Contents 1 History 1.1 Types 1.2 Modern history 2 Features 2.1 Provost 2.2 Bailies 2.3 Burgesses 2.4 Dean of Guild 2.5 Trading privileges 3 Etymology 4 Linguistics 4.1 England 4.2 Scotland 4.3 Other 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References


History[edit] The first burgh was Berwick. By 1130, David I (r. 1124–53) had established other burghs including Edinburgh, Stirling, Dunfermline, Perth, Dumfries, Jedburgh, Montrose and Lanark.[1] Most of the burghs granted charters in his reign probably already existed as settlements. Charters were copied almost verbatim from those used in England,[2] and early burgesses usually invited English and Flemish settlers.[3] They were able to impose tolls and fines on traders within a region outside their settlements.[3] Most of the early burghs were on the east coast, and among them were the largest and wealthiest, including Aberdeen, Berwick, Perth and Edinburgh, whose growth was facilitated by trade with other North Sea ports on the continent, in particular in the Low Countries, as well as ports on the Baltic Sea. In the south-west, Glasgow, Ayr and Kirkcudbright were aided by the less profitable sea trade with Ireland and to a lesser extent France and Spain.[4] Reverse side of the burgh seal of Crail, a Fife fishing port Burghs were typically settlements under the protection of a castle and usually had a market place, with a widened high street or junction, marked by a mercat cross, beside houses for the burgesses and other inhabitants.[3] The founding of 16 royal burghs can be traced to the reign of David I (1124–53)[5] and there is evidence of 55 burghs by 1296.[6] In addition to the major royal burghs, the late Middle Ages saw the proliferation of baronial and ecclesiastical burghs, with 51 created between 1450 and 1516. Most of these were much smaller than their royal counterparts. Excluded from foreign trade, they acted mainly as local markets and centres of craftsmanship.[4] Burghs were centres of basic crafts, including the manufacture of shoes, clothes, dishes, pots, joinery, bread and ale, which would normally be sold to "indwellers" and "outdwellers" on market days.[3] In general, burghs carried out far more local trading with their hinterlands, on which they relied for food and raw materials, than trading nationally or abroad.[7] Burghs had rights to representation in the Parliament of Scotland. Under the Acts of Union of 1707 many became parliamentary burghs, represented in the Parliament of Great Britain. Under the Reform Acts of 1832, 32 years after the merger of the Parliament of Great Britain into the Parliament of the United Kingdom, the boundaries of burghs for parliamentary elections ceased to be necessarily their boundaries for other purposes. Types[edit] There were several types of burgh, including; Royal burgh, founded by Royal charter. Burgh of regality, granted to a nobleman or "lord of regality". Burgh of barony, granted to a tenant-in-chief, with narrower powers. Parliamentary burgh or Burgh constituency, a type of parliamentary constituency. Police burgh, a burgh operating a "police system" of town government. Modern history[edit] A sign in Linlithgow, Scotland Until 1833, each burgh had a different constitution or "sett". The government of the burgh was often in the hands of a self-nominating corporation, and few local government functions were performed: these were often left to ad hoc bodies. Two pieces of reforming legislation were enacted in 1834: The Royal Burghs (Scotland) Act (3 & 4 Will. IV c. 76) and the Burghs and Police (Scotland) Act (3 & 4 Will. IV c.46). The Royal Burghs Act provided for the election of magistrates and councillors. Each burgh was to have a common council consisting of a provost (or lord provost), magistrates (or bailies) and councillors. Every parliamentary elector living within the "royalty" or area of the royal burgh, or within seven statute miles of its boundary, was entitled to vote in burgh elections. One third of the common council was elected each year. The councillors selected a number of their members to be bailies, who acted as a magistrates bench for the burgh and dealt with such issues as licensing. The provost, or chief magistrate, was elected from among the council every three years.[8] The Royal Burghs Act was also extended to the 12 parliamentary burghs which had recently been enfranchised. These were growing industrial centres, and apart from the lack of a charter, they had identical powers and privileges to the royal burghs.