in -ix- at the same level as -eix- or the priority use of -e morpheme in 1st person singular in present indicative (-ar verbs): jo compre instead of jo compro ('I buy'). In the Balearic Islands, IEC's standard is used but adapted for the Balearic dialect by the University of the Balearic Islands's philological section. In this way, for instance, IEC says it is correct writing cantam as much as cantem ('we sing') but the University says that the priority form in the Balearic Islands must be "cantam" in all fields. Another feature of the Balearic standard is the non-ending in the 1st person singular present indicative: jo compr ('I buy'), jo tem ('I fear'), jo dorm ('I sleep'). In Alghero, the IEC has adapted its standard to the Alguerese dialect. In this standard one can find, among other features: the definite article lo instead of el, special possessive pronouns and determinants la mia ('mine'), lo sou/la sua ('his/her'), lo tou/la tua ('yours'), and so on, the use of -v- /v/ in the imperfect tense in all conjugations: cantava, creixiva, llegiva; the use of many archaic words, usual words in Alguerese: manco instead of menys ('less'), calqui u instead of algú ('someone'), qual/quala instead of quin/quina ('which'), and so on; and the adaptation of weak pronouns. In 2011, the Aragonese government passed a decree for the establishment of a new language regulator of Catalan in La Franja (the so-called Catalan-speaking areas of Aragon). The new entity, designated as Acadèmia Aragonesa del Català, shall allow a facultative education in Catalan and a standardization of the Catalan language in La Franja.

Status of Valencian[edit] Catalan Wikisource has original text related to this article: AVL: Dictamen sobre els principis i criteris per a la defensa de la denominació i l'entitat del valencià Main articles: Valencian, Valencian language controversy, Blaverism, and Anti-Catalanism Subdialects of Valencian Valencian is classified as a Western dialect, along with the northwestern varieties spoken in Western Catalonia (provinces of Lleida and the western half of Tarragona).[53][87] The various forms of Catalan and Valencian are mutually intelligible (ranging from 90% to 95%)[85] Linguists, including Valencian scholars, deal with Catalan and Valencian as the same language. The official regulating body of the language of the Valencian Community, the Valencian Academy of Language (Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua, AVL) declares the linguistic unity between Valencian and Catalan varieties.[12] [T]he historical patrimonial language of the Valencian people, from a philological standpoint, is the same shared by the autonomous communities of Catalonia and Balearic islands, and Principality of Andorra. Additionally, it is the patrimonial historical language of other territories of the ancient Crown of Aragon [...] The different varieties of these territories constitute a language, that is, a "linguistic system" [...] From this group of varieties, Valencian has the same hierarchy and dignity as any other dialectal modality of that linguistic system [...] Ruling of the Valencian Language Academy of 9 February 2005, extract of point 1.[94][95] The AVL, created by the Valencian parliament, is in charge of dictating the official rules governing the use of Valencian, and its standard is based on the Norms of Castelló (Normes de Castelló). Currently, everyone who writes in Valencian uses this standard, except the Royal Academy of Valencian Culture (Acadèmia de Cultura Valenciana, RACV), which uses for Valencian an independent standard. Despite the position of the official organizations, an opinion poll carried out between 2001 and 2004[96] showed that the majority of the Valencian people consider Valencian different from Catalan. This position is promoted by people who do not use Valencian regularly.[25] Furthermore, the data indicates that younger generations educated in Valencian are much less likely to hold these views. A minority of Valencian scholars active in fields other than linguistics defends the position of the Royal Academy of Valencian Culture (Acadèmia de Cultura Valenciana, RACV), which uses for Valencian a standard independent from Catalan.[97] This clash of opinions has sparked much controversy. For example, during the drafting of the European Constitution in 2004, the Spanish government supplied the EU with translations of the text into Basque, Galician, Catalan, and Valencian, but the latter two were identical.[98]

Vocabulary[edit] Word choices[edit] Despite its relative lexical unity, the two dialectal blocks of Catalan (Eastern and Western) show some differences in word choices.[31] Any lexical divergence within any of the two groups can be explained as an archaism. Also, usually Central Catalan acts as an innovative element.[31] Literary Catalan allows the use of words from different dialects, except those of very restricted use.[31] However, from the 19th century onwards, there has been a tendency towards favoring words of Northern dialects to the detriment of others, even though nowadays there is a greater freedom of choice.[clarify][31] Latin and Greek loanwords[edit] Like other languages, Catalan has a large list of loanwords from Greek and Latin. This process started very early, and one can find such examples in Ramon Llull's work.[31] In the 14th and 15th centuries Catalan had a far greater number of Greco-Latin loanwords than other Romance languages, as is attested for example in Roís de Corella's writings.[31] The incorporation of learned, or "bookish" words from its own ancestor language, Latin, into Catalan is arguably another form of lexical borrowing through the influence of written language and the liturgical language of the Church. Throughout the Middle Ages and into the early modern period, most literate Catalan speakers were also literate in Latin; and thus they easily adopted Latin words into their writing—and eventually speech—in Catalan. Word formation[edit] The process of morphological derivation in Catalan follows the same principles as the other Romance languages,[99] where agglutination is common. Many times, several affixes are appended to a preexisting lexeme, and some sound alternations can occur, for example elèctric [əˈlɛktrik] ("electrical") vs. electricitat [ələktrisiˈtat]. Prefixes are usually appended to verbs, as in preveure ("foresee").[99] There is greater regularity in the process of word-compounding, where one can find compounded words formed much like those in English.[99] Common types of word compounds in Catalan[99] Type Example Gloss two nouns, the second assimilated to the first paper moneda "banknote paper" noun delimited by an adjective estat major "military staff" noun delimited by another noun and a preposition màquina d'escriure "typewriter" verb radical with a nominal object paracaigudes "parachute" noun delimited by an adjective, with adjectival value pit-roig "robin" (bird)

Writing system[edit] The word novel·la ("novel") in a dictionary. The geminated L (l·l) is a distinctive character used in Catalan. Billboard in Barcelona (detail), showing the word il·lusió ("illusion") Main article: Catalan orthography Main forms A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Modified forms À Ç È É Í Ï L·L Ò Ó Ú Ü Catalan uses the Latin script, with some added symbols and digraphs.[100] The Catalan orthography is systematic and largely phonologically based.[100] Pronunciation of Catalan special characters and digraphs (Central Catalan)[101] Pronunciation Examples[101] ç /s/ feliç [fəˈlis] ("happy") gu /ɡ/ ([ɡ]~[ɣ]) before i and e guerra [ˈɡɛrə] ("war") /ɡw/ elsewhere guant [ˈɡwan] ("glove") ig [tʃ] in final position raig [ˈratʃ] ("trickle") ix /ʃ/ ([jʃ] in some dialects) caixa [ˈkaʃə] ("box") ll /ʎ/ lloc [ʎɔk] ("place") l·l Normatively /l:/, but usually /l/ novel·la [nuˈβɛlə] ("novel") ny /ɲ/ Catalunya [kətəˈɫuɲə] ("Catalonia") qu /k/ before i and e qui [ˈki] ("who") /kw/ before other vowels quatre [ˈkwatrə] ("four") ss /s/ Intervocalic s is pronounced /z/ grossa [ˈɡɾɔsə] ("big-feminine)" casa [ˈkazə] ("house") tg, tj [ddʒ] fetge [ˈfeddʒə] ("liver"), mitjó [midˈdʒo] ("sock") tx [tʃ] despatx [dəsˈpatʃ] ("office") tz [ddz] dotze [ˈdoddzə] ("twelve") Letters and digraphs with contextually conditioned pronunciations (Central Catalan)[101] Notes Examples[101] c /s/ before i and e corresponds to ç in other contexts feliç ("happy-masculine-singular") - felices ("happy-feminine-plural") caço ("I hunt") - caces ("you hunt") g /ʒ/ before e and i corresponds to j in other positions envejar ("to envy") - envegen ("they envy") final g + stressed i, and final ig before other vowels, are pronounced [tʃ] corresponds to j~g or tj~tg in other positions boig ['bɔtʃ] ("mad-masculine") - boja ['bɔʒə] ("mad-feminine") - boges ['bɔʒəs] ("mad-feminine plural") desig [də'zitʃ] ("wish") - desitjar ("to wish") - desitgem ("we wish") gu /ɡ/ before e and i corresponds to g in other positions botiga ("shop") - botigues ("shops") gü /ɡw/ before e and i corresponds to gu in other positions llengua ("language") - llengües ("languages") qu /k/ before e and i corresponds to q in other positions vaca ("cow") - vaques ("cows") qü /kw/ before e and i corresponds to qu in other positions obliqua ("oblique-feminine") - obliqües ("oblique-feminine plural") x [ʃ]~[tʃ] initially and in onsets after a consonant [ʃ] after i otherwise, [ɡz] before stress, [ks] after xarxa [ˈʃarʃə] ("net") guix [ˈɡiʃ] ("chalk") exacte [əɡˈzaktə] ("exact"), fax [ˈfaks] ("fax")

