Contents 1 Etymology 2 History 2.1 Early history 2.2 Middle Ages 2.3 Ottoman Bosnia (1463–1878) 2.4 Austro-Hungarian rule (1878–1918) 2.5 Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1918–1941) 2.6 World War II (1941–45) 2.7 Socialist Federative Republic of Yugoslavia (1945–1992) 2.8 Bosnian War (1992–1995) 2.9 Protests in 2014 3 Geography 4 Politics 4.1 Military 4.2 Foreign relations 5 Demographics 5.1 Ethnic groups 5.2 Religion 5.3 Languages 5.4 Cities 6 Economy 6.1 Transport 6.2 Communications 6.3 Tourism 6.3.1 Tourist attractions 7 Education 8 Culture 8.1 Architecture 8.2 Media 8.3 Literature 8.4 Art 8.5 Music 8.6 Cinema and theatre 8.7 Cuisine 8.8 Leisure activities 8.9 Sports 9 See also 10 References 11 Bibliography 12 External links

Etymology The first preserved widely acknowledged mention of Bosnia is in De Administrando Imperio, a politico-geographical handbook written by the Byzantine emperor Constantine VII in the mid-10th century (between 948 and 952) describing the "small land" (χωρίον in Greek) of "Bosona" (Βοσώνα).[18] The name is believed to have derived from the hydronym of the river Bosna coursing through the Bosnian heartland. According to philologist Anton Mayer the name Bosna could derive from Illyrian *"Bass-an-as"), which would derive from the Proto-Indo-European root "bos" or "bogh"—meaning "the running water".[19] According to English medievalist William Miller the Slavic settlers in Bosnia "adapted the Latin designation [...] Basante, to their own idiom by calling the stream Bosna and themselves Bosniaks [...]".[20] The name Herzegovina ("herzog's [land]", from German word for "duke")[19] originates from Bosnian magnate Stephen Vukčić Kosača's title, "Herceg (Herzog) of Hum and the Coast" (1448).[21] Hum, formerly Zahumlje, was an early medieval principality that was conquered by the Bosnian Banate in the first half of the 14th century. The region was administered by the Ottomans as the Sanjak of Herzegovina (Hersek) within the Eyalet of Bosnia up until the formation of the short-lived Herzegovina Eyalet in the 1830s, which remerged in the 1850s, after which the entity became commonly known as Bosnia and Herzegovina. On initial proclamation of independence in 1992, the country's official name was the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina but following the 1995 Dayton Agreement and the new constitution that accompanied it the name was officially changed to Bosnia and Herzegovina.

History Main article: History of Bosnia and Herzegovina Early history Mogorjelo, ancient Roman suburban Villa Rustica from the 4th century, near Čapljina Main article: Early history of Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia has been inhabited since at latest the Neolithic age. The earliest Neolithic population became known in the Antiquity as the Illyrians. Celtic migrations in the 4th century BC were also notable. Concrete historical evidence for this period is scarce, but overall it appears that the region was populated by a number of different people speaking distinct languages. Conflict between the Illyrians and Romans started in 229 BC, but Rome did not complete its annexation of the region until AD 9. It was precisely in modern-day Bosnia and Herzegovina that Rome fought one of the most difficult battles in its history since the Punic Wars, as described by the Roman historian Suetonius.[22] This was the Roman campaign against Illyricum, known as Bellum Batonianum.[23] The conflict arose after an attempt to recruit Illyrians, and a revolt spanned for four years (6–9 AD), after which they were subdued.[24] In the Roman period, Latin-speaking settlers from the entire Roman Empire settled among the Illyrians, and Roman soldiers were encouraged to retire in the region.[19] Following the split of the Empire between 337 and 395 AD, Dalmatia and Pannonia became parts of the Western Roman Empire. Some claim that the region was conquered by the Ostrogoths in 455 AD. It subsequently changed hands between the Alans and the Huns. By the 6th century, Emperor Justinian had reconquered the area for the Byzantine Empire. Slavs overwhelmed the Balkans in the 6th and 7th centuries. Illyrian cultural traits were adopted by the South Slavs, as evidenced in certain customs and traditions, placenames, etc.[25] Timothy Gregory explains: "It is now generally agreed that the people who lived in the Balkans after the Slavic "invasions" were probably for the most part the same as those who had lived there earlier, although the creation of new political groups and arrival of small numbers of immigrants caused people to look at themselves as distinct from their neighbours, including the Byzantines". T E Gregory, A History of Byzantium. Wiley- Blackwell, 2010. Pg 169 Middle Ages Main article: Bosnia and Herzegovina in the Middle Ages The Early Slavs raided the Western Balkans, including Bosnia, in the 6th and early 7th century (amid the Migration Period), and were composed of small tribal units drawn from a single Slavic confederation known to the Byzantines as the Sclaveni (whilst the related Antes, roughly speaking, colonized the eastern portions of the Balkans).