[9] Royal Burghs retained the right to corporate property or "common good". This property was used for the advantage of the inhabitants of the burgh, funding such facilities as public parks, museums and civic events. The Burghs and Police Act allowed the inhabitants of Royal Burghs, Burghs of Regality and of Barony to adopt a "police system". "Police" in this sense did not refer to law enforcement, but to various local government activities summarised in the Act as "paving, lighting, cleansing, watching, supplying with water, and improving such Burghs respectively, as may be necessary and expedient".[10] The Act could be adopted following its approval in a poll of householders in the burgh. Burghs reformed or created under this and later legislation became known as police burghs. The governing body of a police burgh were the police commissioners. The commissioners were elected by the existing town council of the burgh, not by the electorate at large. The town council of a burgh could by a three-quarters majority become police commissioners for the burgh. In many cases this led to the existence of two parallel burgh administrations, the town council and the police commissioners, each with the same membership, but separate legal identity and powers.[9] Further legislation in 1850 allowed "populous places" other than existing burghs to become police burghs.[11] In 1893, most of the anomalies in the administration of burghs were removed: police commissioners were retitled as councillors and all burghs were to consist of a single body corporate, ending the existence of parallel burghs. All burghs of barony and regality that had not adopted a police system were abolished. Councils were to be headed by a chief magistrate using the "customary title" of the burgh.[12] In 1900, the chief magistrate of every burgh was to be known as the provost - except in burghs granted a Lord Provost. The last major legislation to effect burghs came into effect in 1930. The Local Government (Scotland) Act 1929 divided burghs into three classes: "Counties of cities": the four largest royal burghs, they combined the powers of a burgh and county council. "Large burghs": independent of the county council except in major services such as police and education. "Small burghs": performing minor local government functions such as street-cleaning, housing, lighting and drainage.. The Local Government (Scotland) Act 1973 formally abolished burghs. Section 1(5) of the Act stated: On 16 May 1975, all local government areas existing immediately before that date, that is to say, all counties, counties of cities, large burghs, small burghs and districts, shall cease to exist, and the council of every such area shall also cease to exist.[13] The use of the title continues in informal use, however. The common good properties and funds of the royal burghs continue to exist. They are administered by the present area councils, who must make "have regard to the interests of the inhabitants of the area to which the common good formerly related". The use of these assets are to be for the benefit of the inhabitants of the former burgh.[14] Any person or body holding the honorary freedom of any place... formerly having the status of a city, burgh or royal burgh continued to enjoy that status after the 1975 reorganisation.[15]


Features[edit] Provost[edit] The Council Chamber in Leith which ceased to be an autonomous burgh in 1920 The chief magistrate or convener of a burgh, equivalent to a mayor, was called a provost. Many different titles were in use until the Town Councils (Scotland) Act 1900 standardised the term as "provost", except in cities with a lord provost. Since 1975 local authorities have been free to choose the title of their convener and provosts are appointed to chair a number of area and community councils. Bailies[edit] Under the provost were magistrates or baillies who both acted as councillors, and in the enforcement of laws. As well as general tasks, they often had specific tasks such as inspecting wine, or ale, or other products sold at market. The title of bailie ceased to have any statutory meaning in 1975, although modern area councils do sometimes make appointments to the office on a purely ceremonial basis. For example, Glasgow City Council grants the title in an honorary capacity to senior councillors, while Stirling Council appoints four bailies to act in lieu of the provost in specific geographical areas.[16][17] Burgesses[edit] A resident granted the rights of a "freeman" of the burgh, was styled a burgess (pl. burgesses), a title also used in English boroughs. These freemen and their wives were a class which did not include dependants (e.g. apprentices) and servants, though they were not guaranteed to be wealthy. Dean of Guild[edit] This was a title held by one of the bailies of the burgh who presided over a Dean of Guild Court which was given the specific duty of building control. The courts were abolished in 1975, with building regulation transferred to the relevant local authority.