Contents 1 Definition 2 Etymology 3 History 4 Cadastral surveys 5 Cadastral map 6 Cadastral documentation 7 Cadastre management 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 External links


Definition[edit] A cadastre commonly includes details of the ownership, the tenure, the precise location (therefore GNSS coordinates are not used due to errors such as multipath),[2] the dimensions (and area), the cultivations if rural, and the value of individual parcels of land. Cadastres are used by many nations around the world, some in conjunction with other records, such as a title register.[1] The International Federation of Surveyors defines cadastre as follows:[3] A Cadastre is normally a parcel based, and up-to-date land information system containing a record of interests in land (e.g. rights, restrictions and responsibilities). It usually includes a geometric description of land parcels linked to other records describing the nature of the interests, the ownership or control of those interests, and often the value of the parcel and its improvements.


Etymology[edit] The word cadastre came into English through French from Late Latin capitastrum, a register of the poll tax, and the Greek katástikhon (κατάστιχον), a list or register, from katà stíkhon (κατὰ στίχον)—literally, "down the line", in the sense of "line by line" along the directions and distances between the corners mentioned and marked by monuments in the metes and bounds. The word forms the adjective cadastral, used in public administration, primarily for ownership and taxation purposes. The terminology for cadastral divisions may include counties, parishes, ridings, hundreds, sections, lots, blocks and city blocks. Other languages have kept the original t sound in the second syllable (examples: Italian catasto, German Kataster, Slovak kataster, Czech katastr, Spanish catastro). In modern Greek, though, it has been replaced by ktimatologio (κτηματολόγιο).


History[edit] See also: Surveying § History, Cartography § History, and Topographic mapping § History Some of the earliest cadastres were ordered by Roman Emperors to recover state owned lands that had been appropriated by private individuals, and thereby recover income from such holdings. One such cadastre was done in 77 AD in Campania, a surviving stone marker of the survey reads "The Emperor Vespasian, in the eighth year of his tribunician power, so as to restore the state lands which the Emperor Augustus had given to the soldiers of Legion II Gallica, but which for some years had been occupied by private individuals, ordered a survey map to be set up with a record on each 'century' of the annual rental".[4] In this way Vespasian was able to reimpose taxation formerly uncollected on these lands.[4] With the fall of Rome the use of cadastral maps effectively discontinued. Medieval practice used written descriptions of the extent of land rather than using more precise surveys. Only in the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries did the use of cadastral maps resume, beginning in the Netherlands. With the emergence of capitalism in Renaissance Europe the need for cadastral maps reemerged as a tool to determine and express control of land as a means of production. This took place first privately in land disputes and later spread to governmental practice as a means of more precise tax assessment.[4]


Cadastral surveys[edit] Main article: Cadastral surveying BLM cadastral survey marker from 1992 in San Xavier, Arizona Cadastral surveys document the boundaries of land ownership, by the production of documents, diagrams, sketches, plans (plats in USA), charts, and maps. They were originally used to ensure reliable facts for land valuation and taxation. An example from early England is the Domesday Book in 1086. Napoleon established a comprehensive cadastral system for France that is regarded as the forerunner of most modern versions. The Public Lands Survey System is a cadastral survey of the United States originating in legislation from 1785, after international recognition of the United States. The Dominion Land Survey is a similar cadastral survey conducted in Western Canada begun in 1871 after the creation of the Dominion of Canada in 1867. Both cadastral surveys are made relative to principal meridian and baselines. These cadastral surveys divided the surveyed areas into townships, square land areas of approximately 36 square miles (six miles by six miles; some very early surveys in Ohio created 25 square mile townships when the design of the system was being explored). These townships are divided into sections, each approximately one-mile square. Unlike in Europe this cadastral survey largely preceded settlement and as a result greatly influenced settlement patterns. Properties are generally rectangular, boundary lines often run on cardinal bearings, and parcel dimensions are often in fractions or multiples of chains. Land descriptions in Western North America are principally based on these land surveys. Cadastral survey information is often a base element in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) or Land Information Systems (LIS) used to assess and manage land and built infrastructure. Such systems are also employed on a variety of other tasks, for example, to track long-term changes over time for geological or ecological studies, where land tenure is a significant part of the scenario.