Grammar[edit] Main article: Catalan grammar The grammar of Catalan is similar to other Romance languages. Features include:[102] Use of definite and indefinite articles.[102] Nouns, adjectives, pronouns, and articles are inflected for gender (masculine and feminine), and number (singular and plural). There is no case inflexion, except in pronouns.[102] Verbs are highly inflected for person, number, tense, aspect, and mood (including a subjunctive).[102] There are no modal auxiliaries.[102] Word order is freer than in English.[102] Gender and number inflection[edit] Gender and number inflection of the word gat ("cat") Regular noun with definite article: el gat ("the cat") masculine feminine singular el gat la gata plural els gats les gates Adjective with 4 forms: verd ("green") masculine feminine singular verd verda plural verds verdes Adjective with 3 forms: feliç ("happy") masculine feminine singular feliç plural feliços felices Adjective with 2 forms: indiferent ("indifferent") masculine feminine singular indiferent plural indiferents In gender inflection, the most notable feature is (compared to Portuguese, Spanish or Italian), the loss of the typical masculine suffix -o. Thus, the alternance of -o/-a, has been replaced by ø/-a.[52] There are only a few exceptions, like minso/minsa ("scarce").[52] Many not completely predictable morphological alternations may occur, such as:[52] Affrication: boig/boja ("insane") vs. lleig/lletja ("ugly") Loss of n: pla/plana ("flat") vs. segon/segona ("second") Final obstruent devoicing: sentit/sentida ("felt") vs. dit/dita ("said") Catalan has few suppletive couplets, like Italian and Spanish, and unlike French. Thus, Catalan has noi/noia ("boy"/"girl") and gall/gallina ("cock"/"hen"), whereas French has garçon/fille and coq/poule.[52] There is a tendency to abandon traditionally gender-invariable adjectives in favour of marked ones, something prevalent in Occitan and French. Thus, one can find bullent/bullenta ("boiling") in contrast with traditional bullent/bullent.[52] As in the other Western Romance languages, the main plural expression is the suffix -s, which may create morphological alternations similar to the ones found in gender inflection, albeit more rarely.[52] The most important one is the addition of -o- before certain consonant groups, a phonetic phenomenon that does not affect feminine forms: el pols/els polsos ("the pulse"/"the pulses") vs. la pols/les pols ("the dust"/"the dusts").[103] Determiners[edit] Sign in the town square of Begur, Catalonia, Spain. In Plaça de la vila (literally "square of the town"), since the noun vila ("town") is feminine singular, the definite article carries the corresponding form, la ("the"). Definite article in Standard Catalan (elided forms in brackets)[104] masculine feminine singular el (l') la (l') plural els les Contractions of the definite article preposition a de per article el al (a l') del (de l') pel (per l') els als dels pels Indefinite article masculine feminine singular un una plural uns unes The inflection of determinatives is complex, specially because of the high number of elisions, but is similar to the neighboring languages.[99] Catalan has more contractions of preposition + article than Spanish, like dels ("of + the [plural]"), but not as many as Italian (which has sul, col, nel, etc.).[99] Central Catalan has abandoned almost completely unstressed possessives (mon, etc.) in favour of constructions of article + stressed forms (el meu, etc.), a feature shared with Italian.[99] Personal pronouns[edit] Catalan stressed pronouns[105]   singular plural 1st person jo, mi nosaltres 2nd person informal tu vosaltres formal vostè vostès respectful (vós)[106] 3rd person masculine ell ells feminine ella elles Main article: Catalan personal pronouns The morphology of Catalan personal pronouns is complex, specially in unstressed forms, which are numerous (13 distinct forms, compared to 11 in Spanish or 9 in Italian).[99] Features include the gender-neutral ho and the great degree of freedom when combining different unstressed pronouns (65 combinations).[99] Catalan pronouns exhibit T–V distinction, like all other Romance languages (and most European languages, but not Modern English). This feature implies the use of a different set of second person pronouns for formality. This flexibility allows Catalan to use extraposition extensively, much more than French or Spanish. Thus, Catalan can have m'hi recomanaren ("they recommended me to him"), whereas in French one must say ils m'ont recommandé à lui, and Spanish me recomendaron a él.[99] This allows the placement of almost any nominal term as a sentence topic, without having to use so often the passive voice (as in French or English), or identifying the direct object with a preposition (as in Spanish).[99] Verbs[edit] Simple forms of a regular verb of the first conjugation: portar ("to bring")[107] Non-finite Form Infinitive portar Gerund portant Past participle portat (portat, portada, portats, portades) Indicative jo tu ell / ella [vostè] nosaltres vosaltres [vós] ells / elles [vostès] Present porto portes porta portem porteu porten Imperfect portava portaves portava portàvem portàveu portaven Preterite (archaic) portí portares portà portàrem portàreu portaren Future portaré portaràs portarà portarem portareu portaran Conditional portaria portaries portaria portaríem portaríeu portarien Subjunctive jo tu ell / ella [vostè] nosaltres vosaltres [vós] ells / elles [vostès] Present porti portis porti portem porteu portin Imperfect portés portéssis portés portéssim portéssiu portessin Imperative jo tu ell / ella [vostè] nosaltres vosaltres [vós] ells / elles [vostès] — — porta porti portem porteu portin Like all the Romance languages, Catalan verbal inflection is more complex than the nominal. Suffixation is omnipresent, whereas morphological alternations play a secondary role.[99] Vowel alternances are active, as well as infixation and suppletion. However, these are not as productive as in Spanish, and are mostly restricted to irregular verbs.[99] The Catalan verbal system is basically common to all Western Romance, except that most dialects have replaced the synthetic indicative perfect with a periphrastic form of anar ("to go") + infinitive.[99] Catalan verbs are traditionally divided into three conjugations, with vowel themes -a-, -e-, -i-, the last two being split into two subtypes. However, this division is mostly theoretical.[99] Only the first conjugation is nowadays productive (with about 3500 common verbs), whereas the third (the subtype of servir, with about 700 common verbs) is semiproductive. The verbs of the second conjugation are fewer than 100, and it is not possible to create new ones, except by compounding.[99] Syntax[edit] Main article: Catalan syntax The grammar of Catalan follows the general pattern of Western Romance languages. The primary word order is subject–verb–object.[108] However, word order is very flexible. Commonly, verb-subject constructions are used to achieve a semantic effect. The sentence "The train has arrived" could be translated as "Ha arribat el tren" or "El tren ha arribat." Both sentences mean "the train has arrived", but the former puts a focus on the train, while the latter puts a focus on the arrival. This subtle distinction is described as "what you might say while waiting in the station" versus "what you might say on the train."[109]

Catalan names[edit] Main article: Catalan names In Spain, every person officially has two surnames, one of which is the father's first surname and the other is the mother's first surname.[110] The law contemplates the possibility of joining both surnames with the Catalan conjunction i ("and").[110][111]

Sample text[edit] Selected text[112] from Manuel de Pedrolo's 1970 novel Un amor fora ciutat ("A love affair outside the city"). Original Word-for-word translation[112] Free translation Tenia prop de divuit anys quan vaig conèxier I was having close to eighteen years, when I go [past auxiliary] know (=I met) I was about eighteen years old when I met en Raül, a l'estació de Manresa. the Raül, at the station of (=in) Manresa. Raül, at Manresa railway station. El meu pare havia mort, inesperadament i encara jove, The my father had died, unexpectedly and still young, My father had died, unexpectedly and still young, un parell d'anys abans, i d'aquells temps a couple of years before, and of those times a couple of years before; and from that time conservo un record de punyent solitud. I keep a memory of acute loneliness I still harbour memories of great loneliness. Les meves relacions amb la mare The my relations with the mother My relationship with my mother no havien pas millorat, tot el contrari, not had at all improved, all the contrary, had not improved; quite the contrary, potser fins i tot empitjoraven perhaps even they were worsening and arguably it was getting even worse a mesura que em feia gran. at step that (=in proportion as) myself I was making big (=I was growing up). as I grew up. No existia, no existí mai entre nosaltres, Not it was existing, not it existed never between us, There did not exist, at no point had there ever existed between us una comunitat d'interessos, d'afeccions. a community of interests, of affections. shared interests or affection. Cal creure que cercava... una persona It is necessary to believe that I was seeking... a person I guess I was seeking... a person en qui centrar la meva vida afectiva. in whom to center the my life affective. in whom I could center my emotional life.

Loanwords in Catalan and English[edit] English word Catalan word Catalan meaning Notes barracks barraca "mud hut" Eng < Fr baraques < Cat/Sp barracas.[113] barracoon barracó or barracot "improvised hut" Eng < Spanish barracón < barraca (Sp < Cat).[113] surge sorgir "to arise" Eng < Middle French sourgir < Old Catalan surgir.[114] paella paella "small cooking pot" Eng < Cat < Old French pael(l)e (mod. poêle ‘skillet’) < Latin patella ‘small pan’ (> Sp padilla).[114] cul-de-sac cul-de-sac "with no exit" French < Old Catalan/Occitan (> English).[114] capicua cap i cua "ends like it starts" cucumber cogombre "fruit used in salads" Eng < Old French / Occitan cocombre.[114]

See also[edit] Catalan-speaking countries portal Spain portal Andorra portal France portal Italy portal Language portal Organizations Institut d'Estudis Catalans (Catalan Studies Institute) Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua (Valencian Academy of the Language) Òmnium Cultural Plataforma per la Llengua Scholars Marina Abràmova Other Languages of Catalonia Linguistic features of Spanish as spoken by Catalan speakers Languages of France Languages of Italy Languages of Spain Normes de Castelló Pompeu Fabra