[18] Appointments to the office of Dean of Guild are still made in some areas: for instance the Lord Dean of Guild of Glasgow is described as the "second citizen of Glasgow" after the Lord Provost although the appointment is in the hands of the Merchants House of Glasgow, and not the city council.[16][19] Trading privileges[edit] Early Burghs were granted the power to trade, which allowed them to control trade until the 19th century. The population of burgesses could be roughly divided between merchants and craftsmen, and the tensions between the interests of the two classes was often a feature of the cities. Craftsmen were usually organised into guilds. Merchants also had a guild, but many merchants did not belong to it, and it would be run by a small group of the most powerful merchants. The class of merchants included all traders, from stall-holders and pack-men to shop-holders and traders of considerable wealth.[citation needed]


Etymology[edit] As used in this article, the Scots language word burgh is derived from the Old English Burh. In Scotland it refers to corporate entities whose legality is peculiar to Scotland. (Scottish law was protected and preserved as distinct from laws of England under the Acts of Union of 1707.) Pronunciation is the same as the English language word borough, which is a near cognate of the Scots word. The identical English word Burgh (in place names such as Bamburgh, Carrawburgh and Dunstanburgh) sounds exactly like the Scots Burgh, with the emphasis on the 'r'[clarification needed]. Another variant pronunciation, /brʌf/ ( listen), is heard in several Cumbrian place names, e.g. Burgh by Sands, Longburgh, Drumburgh, Mayburgh Henge. The English language borough, like the Scots Burgh, is derived from the same Old English language word burh (whose dative singular and nominative/accusative plural form byrig sometimes underlies modern place-names, and which had dialectal variants including "burg"; it was also sometimes confused with beorh, beorg, 'mound, hill', on which see Hall 2001, 69-70). The Old English word was originally used for a fortified town or proto-castle (e.g. at Dover Castle or Burgh Castle) and was related to the verb beorgan (cf. Dutch and German bergen), meaning "to keep, save, make secure". In the German language, Burg means castle or fortress, though so many towns grew up around castles that it almost came to mean city, and is incorporated into many placenames, such as Hamburg, Flensburg and Strasburg. The word has cognates, or near cognates, in other Germanic languages. For example, burg in German, and borg in both Danish and Swedish. The equivalent word is also to be found in Frisian, Dutch, Norwegian, and Icelandic. Burgh in placenames is found in its greatest UK concentration in the East Anglia region of southern England, where also the word has taken the form bury, as in Canterbury.[20] A number of other European languages have cognate words which were borrowed from the Germanic languages during the Middle Ages, including brog in Irish, bwr or bwrc, meaning "wall, rampart" in Welsh, bourg in French, borgo in Italian, and burgo in Spanish (hence the place-name Burgos). The most obviously derivative words are burgher in English, Bürger in German or burger in Dutch (literally citizen, with connotations of middle-class in English and other Germanic languages). Also related are the words bourgeois and belfry (both from the French), and burglar. More distantly, it is related to words meaning hill or mountain in a number of languages (cf. the second element of iceberg).[21]


Linguistics[edit] Burgh is commonly used as a suffix in place names in Great Britain, particularly Scotland and northern England, and other places where Britons settled, examples: England[edit] Examples: Alburgh Aldeburgh Bamburgh Barnburgh Bawburgh Blythburgh Burghfield Brackenburgh Carrawburgh Chedburgh Dickleburgh Dunburgh Drumburgh Dunstanburgh Fleggburgh Flookburgh Grundisburgh Happisburgh Hoo St Werburgh Ickburgh Kettleburgh Knobersburgh Longburgh Mayburgh Henge Muckleburgh Hill Nassaburgh Hundred Newburgh (disambiguation) Oxburgh Hall Pedlersburgh Petersburgh, (Cumbria) Rumburgh Ryburgh Shuckburgh Smallburgh Southburgh St Werburghs Tasburgh Whinburgh Winfrith Newburgh Happisburgh Yarburgh Yorburgh Scotland[edit] Branderburgh Dryburgh Edinburgh Fraserburgh Helensburgh Jedburgh Leverburgh Maryburgh Musselburgh Newburgh (disambiguation) Osnaburgh Roxburgh Salsburgh Winchburgh Williamsburgh Kingsburgh, Skye Other[edit] Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States Plattsburgh, New York, United States Newburgh, New York, United States Edinburgh, Indiana, United States Edithburgh, South Australia Louisburgh, County Mayo, Ireland And as a placename on its own, in the West Germanic countries: Burgh, Renfrewshire, Scotland Burgh (Netherlands) - a town in the Netherlands in the municipality of Schouwen-Duiveland. Burgh, Suffolk, England Burgh by Sands, Cumbria, England (pronounced Bruff by Sands) Burgh Castle, Suffolk, England Burgh le Marsh, Lincolnshire, England Burgh on Bain, Lincolnshire, England Burgh Island, Devon, England Burgh next Aylsham, Norfolk, England Burgh St Margaret, Norfolk, England Burgh St Peter, Norfolk, England Burgh Hill, (Wealdon), Sussex Burgh Hill, (Rother), Sussex Burgh Heath, Surrey