Cadastral map[edit] A cadastral map is a map that shows the boundaries and ownership of land parcels. Some cadastral maps show additional details, such as survey district names, unique identifying numbers for parcels, certificate of title numbers, positions of existing structures, section or lot numbers and their respective areas, adjoining and adjacent street names, selected boundary dimensions and references to prior maps. The U.S. NOAA Coastal Services Center (CSC) has released a cadastre web tool to illustrate offshore wind power suitability of Eastern seaboard areas.[5]


Cadastral documentation[edit] Cadastral documentation comprises the documentary materials submitted to cadastre or land administration offices for renewal of cadastral recordings. Cadastral documentation is kept in paper and/or electronic form.[6] Jurisdiction statutes and further provisions specify the content and form of the documentation,[7] as well as the person(s) authorized to prepare and sign the documentation, including concerned parties (owner, etc.), licensed surveyors and legal advisors. The office concerned reviews the submitted information; if the documentation does not comply with stated provisions, the office may set a deadline for the applicant to submit complete documentation.[8][9] Despite the age of cadastre, the notion of cadastral documentation emerged late in the English language, as the institution of cadastre developed outside English-speaking countries. In a Danish textbook, one out of fifteen chapters regards the Form and content of documents concerning subdivision, etc.[10] Early textbooks of international scope focused on recordings in terms of land registration and technical aspects of cadastral survey, yet note that 'cadastral surveying has been carried out within a tight framework of legislation' (p. 28).[11][12] With the view of assessing transaction costs, a European project: Modelling real property transactions (2001-2005) charted procedures for the transfer of ownership and other rights in land and buildings.[13] Cadastral documentation is described, e.g. for Finland as follows '8. Surveyor draws up cadastral map and cadastral documents .. 10. Surveyor sends cadastral documents to cadastral authority.' [14] In Australia, similar activities are referred to as 'lodgement of plans of subdivision at land titles offices' [15]


Cadastre management[edit] Cadastre management has been used by the software industry since at least 2005[16][17]. It mainly refers to the use of technology for management of cadastre and land information in Geographic Information Systems, Spatial data infrastructures and Software architecture, rather that to general management issues of cadastral and other land information agencies [11].


See also[edit] Assessor's parcel number Boundary (real estate) Cadastral community Cadastral divisions of Australia Defter (Ottoman Empire) Estate (house) Geographic information system (GIS) Kadaster (Netherlands) Land administration Land (economics) Land grant Land tenure and registration Real property Recorder of deeds Surveying


Notes[edit] ^ a b "Cadastral Template - Field Data C4" (lists nations), CadastralTemplate.org, January 2008, webpage: CT-C4: also has term "cadastral survey" and other land records. ^ Wormley, Samuel J. "Sam Wormley's GPS Errors & Estimating Your Receiver's Accuracy". Archived from the original on 2016-03-10.  ^ FIG (1995) "The FIG Statement on the Cadastre", FIG Policy Statement, The International Federation of Surveyors (FIG), FIG PUBLICATION No 11, 1995,OCLC 38375638 fig.net ^ a b c Roger J. P. Kain and Elizabeth Baigent (1992). The Cadastral Map in the Service of the State: A History of Property Mapping. The University of Chicago Press.  ^ Offshore Wind Development - Site Suitability Prototype Archived 2012-06-12 at the Wayback Machine. National Ocean Service. Accessed: 4 February 2011. ^ Slovak Geoportal, retrieved 2016-08-02 ^ "ČÚZK - Registration into the Cadastre of Real Estate".  ^ Shala, X., Meha, M. and Ahmedi, S. (2015) Case Study of the Reforms on Laws for the Cadaster in the Republic of Kosovo. FIG Working Week 2015, Sofia, Bulgaria, 17-21 May 2015; retrieved 2016-08-04 ^ Roşu D. C., Ciolac Valeria, Colţan O. N. (2016) Some aspects of cadastral documentation necessary registration agricultural land in land book Journal of Horticulture, Forestry and Biotechnology 20 (2) 231-233 ^ Pedersen, V. E. (1951) Matrikelvæsen. København, Den kgl. Veterinær- og Landbohøjskole (Cadastral Service. Copenhagen. Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University) ^ a b Dale. P. F. & McLaughlin, J. D. (1988) Land Information Management. - An introduction with special reference to cadastral problems in Third World countries. Oxford University Press ^ Dale & McLaughlin (1999) Land Administration. Oxford University Press. ^ "COST G9: Modelling Real Property Transactions".  ^ Vitikainen, A. (2007) Transaction costs concerning real property - The case of Finland. Pp 101 - 118 in Zevenbergen, J., Frank, A., Stubkjær, E. (Eds) Real property transactions: procedures, transaction costs and models. Amsterdam, IOS Press. Page 109 ^ "Australia - CSDILA icon". Archived from the original on 2016-08-27.  ^ GIS for Cadastre Management, ESRI® GIS Technology in Europe ^ Streamline Cadastral Data Management, Thomson Reuters, Aumentum Cadastre


