Contents 1 Europe 2 North America 3 Asia 4 Digital terrestrial television 5 Competition for radio spectrum 6 See also 7 References 8 External links


Europe[edit] Following the ST61 conference, UHF frequencies were first used in the UK in 1964 with the introduction of BBC2. In UK, VHF channels were kept on the old 405-line system, while UHF was used solely for 625-line broadcasts (which later used PAL colour). Television broadcasting in the 405-line system continued after the introduction of four analogue programmes in the UHF bands until the last 405-line transmitters were switched off on January 6, 1985. VHF Band III was used in other countries around Europe for PAL broadcasts until planned phase out and switchover to digital television. The success of analogue terrestrial television across Europe varied from country to country. Although each country had rights to a certain number of frequencies by virtue of the ST61 plan, not all of them were brought into service.


North America[edit] In 1941, the first NTSC standard was introduced by the National Television System Committee. This standard defined a transmission scheme for a black and white picture with 525 lines of vertical resolution at 60 fields per second. In the early 1950s, this standard was superseded by a backwards-compatible standard for color television. The NTSC standard was used in the Americas as well as Japan until the introduction of digital television.[4] In the late 1990s and early 2000s, the Advanced Television Systems Committee developed the ATSC standard for digital high definition terrestrial transmission. This standard was eventually adopted by many North American countries, including the United States, Canada, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Mexico.[5] [6] North American terrestrial broadcast television operates on analog channels 2 through 6 (VHF-low band, 54 to 88 MHz, known as band I in Europe), 7 through 13 (VHF-high band, 174 to 216 MHz, known as band III elsewhere), and 14 through 51 (UHF television band, 470 to 698 MHz, elsewhere bands IV and V). Unlike with analog transmission, ATSC channel numbers do not correspond to radio frequencies. Instead, a virtual channel is defined as part of the ATSC stream metadata so that a station can transmit on any frequency but still show the same channel number.[7] Additionally, broadcast translators and signal boosters can be used to rebroadcast a terrestrial television signal using an otherwise unused channel to cover areas with marginal reception. (see North American broadcast television frequencies for frequency allocation charts)[8] Analog television channels 2 through 6, 7 through 13, and 14 through 51 are only used for LPTV translator stations in the U.S. Channels 52 through 69 are still used by some existing stations, but these channels must be vacated if telecommunications companies notify the stations to vacate that signal spectrum.


Asia[edit] This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (November 2010) Terrestrial television broadcast in Asia started as early as 1939 in Japan through a series of experiments done by NHK Broadcasting Institute of Technology. However, these experiments were interrupted by the beginning of the World War II in the Pacific. On February 1, 1953, NHK (Japan Broadcasting Corporation) began broadcasting. On August 28, 1953, Nippon TV (Nippon Television Network Corporation), the first commercial television broadcaster in Asia was launched. Meanwhile, in the Philippines, Alto Broadcasting System (now ABS-CBN), the first commercial television broadcaster in Southeast Asia, launched its first commercial terrestrial television station DZAQ-TV on October 23, 1953, with the help of Radio Corporation of America (RCA).


Digital terrestrial television[edit] Main article: Digital terrestrial television This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (December 2014) By the mid-1990s, the interest in digital television across Europe was such the CEPT convened the "Chester '97" conference to agree means by which digital television could be inserted into the ST61 frequency plan. The introduction of digital television in the late 1990s and early years of the 21st century led the ITU to call a Regional Radiocommunication Conference to abrogate the ST61 plan and to put a new plan for digital broadcasting only in its place. In December 2005, the European Union decided to cease all analog audio and analog video television transmissions by 2012 and switch all terrestrial television broadcasting to digital audio and digital video (all EU countries have agreed on using DVB-T). The Netherlands completed the transition in December 2006, and some EU member states decided to complete their switchover as early as 2008 (Sweden), and (Denmark) in 2009. While the UK began the switch in late 2007, it was not completed until 24 October 2012. Norway ceased all analogue television transmissions on December 1, 2009.[9] Two member states (not specified in the announcement) have expressed concerns that they might not be able to proceed to the switchover by 2012 due to technical limitations; the rest of the EU member states had stopped analog television transmissions by the end 2012. Many countries are developing and evaluating digital terrestrial television systems. Australia has adopted the DVB-T standard and the government's industry regulator, the Australian Communications and Media Authority, has mandated that all analogue transmissions will cease by 2012. Mandated digital conversion commenced early in 2009 with a graduated program. The first centre to experience analog switch-off will be the remote Victorian regional town of Mildura, in 2010. The government will supply underprivileged houses across the nation with free digital set-top DTV converter boxes in order to minimise any conversion disruption. Australia's major free-to-air television networks have all been granted digital transmission licences and are each required to broadcast at least one high-definition and one standard-definition channel into all of their markets. In North America a specification laid out by the ATSC has become the standard for digital terrestrial television. In the United States, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) set the final deadline for the switch-off of analog service for June 12, 2009. All television receivers must now include a digital tuner. In Canada, the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC), set August 31, 2011, as the date that over-the-air analog transmission service ceased in metropolitan areas and provincial capitals. [10] [11] In Mexico, the Federal Telecommunications Institute (IFT) set the final deadline for the end of Analog Television for December 31, 2015.