See also[edit] Borough Convention of Royal Burghs Five Burghs List of burghs in Scotland List of UK place names with royal patronage Royal burgh v t e Designations for types of administrative territorial entities English terms Common English terms1 Area Insular area Local government area Protected area Special area Statistical area Combined statistical area Metropolitan statistical area Micropolitan statistical area Urban area Canton Half-canton Borough County borough Metropolitan borough Capital Federal capital Imperial capital City City state Autonomous city Charter city Independent city Incorporated city Imperial city Free imperial city Royal free city Community Autonomous community Residential community County Administrative county Autonomous county Consolidated city-county Metropolitan county Non-metropolitan Viscountcy Country Overseas country Department Overseas department District Capital district City district Congressional district Electoral district Federal district Indian government district Land district Metropolitan district Non-metropolitan district Military district Municipal district Police district Regional district Rural district Sanitary district Subdistrict Urban district Special district Division Census division Police division Subdivision Municipality County municipality Norway Nova Scotia Regional county municipality Direct-controlled municipality District municipality Mountain resort municipality Neutral municipality Regional municipality Resort municipality Rural municipality Specialized municipality Prefecture Autonomous prefecture Subprefecture Super-prefecture Praetorian prefecture Province Autonomous province Overseas province Roman province Region Administrative region Autonomous region Capital region Development region Economic region Mesoregion Microregion Overseas region Planning region Special administrative region Statistical region Subregion Reserve Biosphere reserve Ecological reserve Game reserve Indian reserve Nature reserve State Federal state Free state Sovereign state Territory Capital territory Federal capital territory Dependent territory Federal territory Military territory Organized incorporated territory Overseas territory Union territory Unorganized territory Town Census town Market town Township Charter township Civil township Paper township Survey township Urban township Unit Autonomous territorial unit Local administrative unit Municipal unit Regional unit Zone Economic zone Exclusive economic zone Free economic zone Special economic zone Free-trade zone Neutral zone Self-administered zone Other English terms Current Alpine resort Bailiwick Banner Autonomous Block Cadastre Circle Circuit Colony Commune Condominium Constituency Duchy Eldership Emirate Federal dependency Governorate Hamlet Ilkhanate Indian reservation Manor Royal Muftiate Neighbourhood Parish Periphery Precinct Principality Protectorate Quarter Regency Autonomous republic Riding Sector Autonomous Shire Sultanate Suzerainty Townland Village Administrative Summer Ward Historical Agency Barony Burgh Exarchate Hide Hundred Imperial Circle March Monthon Presidency Residency Roman diocese Seat Tenth Tithing Non-English or loanwords Current Amt Bakhsh Barangay Bezirk Regierungsbezirk Comune Frazione Fu Gemeinde Județ Kunta / kommun Finland Sweden Län Località Megye Muban Oblast Autonomous Okrug Ostān Poblacion Purok Shahrestān Sum Sýsla Tehsil Vingtaine Historical Commote Gau Heerlijkheid Köping Maalaiskunta Nome Egypt Greece Pagus Pargana Plasă Satrapy Socken Subah Syssel Zhou v t e Arabic terms for country subdivisions First-level Muhafazah (محافظة governorate) Wilayah (ولاية province) Mintaqah (منطقة region) Mudiriyah (مديرية directorate) Imarah (إمارة emirate) Baladiyah (بلدية municipality) Shabiyah (شعبية "popularate") Second / third-level Mintaqah (منطقة region) Qadaa (قضاء district) Nahiyah (ناحية subdistrict) Markaz (مركز district) Mutamadiyah (معتمدية "delegation") Daerah/Daïra (دائرة circle) Liwa (لواء banner / sanjak) City / township-level Amanah (أمانة municipality) Baladiyah (بلدية municipality) Ḥai (حي neighborhood / quarter) Mahallah (محلة) Qarya (قرية) Sheyakhah (شياخة "neighborhood