References[edit] ^ "ethnologue". Retrieved 14 November 2017.  ^ a b Some Iberian scholars may alternatively classify Catalan as Iberian Romance/East Iberian. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Standard Catalan". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ a b Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student's Handbook, Edinburgh [1] ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Wheeler 2010, p. 191. ^ Minder, Raphael (2016-11-21). "Italy's Last Bastion of Catalan Language Struggles to Keep It Alive". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-01-21.  ^ a b c Wheeler 2010, p. 190–191. ^ a b c d e f Costa Carreras & Yates 2009, pp. 6–7. ^ García Venero 2006. ^ Burke 1900, p. 154. ^ Lledó 2011, p. 334–337. ^ a b "Dictamen de l'Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua sobre els principis i criteris per a la defensa de la denominació i l'entitat del valencià". Report from Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua about denomination and identity of Valencian. ^ Veny 1997, pp. 9–18. ^ a b c Moran 2004, pp. 37–38. ^ a b c d e f g h i Costa Carreras & Yates, pp. 6–7. ^ Riquer 1964. ^ a b c d Wheeler 2010, p. 190. ^ Trobes en llaors de la Verge Maria ("Poems of praise of the Virgin Mary") 1474. ^ "L'interdiction de la langue catalane en Roussillon par Louis XIV" (PDF). "CRDP, Académie de Montpellier. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 December 2010.  ^ Marfany 2002. ^ "Charte en faveur du Catalan".  "La catalanitat a la Catalunya Nord".  ^ Costa Carreras 2007, pp. 10–11. ^ a b c d e f g h i Wheeler 2005, p. 1. ^ Burgen, Stephen (2012-11-22). "Catalan: a language that has survived against the odds". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2017-01-18.  ^ a b c d e Wheeler 2003, p. 207. ^ "Cataluña ordena incumplir las sentencias sobre el castellano en las escuelas" [Catalonia orders violate the judgments on the Castilian in schools] (in Spanish). Retrieved 10 September 2013.  ^ ^ "Idescat. Demographics and quality of life. Language uses. First language, language of identification and habitual language. 2003. Results". Retrieved 2017-01-21.  ^ Datos lingüísticos en Cataluña Archived 15 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Koryakov 2001. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Enciclopèdia Catalana, p. 632. ^ a b c d e Feldhausen 2010, p. 4. ^ a b c d e Schlösser 2005, p. 60f. ^ Marc Howard Ross, Cultural Contestation in Ethnic Conflict, page 139. Cambridge University Press, 2007. ^ a b Jud 1925. ^ a b Colón 1993, pp. 33–35. ^ a b c d e Moll 1958, p. 47. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference e18 was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ a b Portuguese and Spanish have estiagem and estiaje, respectively, for drought, dry season or low water levels. ^ a b Portuguese and Spanish have véspera and víspera, respectively, for eve, or the day before. ^ Spanish also has trozo, and it is actually a borrowing from Catalan tros. Colón 1993, p 39. Portuguese has troço, but aside from also being a loanword, it has a very different meaning: "thing", "gadget", "tool", "paraphernalia". ^ Modern Spanish also has gris, but it is a modern borrowing from Occitan. The original word was pardo, which stands for "reddish, yellow-orange, medium-dark and of moderate to weak saturation. It also can mean ochre, pale ochre, dark ohre, brownish, tan, greyish, grey, desaturated, dirty, dark, or opaque." Gallego, Rosa; Sanz, Juan Carlos (2001). Diccionario Akal del color (in Spanish). Akal. ISBN 978-84-460-1083-8.  ^ Colón 1993, p. 55. ^ Bruguera 2008, p. 3046. ^ "Sociolinguistic situation in Catalan-speaking areas. Tables. Official data about the sociolinguistic situation in Catalan-speaking areas: Catalonia (2003), Andorra (2004), the Balearic Islands (2004), Aragonese Border (2004), Northern Catalonia (2004), Alghero (2004) and Valencian Community (2004)". Generalitat of Catalonia. 7 August 2008. Retrieved 13 March 2012.  ^ "Catalan, language of Europe" (PDF). Generalitat of Catalonia. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 December 2012. Retrieved 13 March 2012.  ^ Población según lengua habitual. Datos comparados 2003-2008. Cataluña. Año 2008, Encuesta de Usos Lingüísticos de la población (2003 y 2008), Instituto de Estadística de Cataluña ^ a b Sources: Catalonia: Statistic data of 2001 census, from Institut d'Estadística de Catalunya, Generalitat de Catalunya [2]. Land of Valencia: Statistical data from 2001 census, from Institut Valencià d'Estadística, Generalitat Valenciana "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 September 2005. Retrieved 23 June 2005. . Land of Valencia: Statistical data from 2001 census, from Institut Valencià d'Estadística, Generalitat Valenciana [3]. Balearic Islands: Statistical data from 2001 census, from Institut Balear d'Estadística, Govern de les Illes Balears [4]. Northern Catalonia: Media Pluriel Survey commissioned by Prefecture of Languedoc-Roussillon Region done in October 1997 and published in January 1998 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 14 April 2005. Retrieved 23 June 2005. . Andorra: Sociolinguistic data from Andorran Government, 1999. Aragon: Sociolinguistic data from Euromosaic [5]. Alguer: Sociolinguistic data from Euromosaic [6]. Rest of World: Estimate for 1999 by the Federació d'Entitats Catalanes outside the Catalan Countries. ^ Red Cruscat del Instituto de Estudios Catalanes ^ "Tv3 - Telediario: La salud del catalán - YouTube". Archived from the original on 16 May 2015.  ^ "". Archived from the original on 24 November 2007.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Enciclopèdia Catalana, p. 630. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Feldhausen 2010, p. 5. ^ Wheeler 2005 takes the same approach ^ Carbonell & Llisterri 1999, p. 62. ^ a b Wheeler 2005, pp. 37,53–54. ^ a b Wheeler 2005, p. 37. ^ a b c d e f g Wheeler 2005, p. 38. ^ a b c Wheeler 2005, p. 54. ^ a b Wheeler 2005, pp. 53–55. ^ Carbonell, Joan F.; Llisterri, Joaquim (1999). "Catalan". Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the usage of the International Phonetic Alphabet. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 61–65. ISBN 0-521-63751-1.  ^ Recasens & Espinosa 2005, p. 20. ^ Recasens & Espinosa 2005, p. 3. ^ Carbonell & Llisterri 1992, p. 53. ^ Veny 2007, p. 51. ^ Wheeler, Max W. (2005). The Phonology Of Catalan. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-19-925814-7.  ^ Lloret 2003, p. 278. ^ Wheeler, Max W. (2005). The Phonology Of Catalan. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-19-925814-7.  ^ Hualde, José (1992). Catalan. Routledge. p. 368. ISBN 978-0-415-05498-0.  ^ Recasens & Espinosa 2005, p. 1. ^ a b Carbonell, Joan F.; Llisterri, Joaquim (1992), "Catalan", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 22 (1–2): 53, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004618  ^ Recasens, Daniel; Fontdevila, Jordi; Pallarès, Maria Dolors (1995). "Velarization Degree and Coarticulatory Resistance for /l/ in Catalan and German". Journal of Phonetics. 23 (1): 288. doi:10.1016/S0095-4470(95)80031-X.  ^ Recasens, Daniel; Espinosa, Aina (2007). "An Electropalatographic and Acoustic Study of Affricates and Fricatives in Two Catalan Dialects". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 37 (2): 145. doi:10.1017/S0025100306002829.  ^ Recasens, Daniel (1993), "Fonètica i Fonologia", Enciclopèdia Catalana . Here Recasens labels these Catalan sounds as "laminoalveolars palatalitzades" ^ Recasens, Daniel; Pallarès, Maria Dolors (2001). De la fonètica a la fonologia: les consonants i assimilacions consonàntiques del català. Barcelona: Editorial Ariel. ISBN 978-84-344-2884-3. . Here the authors label these Catalan sounds as "laminal postalveolar" ^ Recasens & Espinosa 2007, pp. 145. ^ Padgett 2003, p. 2. ^ Wheeler, Max W. (1979), Phonology Of Catalan, Oxford: Blackwell, ISBN 978-0-631-11621-9 ^ See Bonet, Eulàlia; Mascaró, Joan (1997). "On the Representation of Contrasting Rhotics". In Martínez-Gil, Fernando; Morales-Front, Alfonso. Issues in the Phonology and Morphology of the Major Iberian Languages. Georgetown University Press. ISBN 978-0-87840-647-0.  for more information. ^ Feldhausen 2010, p. 6. ^ Wheeler 2005, p. 2. ^ Costa Carreras 2009, p. 4. ^ a b Enciclopèdia Catalana, pp. 634–635. ^ Costa Carreras & Yates 2009, p. 5. ^ a b Central Catalan has 90% to 95% inherent intelligibility for speakers of Valencian (1989 R. Hall, Jr.), cited in Ethnologue. ^ "Dictamen de l'Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua sobre els principis i criteris per a la defensa de la denominació i l'entitat del valencià" Archived 23 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine.. Report from Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua about denomination and identity of Valencian. ^ a b Wheeler 2005, pp. 2–3. ^ Wheeler 2005, pp. 53–54. ^ a b c Wheeler 2005, p. 53. ^ Carbonell, Joan F.; Llisterri, Joaquim (1999). "Catalan". Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the Usage of the International Phonetic Alphabet. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 54–55. ISBN 978-0-521-63751-0.  ^ Recasens 1996, pp. 75–76,128–129. ^ Melchor & Branchadell 2002, p. 71. ^ a b Wheeler 2003, p. 170. ^ Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua 2005. ^ Original full text of Dictamen 1: D’acord amb les aportacions més solvents de la romanística acumulades des del segle XIX fins a l’actualitat (estudis de gramàtica històrica, de dialectologia, de sintaxi, de lexicografia…), la llengua pròpia i històrica dels valencians, des del punt de vista de la filologia, és també la que compartixen les comunitats autònomes de Catalunya i de les Illes Balears i el Principat d’Andorra. Així mateix és la llengua històrica i pròpia d’altres territoris de l’antiga Corona d’Aragó (la franja oriental aragonesa, la ciutat sarda de l’Alguer i el departament francés dels Pirineus Orientals). Els diferents parlars de tots estos territoris constituïxen una llengua, és a dir, un mateix «sistema lingüístic», segons la terminologia del primer estructuralisme (annex 1) represa en el Dictamen del Consell Valencià de Cultura, que figura com a preàmbul de la Llei de Creació de l’AVL. Dins d’eixe conjunt de parlars, el valencià té la mateixa jerarquia i dignitat que qualsevol altra modalitat territorial del sistema lingüístic, i presenta unes característiques pròpies que l’AVL preservarà i potenciarà d’acord amb la tradició lexicogràfica i literària pròpia, la realitat lingüística valenciana i la normativització consolidada a partir de les Normes de Castelló. ^ Casi el 65% de los valencianos opina que su lengua es distinta al catalán, según una encuesta del CIS ^ List of RACV academics Archived 14 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Isabel I Vilar, Ferran. "Traducció única de la Constitució europea". I-Zefir. 30 Oct 2004. 29 Apr 2009. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Enciclopèdia Catalana, p. 631. ^ a b Wheeler 2005, p. 6. ^ a b c d Wheeler 2005, p. 7. ^ a b c d e f Swan 2001, pp. 97–98. ^ Enciclopèdia Catalana, p. 630–631. ^ Fabra 1926, pp. 29–30. ^ Fabra 1926, p. 42. ^ Archaic in most dialects. ^ Fabra 1926, pp. 70–71. ^ The World Atlas of Language Structures. ^ Wheeler, Max; Yates, Alan; Dols, Nicolau (1999). Catalan: A Comprehensive Grammar. London: Routledge. ISBN 0415103428.  ^ a b Wheeler 2005, p. 8. ^ article 19.1 of Law 1/1998 stipulates that "the citizens of Catalonia have the right to use the proper regulation of their Catalan names and surnames and to introduce the conjunction between surnames" ^ a b Swan 2001, p. 112. ^ a b Collins English Dictionary. HarperCollins Publishers. 1991. ISBN 0-00-433286-5.  ^ a b c d Philip Babcock Gove, ed. (1993). Webster's Third New International Dictionary. Merriam-Webster, inc. ISBN 3-8290-5292-8. 