References[edit]  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Cadastre". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 


External links[edit] Look up cadastre or cadastral in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Cadastral Template Project, linking to descriptions of national cadastres EuroGeographics, representing National Mapping and Cadastral Agencies Permanent Committee on Cadastre in the European Union http://www.icisociety.ca/ Surveyor General Branch http://sgb.nrcan.gc.ca/ Cadastre in Romania v t e Designations for types of administrative territorial entities English terms Common English terms1 Area Insular area Local government area Protected area Special area Statistical area Combined statistical area Metropolitan statistical area Micropolitan statistical area Urban area Canton Half-canton Borough County borough Metropolitan borough Capital Federal capital Imperial capital City City state Autonomous city Charter city Independent city Incorporated city Imperial city Free imperial city Royal free city Community Autonomous community Residential community County Administrative county Autonomous county Consolidated city-county Metropolitan county Non-metropolitan Viscountcy Country Overseas country Department Overseas department District Capital district City district Congressional district Electoral district Federal district Indian government district Land district Metropolitan district Non-metropolitan district Military district Municipal district Police district Regional district Rural district Sanitary district Subdistrict Urban district Special district Division Census division Police division Subdivision Municipality County municipality Norway Nova Scotia Regional county municipality Direct-controlled municipality District municipality Mountain resort municipality Neutral municipality Regional municipality Resort municipality Rural municipality Specialized municipality Prefecture Autonomous prefecture Subprefecture Super-prefecture Praetorian prefecture Province Autonomous province Overseas province Roman province Region Administrative region Autonomous region Capital region Development region Economic region Mesoregion Microregion Overseas region Planning region Special administrative region Statistical region Subregion Reserve Biosphere reserve Ecological reserve Game reserve Indian reserve Nature reserve State Federal state Free state Sovereign state Territory Capital territory Federal capital territory Dependent territory Federal territory Military territory Organized incorporated territory Overseas territory Union territory Unorganized territory Town Census town Market town Township Charter township Civil township Paper township Survey township Urban township Unit Autonomous territorial unit Local administrative unit Municipal unit Regional unit Zone Economic zone Exclusive economic zone Free economic zone Special economic zone Free-trade zone Neutral zone Self-administered zone Other English terms Current Alpine resort Bailiwick Banner Autonomous Block Cadastre Circle Circuit Colony Commune Condominium Constituency Duchy Eldership Emirate Federal dependency Governorate Hamlet Ilkhanate Indian reservation Manor Royal Muftiate Neighbourhood Parish Periphery Precinct Principality Protectorate Quarter Regency Autonomous republic Riding Sector Autonomous Shire Sultanate Suzerainty Townland Village Administrative Summer Ward Historical Agency Barony Burgh Exarchate Hide Hundred Imperial Circle March Monthon Presidency Residency Roman diocese Seat Tenth Tithing Non-English or loanwords Current Amt Bakhsh Barangay Bezirk Regierungsbezirk Comune Frazione Fu Gemeinde Județ Kunta / kommun Finland Sweden Län Località Megye Muban Oblast Autonomous Okrug Ostān Poblacion Purok Shahrestān Sum Sýsla Tehsil Vingtaine Historical Commote Gau Heerlijkheid Köping Maalaiskunta Nome Egypt Greece Pagus Pargana Plasă Satrapy Socken Subah Syssel Zhou v t e Arabic terms for country subdivisions