[26][27] Tribes recorded by the ethnonyms of "Serb" and "Croat" are described as a second, latter, migration of different people during the second quarter of the 7th century who do not seem to have been particularly numerous;[26][28] these early "Serb" and "Croat" tribes, whose exact identity is subject to scholarly debate,[29] came to predominate over the Slavs in the neighbouring regions. The bulk of Bosnia proper, however, appears to have been a territory between Serb and Croat rule and is not enumerated as one of the regions settled by those tribes.[28] Bosnia is first mentioned as a land (horion Bosona) in Byzantine Emperor Constantine Porphyrogenitus' De Administrando Imperio in the mid 10th century, at the end of a chapter (Chap. 32) entitled Of the Serbs and the country in which they now dwell.[30] This has been scholarly interpreted in several ways and used especially by the Serb national ideologists to prove Bosnia as originally a "Serb" land. Other scholars have asserted the inclusion of Bosnia into Chapter 32 to merely be the result of Serbian Grand Duke Časlav's temporary rule over Bosnia at the time, while also pointing out that Porphyrogenitus does not say anywhere explicitly that Bosnia is a "Serb land".[31] In fact, the very translation of the critical sentence where the word Bosona (Bosnia) appears is subject to varying interpretation.[30] In time, Bosnia formed a unit under its own ruler, who called himself Bosnian.[28] Bosnia, along with other territories, became part of Duklja in the 11th century, although it retained its own nobility and institutions.[32] Bosnia in the Middle Ages spanning the Banate of Bosnia and the succeeding Kingdom of Bosnia. In the High Middle Ages political circumstance led to the area being contested between the Kingdom of Hungary and the Byzantine Empire. Following another shift of power between the two in the early 12th century, Bosnia found itself outside the control of both and emerged as the Banate of Bosnia (under the rule of local bans).[19][33] The first Bosnian ban known by name was Ban Borić.[34] The second was Ban Kulin whose rule marked the start of a controversy involving the Bosnian Church – considered heretical by the Roman Catholic Church. In response to Hungarian attempts to use church politics regarding the issue as a way to reclaim sovereignty over Bosnia, Kulin held a council of local church leaders to renounce the heresy and embraced Catholicism in 1203. Despite this, Hungarian ambitions remained unchanged long after Kulin's death in 1204, waning only after an unsuccessful invasion in 1254. During this time the population was called Dobri Bošnjani ("Good Bosnians").[35][36] The names Serb and Croat, though occasionally appearing in peripheral areas, were not used in Bosnia proper.[37] Bosnian history from then until the early 14th century was marked by a power struggle between the Šubić and Kotromanić families. This conflict came to an end in 1322, when Stephen II Kotromanić became Ban. By the time of his death in 1353, he was successful in annexing territories to the north and west, as well as Zahumlje and parts of Dalmatia. He was succeeded by his ambitious nephew Tvrtko who, following a prolonged struggle with nobility and inter-family strife, gained full control of the country in 1367. By the year 1377, Bosnia was elevated into a kingdom with the coronation of Tvrtko as the first Bosnian King in Mile near Visoko in the Bosnian heartland.[38][39][40] Following his death in 1391 however, Bosnia fell into a long period of decline. The Ottoman Empire had already started its conquest of Europe and posed a major threat to the Balkans throughout the first half of the 15th century. Finally, after decades of political and social instability, the Kingdom of Bosnia ceased to exist in 1463 after its conquest by the Ottoman Empire. Ottoman Bosnia (1463–1878) Main articles: Ottoman conquest of Bosnia and Ottoman Bosnia Gazi Husrev-beg Mosque in Sarajevo dating from 1531 The Ottoman conquest of Bosnia marked a new era in the country's history and introduced drastic changes in the political and cultural landscape. The Ottomans allowed for the preservation of Bosnia's identity by incorporating it as an integral province of the Ottoman Empire with its historical name and territorial integrity — a unique case among subjugated states in the Balkans.[41] Within Bosnia the Ottomans introduced a number of key changes in the territory's socio-political administration; including a new landholding system, a reorganization of administrative units, and a complex system of social differentiation by class and religious affiliation.