Bibliography[edit] Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua (9 February 2005), Dictamen sobre els principis i criteris per a la defensa de la denominació i l'entitat del valencià (in Catalan)  Bonet, Eulàlia; Mascaró, Joan (1997). "On the Representation of Contrasting Rhotics". In Martínez-Gil, Fernando; Morales-Front, Alfonso. Issues in the Phonology and Morphology of the Major Iberian Languages. Georgetown University Press. ISBN 978-0-87840-647-0.  Britton, A. Scott (2011). Catalan Dictionary & Phrasebook. New York: Hippocrene Books. ISBN 978-0781812580.  Bruguera, Jordi (2008). "Historia interna del catalán: léxico, formación de palabras y fraseología". In Ernst, Gerhard. Romanische Sprachgeschichte. 3. Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter. pp. 3045–3055.  Burke, Ulrik Ralph (1900). A History of Spain from the Earliest Times to the Death of Ferdinand the Catholic. Longmans, Green, and co. p. 154.  Carbonell, Joan F.; Llisterri, Joaquim (1992). "Catalan". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 22 (1–2): 53. doi:10.1017/S0025100300004618.  Carbonell, Joan F.; Llisterri, Joaquim (1999). "Catalan". Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the Usage of the International Phonetic Alphabet. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 54–55. ISBN 978-0-521-63751-0.  Carbonell, Joan F.; Llisterri, Joaquim (1999). "Catalan". Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the usage of the International Phonetic Alphabet. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 61–65. ISBN 0-521-63751-1.  Collins English Dictionary. HarperCollins Publishers. 1991. ISBN 0-00-433286-5.  Colón, Germà (1993). El lèxic català dins la Romània. Biblioteca Lingüística Catalana. Valencia: Universitat de València. ISBN 84-370-1327-5.  Costa Carreras, Joan; Yates, Alan (2009). The Architect of Modern Catalan: Selected Writings/Pompeu Fabra (1868–1948). Instutut d'Estudis Catalans & Universitat Pompeu Fabra & Jonh Benjamins B.V. pp. 6–7. ISBN 978 90 272 3264 9.  Fabra, Pompeu (1926). Gramàtica Catalana (in Catalan) (4th ed.). Barcelona: Institut d'Estudis Catalans.  Feldhausen, Ingo (2010). Sentential Form and Prosodic Structure of Catalan. John Benjamins B.V. ISBN 978 90 272 5551 8.  Ferrater; et al. (1973). "Català". Enciclopèdia Catalana Volum 4 (in Catalan) (1977, corrected ed.). Barcelona: Enciclopèdia Catalana. pp. 628–639. ISBN 84-85-194-04-7.  Gallego, Rosa; Sanz, Juan Carlos (2001). Diccionario Akal del color (in Spanish). Akal. ISBN 978-84-460-1083-8.  García Venero, Maximiano (2006-07-07). Historia del nacionalismo catalán: 2a edición. Ed. Nacional. Retrieved 2010-04-25.  Gove, Philip Babcock, ed. (1993). Webster's Third New International Dictionary. Merriam-Webster, inc. ISBN 3-8290-5292-8.  Guinot, Enric (1999). Els fundadors del Regne de València: replobament, antroponímia i llengua a la València medieval. Valencia: Tres i Quatre. ISBN 8475025919.  Hualde, José (1992). Catalan. Routledge. p. 368. ISBN 978-0-415-05498-0.  Jud, Jakob (1925). Problèmes de géographie linguistique romane (in French). Paris: Revue de Linguistique Romane. pp. 181–182.  Koryakov, Yuri (2001). Atlas of Romance languages. Moscow.  Lledó, Miquel Àngel (2011). "26. The Independent Standardization of Valencia: From Official Use to Underground Resistance". Handbook of Language and Ethnic Identity : The Success-Failure Continuum in Language and Ethnic Identity Efforts (Volume 2). New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 336–348. ISBN 978-0-19-539245-6.  Lloret, Maria-Rosa (April 2003). "The Phonological Role of Paradigms: The Case of Insular Catalan". Written at Amsterdam & Philadelphia. In Auger, Julie; Clements, J. Clancy; Vance, Barbara. Contemporary Approaches to Romance Linguistics: Selected Papers from the 33rd Linguistic Symposium on Romance Languages. Language. 83. Bloomington, Indiana: John Benjamins. p. 278. doi:10.1353/lan.2007.0098.  Marfany, Marta (2002). Els menorquins d'Algèria (in Catalan). Barcelona: Abadia de Montserrat. ISBN 84-8415-366-5.  Melchor, Vicent de; Branchadell, Albert (2002). El catalán: una lengua de Europa para compartir (in Spanish). Bellaterra: Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. p. 71. ISBN 84-490-2299-1.  Moll, Francesc de B. (2006) [1958]. Gramàtica Històrica Catalana (in Catalan) (Catalan ed.). Universitat de València. p. 47. ISBN 978-84-370-6412-3.  Moran, Josep (1994). Treballs de lingüística històrica catalana (in Catalan). Barcelona: Publicacions de l'Abadia de Monsterrat. pp. 55–93. ISBN 84-7826-568-6.  Moran, Josep (2004). Estudis d'història de la llengua catalana (in Catalan). Barcelona: Publicacions de l'Abadia de Montserrat. pp. 37–38. ISBN 84-8415-672-9.  Padgett, Jaye (2003). Systemic Contrast and Catalan Rhotics. University of California, Santa Cruzp=2.  Recasens, Daniel (1993). "Fonètica i Fonologia". Enciclopèdia Catalana.  Recasens, Daniel; Fontdevila, Jordi; Pallarès, Maria Dolors (1995). "Velarization Degree and Coarticulatory Resistance for /l/ in Catalan and German". Journal of Phonetics. 23 (1): 288. doi:10.1016/S0095-4470(95)80031-X.  Recasens, Daniel (1996). Fonètica descriptiva del català: assaig de caracterització de la pronúncia del vocalisme i el consonantisme català al segle XX (2nd ed.). Barcelona: Institut d'Estudis Catalans. pp. 75–76,128–129. ISBN 9788472833128.  Recasens, Daniel; Pallarès, Maria Dolors (2001). De la fonètica a la fonologia: les consonants i assimilacions consonàntiques del català. Barcelona: Editorial Ariel. ISBN 978-84-344-2884-3.  Recasens, Daniel; Espinosa, Aina (2005). "Articulatory, positional and coarticulatory characteristics for clear /l/ and dark /l/: evidence from two Catalan dialects". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 35 (1): 1, 20. doi:10.1017/S0025100305001878.  Recasens, Daniel; Espinosa, Aina (2007). "An Electropalatographic and Acoustic Study of Affricates and Fricatives in Two Catalan Dialects". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 37 (2): 145. doi:10.1017/S0025100306002829.  Riquer, Martí de (1964). "Vol.1". Història de la Literatura Catalana (in Catalan). Barcelona: Ariel.  Schlösser, Rainer (2005). Die romanischen Sprachen. Munich: C.H. Beck.  Swan, Michael (2001). Learner English: A Teacher's Guide to Interference and Other Problems, Volume 1. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521779395.  Thomas, Earl W. (1962). "The Resurgence of Catalan". Hispania. 45 (1): 43–8. doi:10.2307/337523. JSTOR 337523.  Wheeler, Max; Yates, Alan; Dols, Nicolau (1999). Catalan: A Comprehensive Grammar. London: Routledge.  Wheeler, Max (2003). "5. Catalan". The Romance Languages. London: Routledge. pp. 170–208. ISBN 0-415-16417-6.  Wheeler, Max (2005). The Phonology Of Catalan. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 54. ISBN 978-0-19-925814-7.  Wheeler, Max (2006). Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics.  Wheeler, Max (2010). "Catalan". Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World. Oxford: Elsevier. pp. 188–192. ISBN 978-0-08-087774-7.  Veny, Joan (1997). "greuges de Guitard isarn, Senyor de Caboet (1080–1095)". Homenatge a Arthur Terry. Barcelona: Publicacions de l'Abadia de Montserrat. pp. 9–18. ISBN 84-7826-894-4.  Veny, Joan (2007). Petit Atles lingüístic del domini català. 1 & 2. Barcelona: Institut d'Estudis Catalans. p. 51. ISBN 978-84-7283-942-7. 