Competition for radio spectrum[edit] This article's factual accuracy may be compromised due to out-of-date information. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (December 2010) In late 2009, US competition for the limited available radio spectrum led to debate over the possible re-allocation of frequencies currently occupied by television, and the FCC began asking for comments on how to increase the bandwidth available for wireless broadband. Some have proposed mixing the two together, on different channels that are already open (like White Spaces) while others have proposed "repacking" some stations and forcing them off certain channels, just a few years after the same thing was done (without compensation to the broadcasters) in the DTV transition in the United States. Some US commentators have proposed the closing down of over-the-air TV broadcasting, on the grounds that available spectrum might be better used, and requiring viewers to shift to satellite or cable reception. This would eliminate mobile TV, which has been delayed several years by the FCC's decision to choose ATSC and its proprietary 8VSB modulation, instead of the worldwide COFDM standard used for all other digital terrestrial broadcasting around the world. Compared to Europe and Asia, this has hamstrung mobile TV in the US, because ATSC cannot be received while in motion (or often even while stationary) without ATSC-M/H as terrestrial DVB-T or ISDB-T can even without DVB-H or 1seg. The National Association of Broadcasters has organized to fight such proposals, and public comments are also being taken by the FCC through mid-December 2009, in preparation for a plan to be released in mid-February 2010.


See also[edit] Television portal List of United States over-the-air television networks Pay television Broadcast television systems Lists of television channels for lists by country and language. Television channel frequencies DVB-T ATSC tuner Television antenna


References[edit] ^ "The Color Revolution: Television In The Sixties". TVObscurities. 2005-02-15. Retrieved 2017-09-04.  ^ "CEA Study Says Seven Percent of TV Households Use Antennas", '"TVTechnology, 30 July 2013 ^ "Nielsen: Broadcast Reliance Grew in 2012", TVTechnology, 14 January 2013 ^ Mick Hurbis-Cherrier (2007). "NTSC Broadcast Standards" (PDF). Retrieved 2017-09-04.  ^ "About ATSC". Advanced Television Systems Committee. Retrieved 2017-09-04.  ^ "ATSC Standards". Advanced Television Systems Committee. Retrieved 2017-09-04.  ^ ATSC Standard: Program and System Information Protocol for Terrestrial Broadcast and Cable (PDF), Advanced Television Systems Committee, retrieved 2017-09-04  ^ "FCC regulations CFR 47 Part 74 Subpart L: FM Broadcast Translator Stations and FM Broadcast Booster Stations". Edocket.access.gpo.gov. Retrieved 2017-09-04.  ^ "DVB - Digital Video Broadcasting - Norway". Digital Video Broadcasting Project.  ^ "The Commission establishes a new approach for Canadian conventional television" (Press release). Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission. 2007-05-17. Retrieved 2007-05-17.  ^ "Broadcasting Public Notice CRTC 2007-53". Sections 50 to 80. Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission. 2007-05-17. Retrieved 2007-05-17. 