[19] The four centuries of Ottoman rule also had a drastic impact on Bosnia's population make-up, which changed several times as a result of the empire's conquests, frequent wars with European powers, forced and economic migrations, and epidemics. A native Slavic-speaking Muslim community emerged and eventually became the largest of the ethno-religious groups due to lack of strong Christian church organizations and continuous rivalry between the Orthodox and Catholic churches, while the indigenous Bosnian Church disappeared altogether (ostensibly by conversion of its members to Islam). The Ottomans referred to them as kristianlar while the Orthodox and Catholics were called gebir or kafir, meaning "unbeliever".[42] The Bosnian Franciscans (and the Catholic population as a whole) were protected by official imperial decrees and in accordance and full extent of Ottoman laws, however in effect, these often merely affected arbitrary rule and behavior of powerful local elite.[19] As the Ottoman Empire continued their rule in the Balkans (Rumelia), Bosnia was somewhat relieved of the pressures of being a frontier province, and experienced a period of general welfare. A number of cities, such as Sarajevo and Mostar, were established and grew into regional centers of trade and urban culture and were then visited by Ottoman traveler Evliya Çelebi in 1648. Within these cities, various Ottoman Sultans financed the construction of many works of Bosnian architecture such as the country's first library in Sarajevo, madrassas, a school of Sufi philosophy, and a clock tower (Sahat Kula), bridges such as the Stari Most, the Tsar's Mosque and the Gazi Husrev-beg's Mosque. Furthermore, several Bosnian Muslims played influential roles in the Ottoman Empire's cultural and political history during this time.[41] Bosnian recruits formed a large component of the Ottoman ranks in the battles of Mohács and Krbava field, while numerous other Bosnians rose through the ranks of the Ottoman military to occupy the highest positions of power in the Empire, including admirals such as Matrakçı Nasuh; generals such as Isa-Beg Isaković, Gazi Husrev-beg and Hasan Predojević and Sarı Süleyman Paşa; administrators such as Ferhat-paša Sokolović and Osman Gradaščević; and Grand Viziers such as the influential Mehmed Paša Sokolović and Damad Ibrahim Pasha. Some Bosnians emerged as Sufi mystics, scholars such as Muhamed Hevaji Uskufi Bosnevi, Ali Džabič; and poets in the Turkish, Albanian, Arabic, and Persian languages.[43] Austro-Hungarian troops enter Sarajevo, 1878 However, by the late 17th century the Empire's military misfortunes caught up with the country, and the conclusion of the Great Turkish War with the treaty of Karlowitz in 1699 once again made Bosnia the Empire's westernmost province. The following century was marked by further military failures, numerous revolts within Bosnia, and several outbursts of plague. The Porte's efforts at modernizing the Ottoman state were met with distrust growing to hostility in Bosnia, where local aristocrats stood to lose much through the proposed reforms. This, combined with frustrations over territorial, political concessions in the north-east, and the plight of Slavic Muslim refugees arriving from the Sanjak of Smederevo into Bosnia Eyalet, culminated in a partially unsuccessful revolt by Husein Gradaščević, who endorsed a multicultural Bosnia Eyalet autonomous from the authoritarian rule of the Ottoman Sultan Mahmud II, who persecuted, executed and abolished the Janissaries and reduced the role of autonomous Pashas in Rumelia. Mahmud II sent his Grand Vizier to subdue Bosnia Eyalet and succeeded only with the reluctant assistance of Ali-paša Rizvanbegović.[43] Related rebellions were extinguished by 1850, but the situation continued to deteriorate. Later agrarian unrest eventually sparked the Herzegovinian rebellion, a widespread peasant uprising, in 1875. The conflict rapidly spread and came to involve several Balkan states and Great Powers, a situation that eventually led to the Congress of Berlin and the Treaty of Berlin in 1878.[19] Austro-Hungarian rule (1878–1918) Main article: History of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1878–1918) Dome and towers on the Academy of Arts in Sarajevo, designed by the Czech-born architect Karel Pařík At the Congress of Berlin in 1878, the Austro-Hungarian Foreign Minister Gyula Andrássy obtained the occupation and administration of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and he also obtained the right to station garrisons in the Sanjak of Novi Pazar, which remained under Ottoman administration. The Sanjak preserved the separation of Serbia and Montenegro, and the Austro-Hungarian garrisons there would open the way for a dash to Salonika that "would bring the western half of the Balkans under permanent Austrian influence."[44] "High [Austro-Hungarian] military authorities desired [an...] immediate major expedition with Salonika as its objective."[45] On 28 September 1878, the Finance Minister, Koloman von Zell, threatened to resign if the army, backed by the Archduke Albert, were allowed to advance to Salonika. In the session of the Hungarian Parliament of 5 November 1878 the Opposition proposed that the Foreign Minister should be impeached for violating the constitution with his policy during the Near East Crisis and by the occupation of Bosnia-Herzegovina. The motion lost 179 to 95. The gravest accusations were raised by the opposition rank and file against Andrassy.