subdivision") English translations given are those most commonly used. v t e French terms for country subdivisions arrondissement département préfecture subprefectures v t e Greek terms for country subdivisions Modern apokentromenes dioikiseis / geniki dioikisis§ / diamerisma§ / periphereia nomos§ / periphereiaki enotita demos / eparchia§ / koinotita§ Historical archontia/archontaton bandon demos despotaton dioikesis doukaton droungos eparchia exarchaton katepanikion kephalatikion kleisoura meris naukrareia satrapeia strategis thema toparchia tourma § signifies a defunct institution v t e Portuguese terms for country subdivisions Regional subdivisions Estado Distrito federal Província Região Distrito Comarca Capitania Local subdivisions Município Concelho Freguesia Comuna Circunscrição Settlements Cidade Vila Aldeia Bairro Lugar Historical subdivisions in italics. v t e Slavic terms for country subdivisions Current dzielnica gmina krai kraj krajina / pokrajina městys obec oblast / oblast' / oblasti / oblys / obwód / voblast' okręg okres okrug opština / općina / občina / obshtina osiedle powiat / povit raion selsoviet / silrada sołectwo voivodeship / vojvodina županija Historical darugha gromada guberniya / gubernia jurydyka khutor obshchina okolia opole pogost prowincja sorok srez starostwo / starostva uyezd volost ziemia župa v t e Spanish terms for country subdivisions National, Federal Comunidad autónoma Departamento Distrito federal Estado Provincia Región Regional, Metropolitan Cantón Comarca Comuna Corregimiento Delegación Distrito Mancomunidad Merindad Municipalidad Municipio Parroquia Ecuador Spain Urban, Rural Aldea Alquería Anteiglesia Asentamiento Asentamiento informal Pueblos jóvenes Barrio Campamento Caserío Ciudad Ciudad autónoma Colonia Lugar Masía Pedanía Población Ranchería Sitio Vereda Villa Village (Pueblito/Pueblo) Historical subdivisions in italics. v t e Turkish terms for country subdivisions Modern il (province) ilçe (district) şehir (city) kasaba (town) belediye (municipality) belde (community) köy (village) mahalle (neighbourhood/quarter) Historical ağalık (feudal district) bucak (subdistrict) beylerbeylik (province) kadılık (subprovince) kaza (sub-province) hidivlik (viceroyalty) mutasarrıflık (subprovince) nahiye (nahiyah) paşalık (province) reya (Romanian principalities) sancak (prefecture) vilayet (province) voyvodalık (Romanian provinces) 1 Used by ten or more countries or having derived terms. Historical derivations in italics. See also: Census division, Electoral district, Political division, and List of administrative divisions by country


Notes[edit] ^ J Mackay, The Convention of Royal Burghs of Scotland, From its Origin down to the Completion of the Treaty of Union between England and Scotland in 1707, Co-operative Printing Co. Ltd, Edinburgh 1884, p.2 ^ G. W. S. Barrow, Kingship and Unity: Scotland 1000-1306 (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1989), ISBN 074860104X, p. 98. ^ a b c d A. MacQuarrie, Medieval Scotland: Kinship and Nation (Thrupp: Sutton, 2004), ISBN 0-7509-2977-4, pp. 136-40. ^ a b R. Mitchison, A History of Scotland (London: Routledge, 3rd edn., 2002), ISBN 0415278805, p. 78. ^ K. J. Stringer, "The Emergence of a Nation-State, 1100-1300", in J. Wormald, ed., Scotland: A History (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005), ISBN 0198206151, pp. 38-76. ^ B. Webster, Medieval Scotland: the Making of an Identity (St. Martin's Press, 1997), ISBN 0333567617, pp. 122-3. ^ J. Wormald, Court, Kirk, and Community: Scotland, 1470-1625 (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1991), ISBN 0748602763, pp. 41-55. ^ Royal Burghs (Scotland) Act, 1833 (c.76) ^ a b Mabel Atkinson, The Organisation of Local Government in Scotland, Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 18, No. 1. (March, 1903), pp. 59-87. ^ Burghs and Police Act (3 & 4 Will.IV c.46) ^ Police (Scotland) Act 1850 (13 & 14 Vict. c.33) ^ Burgh Police (Scotland) Act 1892 (1892 c.55) ^ Local Government (Scotland) Act 1973 (1973 c.65) ^ Report on the Stirling Burgh Common Good Fund, 9 October 1997 ^ The Local Government Area Changes (Scotland) Regulations 1977 (1977 No. 8) (S. 1) ^ a b "Lord Provost and Bailies". Glasgow City Council. 28 March 2007. Archived from the original on 15 September 2009. Retrieved 24 August 2009.  ^ "Stirling's New Bailies". Stirling Council. 13 May 2008. Retrieved 24 August 2009. [permanent dead link] ^ "Local Government (Scotland) Act 1973 (c. 65) s.227". UK Statute Law Database. Office of Public Sector Information. 1975. Retrieved 24 August 2009.  ^ "About the Merchants House of Glasgow". Merchants House of Glasgow. Archived from the original on 13 May 2008. Retrieved 24 August 2009.  ^ Stewart 1967:193 ^ "Wörterbuchnetz". 