First-level Muhafazah (محافظة governorate) Wilayah (ولاية province) Mintaqah (منطقة region) Mudiriyah (مديرية directorate) Imarah (إمارة emirate) Baladiyah (بلدية municipality) Shabiyah (شعبية "popularate") Second / third-level Mintaqah (منطقة region) Qadaa (قضاء district) Nahiyah (ناحية subdistrict) Markaz (مركز district) Mutamadiyah (معتمدية "delegation") Daerah/Daïra (دائرة circle) Liwa (لواء banner / sanjak) City / township-level Amanah (أمانة municipality) Baladiyah (بلدية municipality) Ḥai (حي neighborhood / quarter) Mahallah (محلة) Qarya (قرية) Sheyakhah (شياخة "neighborhood subdivision") English translations given are those most commonly used. v t e French terms for country subdivisions arrondissement département préfecture subprefectures v t e Greek terms for country subdivisions Modern apokentromenes dioikiseis / geniki dioikisis§ / diamerisma§ / periphereia nomos§ / periphereiaki enotita demos / eparchia§ / koinotita§ Historical archontia/archontaton bandon demos despotaton dioikesis doukaton droungos eparchia exarchaton katepanikion kephalatikion kleisoura meris naukrareia satrapeia strategis thema toparchia tourma § signifies a defunct institution v t e Portuguese terms for country subdivisions Regional subdivisions Estado Distrito federal Província Região Distrito Comarca Capitania Local subdivisions Município Concelho Freguesia Comuna Circunscrição Settlements Cidade Vila Aldeia Bairro Lugar Historical subdivisions in italics. v t e Slavic terms for country subdivisions Current dzielnica gmina krai kraj krajina / pokrajina městys obec oblast / oblast' / oblasti / oblys / obwód / voblast' okręg okres okrug opština / općina / občina / obshtina osiedle powiat / povit raion selsoviet / silrada sołectwo voivodeship / vojvodina županija Historical darugha gromada guberniya / gubernia jurydyka khutor obshchina okolia opole pogost prowincja sorok srez starostwo / starostva uyezd volost ziemia župa v t e Spanish terms for country subdivisions National, Federal Comunidad autónoma Departamento Distrito federal Estado Provincia Región Regional, Metropolitan Cantón Comarca Comuna Corregimiento Delegación Distrito Mancomunidad Merindad Municipalidad Municipio Parroquia Ecuador Spain Urban, Rural Aldea Alquería Anteiglesia Asentamiento Asentamiento informal Pueblos jóvenes Barrio Campamento Caserío Ciudad Ciudad autónoma Colonia Lugar Masía Pedanía Población Ranchería Sitio Vereda Villa Village (Pueblito/Pueblo) Historical subdivisions in italics. v t e Turkish terms for country subdivisions Modern il (province) ilçe (district) şehir (city) kasaba (town) belediye (municipality) belde (community) köy (village) mahalle (neighbourhood/quarter) Historical ağalık (feudal district) bucak (subdistrict) beylerbeylik (province) kadılık (subprovince) kaza (sub-province) hidivlik (viceroyalty) mutasarrıflık (subprovince) nahiye (nahiyah) paşalık (province) reya (Romanian principalities) sancak (prefecture) vilayet (province) voyvodalık (Romanian provinces) 1 Used by ten or more countries or having derived terms. Historical derivations in italics. See also: Census division, Electoral district, Political division, and List of administrative divisions by country Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cadastre&oldid=823462111" Categories: Map typesReal estateSurveyingHidden categories: Webarchive template wayback linksArticles containing Ancient Greek-language textArticles containing Italian-language textArticles containing German-language textArticles containing Slovak-language textArticles containing Czech-language textArticles containing Spanish-language textArticles containing Greek-language textPages using div col without cols and colwidth parametersPages using Columns-list with deprecated parametersWikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource referenceWikipedia articles incorporating text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica


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