External links[edit] Catalan edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Find more aboutCatalan languageat Wikipedia's sister projects Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Data from Wikidata This article's use of external links may not follow Wikipedia's policies or guidelines. Please improve this article by removing excessive or inappropriate external links, and converting useful links where appropriate into footnote references. (November 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Catalan language at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Institutions Consorci per a la Normalització Lingüística Institut d'Estudis Catalans Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua Secretaria de Política Lingüística de la Generalitat de Catalunya About the Catalan language Gramàtica de la Llengua Catalana (Catalan grammar) (Catalan verb conjugations with online trainers) Catalan and its dialects Monolingual dictionaries Diccionari de la Llengua Catalana, from the Institut d'Estudis Catalans Gran Diccionari de la Llengua Catalana, from Enciclopèdia Catalana Diccionari Català-Valencià-Balear d'Alcover i Moll Diccionari Valencià online Diccionari Invers de la Llengua Catalana (dictionary of Catalan words spelled backwards) Bilingual and multilingual dictionaries Diccionari de la Llengua Catalana Multilingüe from Enciclopèdia Catalana (Catalan ↔ English, French, German and Spanish) DACCO open source, collaborative dictionary (Catalan–English) Webster's Online Dictionary, The Rosetta Edition (Catalan–English) Optimot: Catalan language consults, dictionary and thesaurus of Generalitat of Catalonia Automated translation systems Traductor automated, online translations of text and web pages (Catalan ↔ English, French and Spanish) SisHiTra automated, online translations of text and web pages (Catalan–Spanish) Apertium (free software) translates text, documents or web pages, online or offline, between Catalan and Aranese, English, Esperanto, French, Occitan, Portuguese and Spanish online translations Catalan <> English and other languages Phrasebooks Catalan phrasebook on Wikivoyage Basic Catalan phrases (with audio) Catalan language with audio Learning resources Catalan Swadesh list of basic vocabulary words, from Wiktionary's Swadesh-list appendix Interc@t, set of electronic resources for learning the Catalan language and culture Learn Catalan!, an introduction for the Catalonia-bound traveler On-line Catalan resources Catalan-language online encyclopedia Enciclopèdia Catalana Linguistics v t e Romance languages (Classification) Western Ibero-Romance Galician-Portuguese Portuguese dialects European Brazilian Uruguayan African Asian Creoles Galician Eonavian/Galician-Asturian Fala Judaeo-Portuguese Caló Astur-Leonese Asturian Cantabrian Extremaduran Leonese Mirandese Spanish Spanish dialects Latin American Philippine Equatoguinean European Creoles Old Spanish Judaeo-Spanish Caló Others Navarro-Aragonese Aragonese Judaeo-Aragonese Mozarabic Occitano- Romance Catalan dialects Eastern Catalan Alguerese Balearic Central Northern Western Catalan North-Western Valencian Judaeo-Catalan Caló Occitan Auvergnat Gascon Aranese Languedocien Limousin Provençal Niçard Mentonasc Vivaro-Alpine Old Provençal Judaeo-Provençal Caló Gallo-Romance Langues d'oïl Burgundian Champenois Franc-Comtois French dialects Standard African Aostan Belgian Cambodian Canadian Indian Laotian Swiss Vietnamese Old French Middle French Judaeo-French Creoles Gallo Lorrain Norman Anglo-Norman Picard Poitevin Saintongeais Walloon Moselle Romance British Latin Others Arpitan/Franco-Provençal Valdôtain Savoyard North Italian dialects Gallo-Italic Ligurian Brigasc Genoese Intemelio Monégasque Lombard Western Eastern Emilian-Romagnol Emilian Bolognese Parmigiano Romagnol Piedmontese Judaeo-Piedmontese Gallo-Italic of Sicily Gallo-Italic of Basilicata Others Venetian Fiuman Talian Triestine Mediterranean Lingua Franca Rhaeto-Romance Rhaeto-Romance Friulian Ladin Romansh Central, Sardinian and Eastern Italo-Dalmatian Central Italian dialects Central Tuscan Corsican Gallurese Sassarese Judaeo-Italian Southern Neapolitan Northern Calabrese Sicilian Southern Calabrese Others Dalmatian Istriot Sardinian Sardinian Sardinian Campidanese Logudorese Eastern Romanian Romanian Moldovan Vlach Others Aromanian Istro-Romanian Megleno-Romanian North African North African African Romance Italics indicate extinct languages Bold indicates languages with more than 5 million speakers Languages between parentheses are varieties of the language on their left. v t e Occitano-Romance languages and dialects Arverno-Mediterranean Auvergnat Limousin Provençal (including Niçard and Mentonasc) Vivaro-Alpine Central Occitan Languedocien (excepting Southern Languedocien) Aquitano-Pyrenean Catalan Gascon (including Aranese) Southern Languedocien Other varieties Old Provençal† Judaeo-Provençal† Judaeo-Catalan† Catalan Caló v t e Catalan dialects Western Catalan North-Western Catalan Ribagorçan Valencian Eastern Catalan Northern Catalan Central Catalan Balearic Algherese Other Catalan varieties Judaeo-Catalan† Catalan Caló See also Geographic distribution of Catalan Catalan phonology Geopolitical use v t e Languages of Spain Official / national Spanish (aka Castilian) Regional / minority languages Co-official Basque Catalan / Valencian Galician Occitan Aranese Recognised Aragonese Asturian / Leonese Unrecognised languages Gomeran whistled language Hispano-Arabic Hispano-Berber Ibero-Romani Caló Erromintxela Judaeo-Spanish Varieties of the Spanish languages Cultural languages Classical Greek & Latin English French German Immigrant / expatriate languages Arabic Bulgarian Chinese English Italian French German Portuguese Romanian Russian Ukrainian, etc. Standard forms Accents Andalusian Spanish Castilian Spanish Dialects Asturian Basque Catalan / Valencian Galician Sign languages Spanish Sign Language Catalan / Valencian Sign Language v t e Languages of France Official language French Regional languages Alsatian Basque (Navarro-Lapurdian dialect, Souletin dialect) Breton Catalan (Northern Catalan dialect) Corsican Dutch (French Flemish dialect) Franco-Provençal French Sign Language Gallo Lorraine Franconian Lyons Sign Language Occitan Picard Overseas languages Ajië Drehu Guianese Futunan Guadeloupean Kibushi Martiniquan Nengone Paicî Réunion Shimaore Tahitian Wallisian Xaracuu See also Guillemet See Also: Language policy in France v t e Languages of Europe Sovereign states Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Kazakhstan Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom Vatican City States with limited recognition Abkhazia Artsakh Kosovo Northern Cyprus South Ossetia Transnistria Dependencies and other entities Åland Faroe Islands Gibraltar Guernsey Isle of Man Jersey Svalbard Other entities European Union Authority control GND: 4120218-1 BNF: cb11937940w (data) Retrieved from "" Categories: Catalan languageSubject–verb–object languagesHidden categories: Pages with reference errorsCS1 Spanish-language sources (es)Webarchive template wayback linksPages with broken reference namesUse dmy dates from July 2012Wikipedia introduction cleanup from August 2017All pages needing cleanupArticles covered by WikiProject Wikify from August 2017All articles covered by WikiProject WikifyLanguages with ISO 639-2 codeLanguages with ISO 639-1 codeLanguage articles without reference fieldArticles containing Catalan-language textArticles containing Spanish-language textAll Wikipedia articles needing clarificationWikipedia articles needing clarification from April 2014Articles to be expanded from March 2014All articles to be expandedArticles using small message boxesWikipedia articles needing clarification from July 2016Pages using div col with deprecated parametersCS1 Catalan-language sources (ca)CS1 French-language sources (fr)Wikipedia external links cleanup from November 2016Wikipedia spam cleanup from November 2016Articles with DMOZ linksWikipedia articles with GND identifiersWikipedia articles with BNF identifiers

Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog in Namespaces ArticleTalk Variants Views ReadEditView history More Search Navigation Main pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom articleDonate to WikipediaWikipedia store Interaction HelpAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact page Tools What links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkPage informationWikidata itemCite this page Print/export Create a bookDownload as PDFPrintable version In other projects Wikimedia CommonsWikibooksWikivoyage Languages AfrikaansAlemannischአማርኛÆngliscالعربيةAragonésArpetanAsturianuAvañe'ẽAzərbaycancaتۆرکجهবাংলাBân-lâm-gúБашҡортсаБеларускаяБеларуская (тарашкевіца)‎Bikol CentralБългарскиBoarischBosanskiBrezhonegCatalàCebuanoČeštinaCorsuCymraegDanskDavvisámegiellaDeutschEestiΕλληνικάEmiliàn e rumagnòlЭрзяньEspañolEsperantoEstremeñuEuskaraفارسیFiji HindiFøroysktFrançaisFryskFurlanGaeilgeGaelgGàidhligGalego𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃𐌺客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî한국어Հայերենहिन्दीHrvatskiIdoIlokanoBahasa IndonesiaInterlinguaИронIsiZuluÍslenskaItalianoעבריתBasa JawaKapampanganქართულიKaszëbscziҚазақшаKernowekKinyarwandaKiswahiliКомиKreyòl ayisyenKurdîLadinoລາວLatinaLatviešuLietuviųLigureLimburgsLumbaartMagyarМакедонскиമലയാളംMaltiमराठीმარგალურიمصرىمازِرونیBahasa MelayuМонголNāhuatlNederlandsNedersaksiesनेपाल भाषा日本語НохчийнNordfriiskNorskNorsk nynorskNouormandNovialOccitanОлык марийOʻzbekcha/ўзбекчаਪੰਜਾਬੀپنجابیភាសាខ្មែរPiemontèisPlattdüütschPolskiPortuguêsQaraqalpaqshaQırımtatarcaReo tahitiRomânăRumantschRuna SimiРусскийGagana SamoaSarduScotsSeelterskShqipSicilianuSimple EnglishSlovenčinaSlovenščinaŚlůnskiСрпски / srpskiSrpskohrvatski / српскохрватскиSuomiSvenskaTagalogதமிழ்TaqbaylitТатарча/tatarçaTetunไทยTürkçeTürkmençeУдмуртУкраїнськаئۇيغۇرچە / UyghurcheVènetoVepsän kel’Tiếng ViệtVolapükVõroWalonWest-VlamsWinarayייִדיש粵語ZazakiŽemaitėška中文 Edit links This page was last edited on 12 January 2018, at 18:38. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Contact Wikipedia Developers Cookie statement Mobile view (window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgPageParseReport":{"limitreport":{"cputime":"2.040","walltime":"2.578","ppvisitednodes":{"value":30449,"limit":1000000},"ppgeneratednodes":{"value":0,"limit":1500000},"postexpandincludesize":{"value":621436,"limit":2097152},"templateargumentsize":{"value":130434,"limit":2097152},"expansiondepth":{"value":16,"limit":40},"expensivefunctioncount":{"value":15,"limit":500},"entityaccesscount":{"value":1,"limit":400},"timingprofile":["100.00% 2123.434 1 -total"," 15.42% 327.457 199 Template:Sfn"," 13.04% 276.838 1 Template:Sisterlinks"," 12.66% 268.858 2 Template:Navboxes"," 11.73% 249.177 52 Template:Cite_book"," 11.58% 245.813 1 Template:Reflist"," 10.07% 213.729 19 Template:Navbox"," 8.80% 186.952 1 Template:Infobox_language"," 6.77% 143.771 1 Template:Languages_of_Europe"," 6.71% 142.507 1 Template:Europe_topic"]},"scribunto":{"limitreport-timeusage":{"value":"1.020","limit":"10.000"},"limitreport-memusage":{"value":26529120,"limit":52428800}},"cachereport":{"origin":"mw1261","timestamp":"20180116123834","ttl":86400,"transientcontent":true}}});});(window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgBackendResponseTime":165,"wgHostname":"mw1331"});});