External links[edit] TVRadioWorld TV stations directory W9WI.com (Terrestrial repeater and TV hobbyist information) TV Coverage maps and Signal Analysis v t e Analog television broadcasting topics Systems 180-line 405-line ( System A ) 441-line 525-line ( System J , System M ) 625-line ( System B , System C , System D , System G , System H , System I , System K , System L , System N ) 819-line ( System E , System F ) Color systems NTSC PAL PAL-M PAL-S PALplus SECAM Video Back porch and front porch Black level Blanking level Chrominance Chrominance subcarrier Colorburst Color killer Color TV Composite video Frame (video) Horizontal scan rate Horizontal blanking interval Luma Nominal analogue blanking Overscan Raster scan Safe area Television lines Vertical blanking interval White clipper Sound Multichannel television sound NICAM Sound-in-Syncs Zweikanalton Modulation Frequency modulation Quadrature amplitude modulation Vestigial sideband modulation (VSB) Transmission Amplifiers Antenna (radio) Broadcast transmitter/Transmitter station Cavity amplifier Differential gain Differential phase Diplexer Dipole antenna Dummy load Frequency mixer Intercarrier method Intermediate frequency Output power of an analog TV transmitter Pre-emphasis Residual carrier Split sound system Superheterodyne transmitter Television receive-only Direct-broadcast satellite television Television transmitter Terrestrial television Transposer Frequencies & Bands Frequency offset Microwave transmission Television channel frequencies UHF VHF Propagation Beam tilt Distortion Earth bulge Field strength in free space Knife-edge effect Noise (electronics) Null fill Path loss Radiation pattern Skew Television interference Testing Distortionmeter Field strength meter Vectorscope VIT signals Zero reference pulse Artifacts Dot crawl Ghosting Hanover bars Sparklies v t e Telecommunications History Beacon Broadcasting Cable protection system Cable TV Communications satellite Computer network Drums Electrical telegraph Fax Heliographs Hydraulic telegraph Internet Mass media Mobile phone Optical telecommunication Optical telegraphy Pager Photophone Prepay mobile phone Radio Radiotelephone Satellite communications Semaphore Smartphone Smoke signals Telecommunications history Telautograph Telegraphy Teleprinter (teletype) Telephone The Telephone Cases Television Timeline of communication technology Undersea telegraph line Videoconferencing Videophone Videotelephony Whistled language Pioneers Edwin Howard Armstrong John Logie Baird Paul Baran Alexander Graham Bell Tim Berners-Lee Jagadish Chandra Bose Vint Cerf Claude Chappe Donald Davies Lee de Forest Philo Farnsworth Reginald Fessenden Elisha Gray Erna Schneider Hoover Charles K. Kao Hedy Lamarr Innocenzo Manzetti Guglielmo Marconi Antonio Meucci Radia Perlman Alexander Stepanovich Popov Johann Philipp Reis Nikola Tesla Camille Tissot Alfred Vail Charles Wheatstone Vladimir K. Zworykin Transmission media Coaxial cable Fiber-optic communication Optical fiber Free-space optical communication Molecular communication Radio waves Transmission line Network topology and switching Links Nodes Terminal node Network switching (circuit packet) Telephone exchange Multiplexing Space-division Frequency-division Time-division Polarization-division Orbital angular-momentum Code-division Networks ARPANET BITNET Cellular network Computer CYCLADES Ethernet FidoNet Internet ISDN LAN Mobile NGN NPL network Public Switched Telephone Radio Telecommunications equipment Television Telex WAN Wireless World Wide Web Category Portal Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Terrestrial_television&oldid=804606508" Categories: Television technologyTelevision terminologyHistory of televisionHidden categories: Articles needing additional references from January 2010All articles needing additional referencesAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from September 2017Articles to be expanded from November 2010All articles to be expandedArticles using small message boxesWikipedia articles in need of updating from December 2014All Wikipedia articles in need of updatingArticles with obsolete information from December 2010


Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog in Namespaces ArticleTalk Variants Views ReadEditView history More Search Navigation Main pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom articleDonate to WikipediaWikipedia store Interaction HelpAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact page Tools What links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkPage informationWikidata itemCite this page Print/export Create a bookDownload as PDFPrintable version Languages AfrikaansالعربيةБългарскиCatalàDeutschEsperantoفارسیFrançais한국어Bahasa IndonesiaÍslenskaItalianoBahasa Melayu日本語PolskiPortuguêsSvenskaதமிழ்Türkçe粵語中文 Edit links This page was last edited on 10 October 2017, at 02:22. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Contact Wikipedia Developers Cookie statement Mobile view (window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgPageParseReport":{"limitreport":{"cputime":"0.212","walltime":"0.303","ppvisitednodes":{"value":1164,"limit":1000000},"ppgeneratednodes":{"value":0,"limit":1500000},"postexpandincludesize":{"value":72272,"limit":2097152},"templateargumentsize":{"value":1915,"limit":2097152},"expansiondepth":{"value":11,"limit":40},"expensivefunctioncount":{"value":6,"limit":500},"entityaccesscount":{"value":0,"limit":400},"timingprofile":["100.00% 227.741 1 -total"," 34.65% 78.911 1 Template:Reflist"," 22.70% 51.706 7 Template:Cite_web"," 18.27% 41.610 4 Template:Ambox"," 14.84% 33.791 1 Template:Refimprove"," 11.39% 25.935 1 Template:Redirect"," 9.52% 21.670 1 Template:Citation_needed"," 9.33% 21.258 2 Template:Navbox"," 8.64% 19.686 1 Template:Fix"," 6.27% 14.285 2 Template:Update"]},"scribunto":{"limitreport-timeusage":{"value":"0.092","limit":"10.000"},"limitreport-memusage":{"value":4172705,"limit":52428800}},"cachereport":{"origin":"mw1258","timestamp":"20180219030521","ttl":1900800,"transientcontent":false}}});});(window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgBackendResponseTime":80,"wgHostname":"mw1267"});});