References[edit] Hall, Alaric, 'Old MacDonald had a Fyrm, eo, eo, y: Two Marginal Developments of < eo > in Old and Middle English', Quaestio: Selected Proceedings of the Cambridge Colloquium in Anglo-Saxon, Norse and Celtic, 2 (2001), 60-90.  Smith, William Charles (1878), "Borough", in Baynes, T.S., Encyclopædia Britannica, 4 (9th ed.), New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, pp. 62–64   Smith, William Charles; Bateson, Mary (1911), "Borough", in Chisholm, Hugh, Encyclopædia Britannica, 4 (11th ed.), Cambridge University Press, pp. 268–273  Stewart, George R. (1967) Names on the Land. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Burgh&oldid=804600636" Categories: BurghsTypes of subdivision in the United KingdomHidden categories: All articles with dead external linksArticles with dead external links from July 2017Articles with permanently dead external linksAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from August 2009Wikipedia articles needing clarification from January 2014Articles with hAudio microformatsArticles including recorded pronunciations (English)Pages using div col with deprecated parametersWikipedia articles incorporating a citation from EB9Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference


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Subdivision)BakhshBarangayBezirkRegierungsbezirkComuneFrazioneFu (country Subdivision)GemeindeJudețMunicipalities Of FinlandMunicipalities Of SwedenLänLocalitàCounties Of HungaryMubanOblastAutonomous OblastOkrugProvinces Of IranPoblacionPurokCounties Of IranSum (country Subdivision)SýslaTehsilVingtaineCommoteGau (territory)HeerlijkheidKöpingMaalaiskuntaNome (Egypt)Prefectures Of GreecePagusParganaPlasăSatrapSockenSubahSysselZhou (country Subdivision)Template:Arabic Terms For Country SubdivisionsTemplate Talk:Arabic Terms For Country SubdivisionsArabicAdministrative DivisionMuhafazahWilayahMintaqahMudiriyahEmirateBaladiyahShabiyahMintaqahKazaNahiyahMarkaz (country Subdivision)MutamadiyahDaerahDaïraSanjakSanjakAmanah (administrative Subdivision)BaladiyahMahallahVillageSheyakhahTemplate:French Terms For Country SubdivisionsTemplate Talk:French Terms For Country SubdivisionsFrench LanguageAdministrative DivisionArrondissementDepartment (country Subdivision)Prefectures In 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SubdivisionsSlavic LanguagesAdministrative DivisionDzielnicaGminaKraiKrajKrajinaMěstysObecOblastOkręgOkresOkrugOpštinaOsiedlePowiatRaionSelsovietSołectwoVoivodeshipŽupanijaDarughaGromadaGuberniyaJurydykaKhutorObshchinaOkoliaOpole (administrative)PogostProwincjaSorokSrezStarostwoUyezdVolostZiemiaŽupaTemplate:Spanish Terms For Country SubdivisionsTemplate Talk:Spanish Terms For Country SubdivisionsSpanish LanguageAdministrative DivisionAutonomous Communities Of SpainDepartamentoDistrito FederalState (polity)ProvinceRegionCanton (country Subdivision)ComarcaCommunes Of ChileCorregimientoBoroughs Of MexicoDistrictMancomunidadMerindadMunicipalidadMunicipioParroquiaParishes Of EcuadorParroquia (Spain)Hamlet (place)AlqueriaElizateAsentamientoShanty TownPueblos JóvenesBarrioCampamento (Chile)Hamlet (place)CityAutonomous CityColonia (Mexico)Lugar (country Subdivision)MasiaPoblacionRancheríaSitioVeredaVillaVillageTemplate:Turkish Terms For Country SubdivisionsTemplate Talk:Turkish Terms For Country SubdivisionsTurkish LanguageAdministrative DivisionProvinces Of TurkeyIlçeCityTownBelediyeBeldeKöyMahalleAgalukBucak (administrative Unit)EyaletKadilukKazaKhedivate Of EgyptMutasarrıfNahiyaPashalikRaya (country Subdivision)SanjakVilayetVoivodeshipCensus DivisionElectoral DistrictPolitical DivisionList Of Administrative Divisions By CountryInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/074860104XInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-7509-2977-4International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0415278805International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0198206151International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0333567617International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0748602763Wikipedia:Link RotOffice Of Public Sector InformationWilliam Charles SmithEncyclopædia BritannicaWilliam Charles SmithMary BatesonEncyclopædia Britannica Eleventh EditionGeorge R. 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