Contents 1 History 2 Other names 3 College cafeteria 4 See also 5 References

History[edit] Childs Restaurant, Philadelphia, PA, circa 1908 Divided trays from an East German canteen in the late 1960s. Perhaps the first self-service restaurant (not necessarily a cafeteria) in the US was the Exchange Buffet in New York City, opened September 4, 1885, which catered to an exclusively male clientele. Food was purchased at a counter, and patrons ate standing up.[3] This represents the predecessor of two formats: the cafeteria, described below, and the automat. During the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, entrepreneur John Kruger built an American version of the smörgåsbords he had seen while traveling in Sweden. Emphasizing the simplicity and light fare, he called it the 'Cafeteria' - Spanish for 'coffee shop'. The exposition attracted over 27 million visitors (half the US population at the time) in six months, and because of Kruger's operation that America first heard the term and experienced the self-service dining format.[4][5] A high school cafeteria in Calhan, Colorado. Hospital cafeteria tray line server in Port Charlotte, Florida Meanwhile, in mid-scale America, the chain of Childs Restaurants quickly grew from about 10 locations in New York City in 1890 to hundreds across the US and Canada by 1920. Childs is credited with the innovation of adding trays and a "tray line" to the self-service format, introduced in 1898 at their 130 Broadway location.[4][5] Childs did not change its format of sit-down dining, however. This was soon the standard design for most Childs Restaurants, and many ultimately the dominant design for cafeterias. It has been conjectured that the 'cafeteria craze' started in May 1905, when Helen Mosher opened a downtown L.A. restaurant where people chose their food at a long counter and carried their trays to their tables.[6] California has a long history in the cafeteria format - notably the Boos Brothers Cafeterias, and the Clifton's, and Schaber's. The facts do not warrant the characterization that some have ascribed to the region. The earliest cafeterias in California were opened at least 12 years after Kruger's Cafeteria, and Childs already had many locations around the country. Horn & Hardart, an automat format chain (different from cafeterias), was well established in the mid-Atlantic region before 1900. Between 1960 and 1981, the popularity of cafeterias was overcome by the fast food restaurant and fast casual restaurant formats. Outside of the United States, the development of cafeterias can be observed in France as early as 1881 with the passing of the Ferry Law. This law mandated that public school education be available to all children. Accordingly, the government also encouraged schools to provide meals for students in need, thus resulting in the conception of cafeterias or cantine (in French). According to Abramson, prior to the creation of cafeterias, only some students were able to bring home-cooked meals and able to be properly fed in schools. As cafeterias in France became more popular, their use spread beyond schools and into the workforce. Thus, due to pressure from workers and eventually new labor laws, sizable businesses had to, at minimum, provide established eating areas for its workers. Support for this practice was also reinforced by the effects of World War II when the importance of national health and nutrition came under great attention.[7]

Other names[edit] Food court style cafeteria in a Port Charlotte, Florida high school A cafeteria in a U.S. military installation is known as a chow hall, a mess hall, a galley, mess decks or, more formally, a dining facility, often abbreviated to DFAC, whereas in common British Armed Forces parlance, it is known as a cookhouse or mess. Students in the USA often refer to cafeterias as lunchrooms, though breakfast as well as lunch is often eaten there.[citation needed] Some school cafeterias in the US have stages and movable seating that allow use as auditoriums. These rooms are known as cafetoriums. Cafeterias serving university dormitories are sometimes called dining halls or dining commons. A food court is a type of cafeteria found in many shopping malls and airports featuring multiple food vendors or concessions, although a food court could equally be styled as a type of restaurant as well, being more aligned with public, rather than institutionalised, dining. Some institutions, especially schools, have food courts with stations offering different types of food served by the institution itself (self-operation) or a single contract management company, rather than leasing space to numerous businesses.[8][9] Some monasteries, boarding schools, and older universities refer to their cafeteria as a refectory. Modern-day British cathedrals and abbeys, notably in the Church of England, often use the phrase refectory to describe a cafeteria open to the public. Historically, the refectory was generally only used by monks and priests. For example, although the original 800-year-old refectory at Gloucester Cathedral (the stage setting for dining scenes in the Harry Potter movies) is now mostly used as a choir practice area, the relatively modern 300-year-old extension, now used as a cafeteria by staff and public alike, is today referred to as the refectory.[10] A cafeteria located in a TV studio is often called a commissary. NBC's commissary, The Hungry Peacock, was often joked about by Johnny Carson on The Tonight Show.

College cafeteria[edit] The main dining hall of Pensacola Christian College A college canteen in India. In American English, a college cafeteria is a cafeteria intended for college students. In British English it is often called the refectory. These cafeterias can be a part of a residence hall or in a separate building.[citation needed] Many of these colleges employ their own students to work in the cafeteria.[citation needed] The number of meals served to students varies from school to school, but is normally around 21 meals per week.[citation needed] Like normal cafeterias, a person will have a tray to select the food that he or she wants, but (at some campuses) instead of paying money, pays beforehand by purchasing a meal plan.[citation needed] The method of payment for college cafeterias is commonly in the form of a meal plan, whereby the patron pays a certain amount at the start of the semester and details of the plan are stored on a computer system. Student ID cards are then used to access the meal plan. Meal plans can vary widely in their details and are often not necessary to eat at a college cafeteria. Typically, the college tracks students' usage of their plan by counting the number of predefined meal servings, points, dollars, or number of buffet dinners. The plan may give the student a certain number of any of the above per week or semester and they may or may not roll over to the next week or semester.[11] Many schools offer several different options for using their meal plans. The main cafeteria is usually where most of the meal plan is used but smaller cafeterias, cafés, restaurants, bars, or even fast food chains located on campus, on nearby streets, or in the surrounding town or city may accept meal plans. A college cafeteria system often has a virtual monopoly on the students due to an isolated location or a requirement that residence contracts include a full meal plan.[citation needed]

See also[edit] Automat Coffee service Coffeehouse Food court Hawker centre List of cafeterias Refectory Food portal Companies portal

References[edit] Look up cafeteria in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cafeterias. ^ "Cafeteria". Merriam Webster. Retrieved 2012-05-19.  ^ "Top 50 Contract Companies". Food Management Magazine. Penton. 2017-03-28. Retrieved 2017-07-04.  ^ John F. Mariani, America Eats Out, William Morrow & Co (October 1991), ISBN 978-0-688-09996-1 ^ a b Amy Zuber, "Samuel & William Childs", Nations Restaurant News, February 1996 ^ a b "A Restaurant Timeline", CuisineNet Diner's Digest, retrieved April 28, 2009 ^ Charles Perry, "The cafeteria: an L.A. original", The Los Angeles Times, November 5, 2003 ^ Abramson, Julia Luisa. Food culture in France. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2007. 122-23. Print. ^ Beach, George; Duclett, Jennifer; Engelbrecht, Kathie (August 2000). "High school food courts: A new evolution in student dining". School Planning & Management. 39 (8): 22. ISSN 1045-3970. Retrieved 2017-11-23.  ^ Stoiber, Tiffany (2017-08-23). "New food court-style Waukesha South High School cafeteria will make lunch time quicker for students". Journal Sentinel. Waukesha, Wisconsin: USA Today. Retrieved 2017-11-23.  ^ "Gloucester Cathedral". Archived from the original on 2008-07-13. Retrieved 2013-09-16.  ^ "Helping Your College Student Select a Meal Plan". collegeparents. Archived from the original on 2011-07-15.  Retrieved from "" Categories: RoomsTypes of restaurantsHidden categories: All articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from January 2013

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