Catalan_language - Photos and All Basic Informations

Catalan_language More Links

Wikipedia:Pending ChangesSS CatalaWikipedia:Manual Of Style/Lead SectionWikipedia:Summary StyleWikipedia:Manual Of Style/Lead SectionTalk:Catalan LanguageHelp:IPA/CatalanEastern CatalanHelp:IPA/CatalanWestern CatalanAndorraFranceItalySpainLanguage FamilyIndo-European LanguagesItalic LanguagesRomance LanguagesWestern Romance LanguagesGallo-Romance LanguagesOccitano-Romance LanguagesOld CatalanInstitut D'Estudis CatalansValencianAcadèmia Valenciana De La LlenguaWriting SystemLatin ScriptCatalan AlphabetCatalan BrailleManually Coded LanguageSigned CatalanAndorraAutonomous Communities Of SpainBalearic IslandsCataloniaValencian CommunityLatin UnionAlgheroSardiniaItalyAragonSpainPyrénées-OrientalesFranceList Of Language RegulatorsInstitut D'Estudis CatalansAcadèmia Valenciana De La LlenguaISO 639-1ISO 639-2ISO 639-3GlottologLinguasphere ObservatoryInternational Phonetic AlphabetInternational Phonetic AlphabetReplacement CharacterUnicodeHelp:IPAHistory Of CatalanOld CatalanCatalan GrammarCatalan OrthographyCatalan AlphabetCatalan BrailleCatalan PhonologyPhonological History Of CatalanCatalan CountriesCatalan DialectsAlgherese DialectBalearic CatalanCentral CatalanNorthern CatalanNorthwestern CatalanValencianCatalan GrammarCatalan NounsCatalan Personal PronounsCatalan VerbsCatalan ConjugationInstitut D'Estudis CatalansAcadèmia Valenciana De La LlenguaInstitut Ramon LlullFundació Ramon LlullTemplate:Catalan LanguageTemplate Talk:Catalan LanguageHelp:IPA/EnglishEndonymHelp:IPA/CatalanHelp:IPA/CatalanRomance LanguagesVulgar LatinPrincipality Of CataloniaSpainAndorraAutonomous Communities Of SpainCataloniaBalearic IslandsValencian CommunityValencianItalyAlgheroCatalan CountriesPyreneesRenaixençaCataloniaEnlargeCatalan CountriesPaïsos CatalansSpainCataloniaValencian CommunityBalearic IslandsFranceRoussillonPyreneesSardiniaItalyEnlargeCrown Of AragonJames I Of AragonCatalan CountriesCataloniaLatin LanguageMarch Of GothiaEnglish LanguageFrench LanguageHelp:IPA/EnglishHelp:IPA/EnglishHelp:IPA/EnglishEndonymValencian CommunityHistory Of CatalanEnlargeHomilies D'OrganyàEnlargeHomilies D'OrganyàEnlargeOld CatalanPhonological History Of CatalanVulgar LatinPyreneesHispania TarraconensisMuslimsCounty Of BarcelonaCarolingian EmpireMacaronic LanguageGallo-Romance LanguagesOld OccitanEbro RiverKingdom Of ValenciaBalearic IslandsAlgheroSardiniaMurciaLow Middle AgesRamon LlullAusiàs MarchValenciaCrown Of AragonMediterraneanJoanot MartorellTirant Lo BlancBernat MetgeIberian PeninsulaKingdom Of CastilleCrown Of AragonSpanish LanguageBilingualismTreaty Of The PyreneesSpainNorthern CataloniaFranceNorthern CatalanFrench LanguageFrench RevolutionFrench First RepublicAlsatian LanguageBreton LanguageOccitan LanguageFlemishBasque LanguageEnlargeEnlargeAyguatébia-TalauLanguage Policy In FranceVergonhaPatoisAlgeriaAlacantOranAlgiersNorthern CataloniaMenorcaPieds-NoirsGeneral Council Of The Pyrénées-OrientalesNueva Planta DecreesLanguage Politics In Spain Under FrancoAnti-CatalanismWar Of Spanish SuccessionNueva Planta DecreesSpanish LanguageRenaixençaBonaventura Carles AribauJacint VerdaguerNarcís OllerÀngel GuimeràCarcheProvince Of MurciaLand Of ValenciaSecond Spanish RepublicSecond Spanish RepublicFrancoist SpainSpanish Transition To DemocracyCataloniaBilingualismStateless NationStatistical Institute Of CataloniaSpanish LanguageGeneralitat De CatalunyaAndorraConstitution Of AndorraLanguage ShiftNorthern CataloniaLa BressolaAlicante ProvinceSpanish LanguageAlgheroItalian LanguageDiglossiaValencian CommunityIbizaBalearic IslandsEnlargeOccitano-RomanceIberian Romance LanguagesOccitano-Romance LanguagesGallo-Romance LanguagesRamón Menéndez PidalPierre BecRomance LanguagesItalo-Western LanguagesWestern Romance LanguagesGallo-Iberian LanguagesGallo-Romance LanguagesIberian Romance LanguagesOccitano-Romance LanguagesIberian Romance LanguagesOccitan LanguageOccitanGallo-Romance LanguagesRomance LanguagesItalian LanguageSardinian LanguageIberian PeninsulaIberian Romance LanguagesSpanish LanguagePortuguese LanguagePronunciationOccitan LanguageGallo-RomanceFrench LanguageFranco-Provençal LanguageGallo-Italian LanguagesEthnologueLadin LanguageIsoglossOccitan LanguageCampidanese DialectSardinian LanguageItalian LanguageFrench LanguageSpanish LanguagePortuguese LanguageRomanian LanguageOccitan LanguageCampidanese DialectSardinian LanguageItalian LanguageFrench LanguageSpanish LanguagePortuguese LanguageRomanian LanguageLunfardoLatinSpanish LanguageFrancoist SpainSpanish LanguageOccitan LanguageFrench LanguageTarraconensisAsturian LanguageGothic LanguageArabic LanguageCatalan CountriesNorthern CataloniaCataloniaAlgheroLa FranjaValencian CommunityCarcheSardiniaAutonomous Community Of AragonAutonomous Community Of MurciaFranceAndorraBalearic IslandsPaïsos CatalansAndorraAndorraSovereign StateNational LanguageOfficial LanguageFranceCataloniaNorthern CataloniaPyrénées-OrientalesSpainCataloniaCataloniaAran ValleyOccitan LanguageValencian CommunityValencian CommunityValencianAragonLa FranjaAragonComarcas Of AragonRibagorza/RibagorçaLliteraBaix CincaMatarranyaBalearic IslandsBalearic IslandsMallorcaMenorcaIbizaFormenteraRegion Of MurciaCarcheRegion Of MurciaItalyAlgheroProvince Of SassariSardiniaGeneralitat De CatalunyaEthnologueCataloniaSpainValencian CommunitySpainBalearic IslandsSpainCataloniaRoussillonFranceAndorraAndorraAragonLa FranjaAragonSpainAlgheroSardiniaItalyRegion Of MurciaCarcheRegion Of MurciaSpainCatalan CountriesCatalan PhonologyInternational Phonetic AlphabetInternational Phonetic AlphabetInternational Phonetic AlphabetSpecials (Unicode Block)UnicodeHelp:IPAWestern RomanceSpanish LanguageDiphthongizationLatinGalician LanguagePortuguese LanguageMonosyllabicConsonant ClusterFinal Obstruent DevoicingCentral CatalanEnlargeVowelVulgar LatinWestern Romance LanguagesSpanish LanguageBalearic DialectVowel ReductionCentral CatalanBilabial ConsonantAlveolar ConsonantDental ConsonantPalatal ConsonantVelar ConsonantNasal ConsonantBilabial NasalDental, Alveolar And Postalveolar NasalsPalatal NasalVelar NasalStop ConsonantVoicelessnessVoiceless Bilabial StopVoiceless Dental And Alveolar StopsVoiceless Palatal StopVoiceless Velar StopVoice (phonetics)Voiced Bilabial StopVoiced Dental And Alveolar StopsVoiced Palatal StopVoiced Velar StopAffricate ConsonantVoicelessnessVoiceless Alveolar Sibilant AffricateVoiceless Alveolo-palatal AffricateVoice (phonetics)Voiced Alveolar Sibilant AffricateVoiced Alveolo-palatal AffricateFricative ConsonantVoicelessnessVoiceless Labiodental FricativeVoiceless Alveolar FricativeVoiceless Alveolo-palatal FricativeVoice (phonetics)Voiced Labiodental FricativeVoiced Alveolar FricativeVoiced Alveolo-palatal FricativeApproximant ConsonantCentral ConsonantPalatal ApproximantVoiced Labio-velar ApproximantLateral ConsonantAlveolar Lateral ApproximantPalatal Lateral ApproximantFlap ConsonantAlveolar FlapTrill ConsonantAlveolar TrillWestern RomanceDark LSyllable CodaAlguereseValencianBetacismFinal-obstruent DevoicingLenitionVoiced Bilabial FricativeVoiced Dental FricativeVoiced Velar FricativeLateral ConsonantPalato-alveolar ConsonantSpanish PhonologyAlveolar TrillAlveolar FlapAlveolar TrillProsodic UnitAlveolar FlapGeminationPortuguese LanguagePhonological History Of CatalanSociolinguisticsPhilologyDialectSpanish LanguageFrench LanguageCatalan DialectsEnlargeVocabularySemanticsSyntaxMorphology (linguistics)PhonologyAlgherese DialectNorthwestern CatalanValencianCentral CatalanBalearic DialectNorthern CatalanAlgherese DialectValencian LanguageCataloniaValencian CommunityInstitut D'Estudis CatalansAcadèmia Valenciana De La LlenguaBarcelona Province (Spain)Grammatical GenderGrammatical NumberGrammatical CaseT–V DistinctionGrammatical PersonGrammatical NumberGrammatical TenseGrammatical AspectGrammatical MoodGrammatical GenderNorthwestern CatalanValencianCentral CatalanBalearic DialectNorthern CatalanAlgherese DialectSpainFranceItalyProvince Of LleidaProvince Of TarragonaLa FranjaAutonomous Community Of ValenciaProvince Of BarcelonaProvince Of TarragonaProvince Of GironaBalearic IslandsRoussillonNorthern CataloniaAlgheroSardiniaVulgar LatinWestern Romance LanguagesSpanish LanguageBalearic DialectVowel ReductionEastern CatalanAlguereseWestern CatalanProto-RomanceItalian LanguagePortuguese LanguageWikipedia:VaguenessEdit Section: MorphologyProparoxytoneCentral CatalanInstitut D'Estudis CatalansAcadèmia Valenciana De La LlenguaEnlargeUniversity Of The Balearic IslandsAlguereseWeak Pronouns In CatalanAragonLa FranjaLa FranjaWikisourceValencianValencian Language ControversyBlaverismAnti-CatalanismEnlargeWestern CatalanNorthwestern CatalanLleida ProvinceTarragona ProvinceAcadèmia Valenciana De La LlenguaValencian PeopleCataloniaBalearic IslandsPrincipality Of AndorraCrown Of AragonNormes De CastellóEuropean ConstitutionEuropean UnionBasque LanguageGalician LanguageCentral CatalanWikipedia:Please ClarifyRamon LlullLatin LanguageClassical LatinMorphological DerivationRomance LanguagesAgglutinationPrefixesWord-compoundingEnlargeEnlargeBarcelonaCatalan OrthographyABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZLatin ScriptCatalan OrthographyCataloniaCatalan GrammarRomance LanguagesDefinite ArticleIndefinite ArticleNounAdjectivePronounArticle (grammar)InflectionGrammatical GenderGrammatical NumberCase (grammar)VerbPerson (grammar)Number (grammar)Tense (grammar)Aspect (grammar)Mood (grammar)Subjunctive MoodModal AuxiliaryEnlargeGender InflectionPortuguese LanguageSpanish LanguageItalian LanguageMasculineSuffixFinal Obstruent DevoicingSuppletionOccitanPhoneticEnlargeBegur, SpainSpanish LanguageItalian LanguageCatalan Personal PronounsT–V DistinctionExtrapositionTopic–commentPassive VoiceEnglish LanguageDirect ObjectPrepositionSuffixationCatalan SyntaxWord OrderSubject–verb–objectCatalan NamesSpainManuel De PedroloManresaManresaBarracksBarracoonMiddle FrenchPaellaOld FrenchCul-de-sacFrench LanguageOccitanCucumberOld FrenchPortal:Catalan-speaking CountriesPortal:SpainPortal:AndorraPortal:FrancePortal:ItalyPortal:LanguageInstitut D'Estudis CatalansAcadèmia Valenciana De La LlenguaÒmnium CulturalPlataforma Per La LlenguaMarina AbràmovaLanguages Of CataloniaLinguistic Features Of Spanish As Spoken By Catalan SpeakersLanguages Of FranceLanguages Of ItalyLanguages Of SpainNormes De CastellóPompeu FabraIberian Romance LanguagesGlottologInternational Standard Serial NumberAcadèmia Valenciana De La LlenguaInternational Standard Serial NumberWayback MachineHelp:Cite Errors/Cite Error References No TextInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-84-460-1083-8Generalitat Of CataloniaGeneralitat Of CataloniaLanguedoc-Roussillon RegionInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-521-63751-1International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-19-925814-7International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-19-925814-7International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-415-05498-0Digital Object IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-84-344-2884-3International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-631-11621-9International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-87840-647-0Wayback MachineAcadèmia Valenciana De La LlenguaInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-521-63751-0Wayback MachineInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0415103428International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-00-433286-5Philip Babcock GoveInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/3-8290-5292-8International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-87840-647-0International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0781812580Digital Object IdentifierInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-521-63751-0International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-521-63751-1International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-00-433286-5International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/84-370-1327-5International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978 90 272 3264 9International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978 90 272 5551 8International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/84-85-194-04-7International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-84-460-1083-8Philip Babcock GoveInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/3-8290-5292-8International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/8475025919International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-415-05498-0International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-19-539245-6Digital Object IdentifierInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/84-8415-366-5International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/84-490-2299-1International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-84-370-6412-3International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/84-7826-568-6International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/84-8415-672-9Digital Object IdentifierInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9788472833128International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-84-344-2884-3Digital Object IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9780521779395Digital Object IdentifierJSTORInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-415-16417-6International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-19-925814-7International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-08-087774-7International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/84-7826-894-4International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-84-7283-942-7WikipediaWikipedia:Wikimedia Sister ProjectsWikipedia:External LinksWikipedia:What Wikipedia Is NotWikipedia:External LinksWikipedia:Citing SourcesHelp:Maintenance Template RemovalDMOZThe Rosetta EditionApertiumFree SoftwareAraneseEsperantoOccitan LanguageTemplate:Romance LanguagesTemplate Talk:Romance LanguagesRomance LanguagesClassification Of Romance LanguagesWestern Romance LanguagesIberian Romance LanguagesGalician-PortuguesePortuguese LanguagePortuguese DialectsEuropean PortugueseBrazilian PortugueseUruguayan PortuguesePortuguese Language In AfricaPortuguese Language In AsiaPortuguese-based Creole LanguagesGalician LanguageGalician-AsturianFala LanguageJudaeo-PortugueseCaló LanguageAstur-Leonese LanguagesAsturian LanguageCantabrian DialectExtremaduran LanguageLeonese DialectMirandese LanguageSpanish LanguageSpanish LanguageSpanish DialectsSpanish Language In The AmericasPhilippine SpanishEquatoguinean SpanishPeninsular SpanishSpanish-based Creole LanguagesOld Spanish LanguageJudaeo-SpanishCaló LanguageNavarro-AragoneseAragonese LanguageJudaeo-AragoneseMozarabic LanguageOccitano-Romance LanguagesCatalan DialectsEastern CatalanAlgherese DialectBalearic DialectCentral CatalanNorthern CatalanWestern CatalanNorth-Western CatalanValencianJudaeo-CatalanCaló LanguageOccitan LanguageAuvergnat DialectGascon LanguageAranese DialectLanguedocien DialectLimousin DialectProvençal DialectNiçard DialectMentonasc DialectVivaro-Alpine DialectOld ProvençalShuaditCaló LanguageGallo-Romance LanguagesLangues D'oïlBurgundian Language (Oïl)Champenois LanguageFrainc-Comtou DialectFrench LanguageFrench DialectsStandard FrenchAfrican FrenchAostan FrenchBelgian FrenchFrench Language In CambodiaCanadian FrenchIndian FrenchFrench Language In LaosSwiss FrenchFrench Language In VietnamOld FrenchMiddle FrenchZarphatic LanguageFrench-based Creole LanguagesGallo LanguageLorrain LanguageNorman LanguageAnglo-Norman LanguagePicard LanguagePoitevin DialectSaintongeais DialectWalloon LanguageMoselle RomanceBritish LatinFranco-Provençal LanguageValdôtain DialectSavoyard DialectGallo-Italic LanguagesGallo-Italic LanguagesLigurian (Romance Language)Brigasc DialectGenoese DialectIntemelio DialectMonégasque DialectLombard LanguageWestern Lombard DialectEastern Lombard DialectEmilian-Romagnol LanguageEmilian DialectBolognese DialectParmigiano DialectRomagnol DialectPiedmontese LanguageJudaeo-PiedmonteseGallo-Italic Of SicilyGallo-Italic Of BasilicataVenetian LanguageFiuman DialectTalian DialectTriestine DialectMediterranean Lingua FrancaRhaeto-Romance LanguagesRhaeto-Romance LanguagesFriulian LanguageLadin LanguageRomansh LanguageItalo-Dalmatian LanguagesSardinian LanguageEastern Romance LanguagesItalo-Dalmatian LanguagesItalian LanguageRegional ItalianCentral ItalianTuscan DialectCorsican LanguageGallurese DialectSassarese LanguageJudeo-Italian LanguagesNeapolitan LanguageLanguages Of CalabriaSicilian LanguageLanguages Of CalabriaDalmatian LanguageIstriot LanguageSardinian LanguageSardinian LanguageSardinian LanguageCampidanese DialectLogudorese DialectEastern Romance LanguagesRomanian LanguageRomanian LanguageMoldovan LanguageVlach Language In SerbiaAromanian LanguageIstro-Romanian LanguageMegleno-Romanian LanguageAfrican RomanceLanguage DeathList Of Languages By Number Of Native SpeakersVariety (linguistics)Template:Occitano-Romance Languages And DialectsTemplate Talk:Occitano-Romance Languages And DialectsOccitano-Romance LanguagesAuvergnat DialectLimousin DialectProvençal DialectNiçard DialectMentonasc DialectVivaro-Alpine DialectLanguedocien DialectLanguedocien DialectGascon DialectAranese DialectLanguedocien DialectOld ProvençalShuadit LanguageJudaeo-CatalanCatalan CalóTemplate:Catalan DialectsTemplate Talk:Catalan DialectsCatalan DialectsWestern CatalanNorth-Western CatalanRibagorçan DialectValencianEastern CatalanNorthern CatalanCentral CatalanBalearic DialectAlgherese DialectJudaeo-CatalanCaló LanguagePaïsos CatalansCatalan PhonologyTemplate:Languages Of SpainTemplate Talk:Languages Of SpainSpainLanguages Of SpainSpainSpanish LanguageNames Given To The Spanish LanguageBasque LanguageValencianGalician LanguageOccitan LanguageAranese DialectAragonese LanguageAsturian LanguageLeonese DialectSilbo GomeroCaló LanguageErromintxela LanguageJudaeo-SpanishDialectsSpanish LanguagesClassical GreekClassical LatinEnglish LanguageFrench LanguageGerman LanguageArabicBulgarian LanguageChinese LanguageEnglish LanguageItalian LanguageFrench LanguageGerman LanguagePortuguese LanguageRomanian LanguageRussian LanguageUkrainian LanguageAndalusian SpanishCastilian SpanishStandard BasqueSpanish Sign LanguageCatalan Sign LanguageValencian Sign LanguageTemplate:Languages Of FranceTemplate Talk:Languages Of FranceFranceLanguages Of FranceFranceFrench LanguageAlsatian DialectBasque LanguageNavarro-Lapurdian DialectSouletin DialectBreton LanguageNorthern CatalanCorsican LanguageFrench FlemishFranco-Provençal LanguageFrench Sign LanguageGallo LanguageLorraine FranconianLyons Sign LanguageOccitan LanguagePicard LanguageAjië LanguageDrehu LanguageGuianese CreoleFutunan LanguageAntillean Creole FrenchBushi LanguageAntillean Creole FrenchNengone LanguagePaicî LanguageRéunion CreoleMaore DialectTahitian LanguageWallisian LanguageXaracuu LanguageGuillemetLanguage Policy In FranceTemplate:Languages Of EuropeTemplate Talk:Languages Of EuropeLanguages Of EuropeLanguages Of AlbaniaLanguages Of AndorraLanguages Of ArmeniaLanguages Of AustriaLanguages Of AzerbaijanLanguages Of BelarusLanguages Of BelgiumLanguages Of Bosnia And HerzegovinaLanguages Of BulgariaLanguages Of CroatiaLanguages Of CyprusLanguages Of The Czech RepublicLanguages Of DenmarkLanguages Of EstoniaLanguages Of FinlandLanguages Of FranceLanguages Of Georgia (country)Languages Of GermanyLanguages Of GreeceLanguages Of HungaryLanguages Of IcelandLanguages Of IrelandLanguages Of ItalyLanguages Of KazakhstanLanguages Of LatviaLanguages Of LiechtensteinLanguages Of LithuaniaLanguages Of LuxembourgLanguages Of The Republic Of MacedoniaLanguages Of MaltaLanguages Of MoldovaLanguages Of MonacoLanguages Of MontenegroLanguages Of The NetherlandsLanguages Of NorwayLanguages Of PolandLanguages Of PortugalLanguages Of RomaniaLanguages Of RussiaLanguages Of San MarinoLanguages Of SerbiaLanguages Of SlovakiaLanguages Of SloveniaLanguages Of SpainLanguages Of SwedenLanguages Of SwitzerlandLanguages Of TurkeyLanguages Of UkraineLanguages Of The United KingdomLanguages Of Vatican CityLanguages Of AbkhaziaLanguages Of Nagorno-KarabakhLanguages Of KosovoLanguages Of Northern CyprusLanguages Of South OssetiaLanguages Of TransnistriaLanguages Of ÅlandLanguages Of The Faroe IslandsLanguages Of GibraltarLanguages Of The Bailiwick Of GuernseyLanguages Of The Isle Of ManLanguages Of JerseyLanguages Of SvalbardLanguages Of The European UnionHelp:Authority ControlIntegrated Authority FileBibliothèque Nationale De FranceHelp:CategoryCategory:Catalan LanguageCategory:Subject–verb–object LanguagesCategory:Pages With Reference ErrorsCategory:CS1 Spanish-language Sources (es)Category:Webarchive Template Wayback LinksCategory:Pages With Broken Reference NamesCategory:Use Dmy Dates From July 2012Category:Wikipedia Introduction Cleanup From August 2017Category:All Pages Needing CleanupCategory:Articles Covered By WikiProject Wikify From August 2017Category:All Articles Covered By WikiProject WikifyCategory:Languages With ISO 639-2 CodeCategory:Languages With ISO 639-1 CodeCategory:Language Articles Without Reference FieldCategory:Articles Containing Catalan-language TextCategory:Articles Containing Spanish-language TextCategory:All Wikipedia Articles Needing ClarificationCategory:Wikipedia Articles Needing Clarification From April 2014Category:Articles To Be Expanded From March 2014Category:All Articles To Be ExpandedCategory:Articles Using Small Message BoxesCategory:Wikipedia Articles Needing Clarification From July 2016Category:Pages Using Div Col With Deprecated ParametersCategory:CS1 Catalan-language Sources (ca)Category:CS1 French-language Sources (fr)Category:Wikipedia External Links Cleanup From November 2016Category:Wikipedia Spam Cleanup From November 2016Category:Articles With DMOZ LinksCategory:Wikipedia Articles With GND IdentifiersCategory:Wikipedia Articles With BNF IdentifiersDiscussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer

view link view link view link view link view link