Broadcast_television - Photos and All Basic Informations

Broadcast_television More Links

Air (visual Novel)Wikipedia:VerifiabilityHelp:Introduction To Referencing With Wiki Markup/1Help:Maintenance Template RemovalEnlargeTelevisionBroadcastingRadio WaveTransmitterTelevision StationTelevision ReceiverTelevision AntennaEuropeNorth AmericaSatellite TelevisionDirect Broadcast SatelliteSatellite (spacecraft)Cable TelevisionElectrical CablePublic TelevisionBBCTelevision ProgramMechanical Scan TelevisionWorld War IIElectronic ScanRadio NetworkTelevision NetworkBlack And White TelevisionColor TelevisionCable TelevisionDigital Terrestrial TelevisionHDTVCord CuttersWikipedia:Citation NeededEnlargeTelevision AntennaFringe ReceptionBBC Two405-linePALVHFNTSCNational Television System CommitteeColor TelevisionDigital Television TransitionAdvanced Television Systems CommitteeATSC StandardVHFBand IBand IIIUltra High FrequencyBand IVBand VVirtual ChannelBroadcast Relay StationNorth American Broadcast Television FrequenciesLPTVAsiaTelevision In JapanNHKWorld War IINHK General TVNippon TVTelevision In The PhilippinesAlto Broadcasting SystemABS-CBNSoutheast AsiaDZAQ-TVRadio Corporation Of AmericaDigital Terrestrial TelevisionDigital TelevisionEuropean Conference Of Postal And Telecommunications AdministrationsRegional Radiocommunication ConferenceEuropean UnionAnalog AudioAnalog VideoDigital AudioDigital VideoDVB-TAustralian Communications And Media AuthorityMilduraDTV ConverterFree-to-airTelevision NetworkAdvanced Television Systems CommitteeFederal Communications CommissionATSC ReceiverCanadian Radio-television And Telecommunications CommissionFederal Telecommunications InstituteWikipedia:Accuracy DisputeBandwidth (signal Processing)Wireless BroadbandWhite Spaces (radio)Regulatory TakingDTV Transition In The United StatesTV BroadcastingMobile TVATSC8VSBModulationCOFDMATSC-M/HDVB-TISDB-TDVB-H1segNational Association Of BroadcastersPublic CommentNational Broadband Plan (United States)Portal:TelevisionList Of United States Over-the-air Television NetworksPay TelevisionBroadcast Television SystemLists Of Television ChannelsTelevision Channel FrequenciesDVB-TATSC TunerTelevision AntennaCanadian Radio-television And Telecommunications CommissionCanadian Radio-television And Telecommunications CommissionTemplate:Analogue TV Transmitter TopicsTemplate Talk:Analogue TV Transmitter TopicsAnalog TelevisionOutline Of Television BroadcastingBroadcast Television Systems180-line Television System405-line Television SystemCCIR System A441-line Television System525-line Television SystemCCIR System JCCIR System M625-line Television SystemCCIR System BCCIR System GCCIR System HCCIR System IAnalog High-definition Television SystemNTSCPALPAL-MPAL-SPALplusSECAMAnalog TelevisionAnalog TelevisionBlack LevelBlanking LevelChrominanceChrominance SubcarrierColorburstColor KillerColor TelevisionComposite VideoFrame (video)Horizontal Scan RateHorizontal Blanking IntervalLuma (video)Nominal Analogue BlankingOverscanRaster ScanSafe Area (television)Television LinesVertical Blanking IntervalWhite ClipperMultichannel Television SoundNICAMSound-in-SyncsZweikanaltonFrequency ModulationQuadrature Amplitude ModulationSingle-sideband ModulationAmplifierAntenna (radio)Broadcast TransmitterTransmitter StationResonatorDifferential GainDifferential PhaseDiplexerDipole AntennaDummy LoadFrequency MixerIntercarrier MethodIntermediate FrequencyOutput Power Of An Analog TV TransmitterPre-emphasisResidual CarrierSplit Sound SystemSuperheterodyne TransmitterTelevision Receive-onlyDirect-broadcast Satellite TelevisionTelevision TransmitterTransposerRadio FrequencyFrequency OffsetMicrowave TransmissionTelevision Channel FrequenciesUltra High FrequencyVery High FrequencyRadio PropagationBeam TiltDistortionEarth BulgeField Strength In Free SpaceKnife-edge EffectNoise (electronics)Null FillPath LossRadiation PatternSkew (antenna)Television InterferenceDistortionmeterField Strength MeterVectorscopeVIT SignalsZero Reference PulseDot CrawlGhosting (television)Hanover BarsSparkliesTemplate:TelecommunicationsTemplate Talk:TelecommunicationsTelecommunicationHistory Of TelecommunicationTelecommunications SymbolBeaconHistory Of BroadcastingCable Protection SystemCable TelevisionCommunications SatelliteComputer NetworkDrums In CommunicationElectrical TelegraphFaxHeliographHydraulic TelegraphHistory Of The InternetMass MediaHistory Of Mobile PhonesOptical CommunicationSemaphore LinePagerPhotophoneHistory Of Prepay Mobile PhonesHistory Of RadioRadiotelephoneCommunications SatelliteFlag SemaphoreSmartphoneSmoke SignalHistory Of TelecommunicationTelautographTelegraphyTeleprinterHistory Of The TelephoneThe Telephone CasesHistory Of TelevisionTimeline Of Communication TechnologySubmarine Communications CableVideoconferencingVideophoneHistory Of VideotelephonyWhistled LanguageEdwin Howard ArmstrongJohn Logie BairdPaul BaranAlexander Graham BellTim Berners-LeeJagadish Chandra BoseVint CerfClaude ChappeDonald DaviesLee De ForestPhilo FarnsworthReginald FessendenElisha GrayErna Schneider HooverCharles K. KaoHedy LamarrInnocenzo ManzettiGuglielmo MarconiAntonio MeucciRadia PerlmanAlexander Stepanovich PopovJohann Philipp ReisNikola TeslaCamille TissotAlfred VailCharles WheatstoneVladimir K. ZworykinTransmission MediumCoaxial CableFiber-optic CommunicationOptical FiberFree-space Optical CommunicationMolecular CommunicationRadio WaveTransmission LineNetwork TopologyTelecommunications LinkNode (networking)Terminal (telecommunication)Network SwitchCircuit SwitchingPacket SwitchingTelephone ExchangeMultiplexingSpace-division Multiple AccessFrequency-division MultiplexingTime-division MultiplexingPolarization-division MultiplexingOrbital Angular Momentum MultiplexingCode-division Multiple AccessTelecommunications NetworkARPANETBITNETCellular NetworkComputer NetworkCYCLADESEthernetFidoNetInternetIntegrated Services Digital NetworkLocal Area NetworkMobile TelephonyNext-generation NetworkNPL NetworkPublic Switched Telephone NetworkRadio NetworkTelecommunications EquipmentTelevision NetworkTelexWide Area NetworkWireless NetworkWorld Wide WebCategory:TelecommunicationsPortal:TelecommunicationHelp:CategoryCategory:Television TechnologyCategory:Television TerminologyCategory:History Of TelevisionCategory:Articles Needing Additional References From January 2010Category:All Articles Needing Additional ReferencesCategory:All Articles With Unsourced StatementsCategory:Articles With Unsourced Statements From September 2017Category:Articles To Be Expanded From November 2010Category:All Articles To Be ExpandedCategory:Articles Using Small Message BoxesCategory:Wikipedia Articles In Need Of Updating From December 2014Category:All Wikipedia Articles In Need Of UpdatingCategory:Articles With Obsolete Information From December 2010Discussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer



view link view link view link view link view link