[45] Although an Austro-Hungarian side quickly came to an agreement with Bosnians, tensions remained in certain parts of the country (particularly the south) and a mass emigration of predominantly Slavic dissidents occurred.[19] However, a state of relative stability was reached soon enough and Austro-Hungarian authorities were able to embark on a number of social and administrative reforms they intended would make Bosnia and Herzegovina into a "model" colony. Sarajevo Tramway in 1901 With the aim of establishing the province as a stable political model that would help dissipate rising South Slav nationalism, Habsburg rule did much to codify laws, to introduce new political practices, and to provide for modernisation. The Austro-Hungarian Empire built the three Roman Catholic churches in Sarajevo. In 1881, within three years of formal occupation of Bosnia Herzegovina, Austria-Hungary obtained German and the more important Russian approval of the annexation of these provinces at a time that suited Vienna. This mandate was formally ratified by the Dreikaiserbund (Three Emperor's Treaty) on 18 June of that year.[46] Upon the accession of Czar Nicholas II, however, the Russians reneged on the agreement, asserting in 1897 the need for special scrutiny of the Bosnian Annexation issue at an unspecified future date.[47] External matters began to affect the Bosnian Protectorate, however, and its relationship with Austria-Hungary. A bloody coup occurred in Serbia, on 10 June 1903, which brought a radical anti-Austrian government into power in Belgrade.[48] Also, the revolt in the Ottoman Empire in 1908, raised concerns that the Istanbul government might seek the outright return of Bosnia Herzegovina. These factors caused the Austrian-Hungarian government to seek a permanent resolution of the Bosnian question sooner, rather than later. National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina was established in 1888 On 2 July 1908, in response to the pressing of the Austrian-Hungarian claim, the Russian Imperial Foreign Minister Alexander Izvolsky offered to support the Bosnian annexation in return for Vienna's support for Russia's bid for naval access through the Dardanelles Straits into the Mediterranean.[49] With the Russians being, at least, provisionally willing to keep their word over Bosnia Herzegovina for the first time in 11 years, Austria-Hungary waited and then published the annexation proclamation on 6 October 1908. The international furor over the annexation announcement caused Izvolsky to drop the Dardanelles Straits question, altogether, in an effort to obtain a European conference over the Bosnian Annexation.[50] This conference never materialized and without British or French support, the Russians and their client state, Serbia, were compelled to accept the Austrian-Hungarian annexation of Bosnia Herzegovina in March 1909. Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg in Sarajevo, illustrated in the Italian newspaper Domenica del Corriere, 12 July 1914 by Achille Beltrame Political tensions culminated on 28 June 1914, when a Yugoslav nationalist youth named Gavrilo Princip, a member of the secret Serbian-supported movement, Young Bosnia, assassinated the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, in Sarajevo—an event that was the spark that set off World War I. At the end of the war, the Bosniaks had lost more men per capita than any other ethnic group in the Habsburg Empire whilst serving in the Bosnian-Herzegovinian Infantry (known as Bosniaken) of the Austro-Hungarian Army.[51] Nonetheless, Bosnia and Herzegovina as a whole managed to escape the conflict relatively unscathed.[41] The Austro-Hungarian authorities established an auxiliary militia known as the Schutzkorps with a moot role in the empire's policy of anti-Serb repression.[52] Schutzkorps, predominantly recruited among the Muslim (Bosniak) population, were tasked with hunting down rebel Serbs (the Chetniks and Komiti)[53] and became known for their persecution of Serbs particularly in Serb populated areas of eastern Bosnia, where they partly retaliated against Serbian Chetniks who in fall 1914 had carried out attacks against the Muslim population in the area.[54][55] The proceedings of the Austro-Hungarian authorities led to around 5,500 citizens of Serb ethnicity in Bosnia and Herzegovina being arrested, and between 700 and 2,200 died in prison while 460 were executed.[53] Around 5,200 Serb families were forcibly expelled from Bosnia and Herzegovina.[53] Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1918–1941) Main article: History of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1918–1941) Following World War I, Bosnia and Herzegovina joined the South Slav Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (soon renamed Yugoslavia). Political life in Bosnia at this time was marked by two major trends: social and economic unrest over property redistribution, and formation of several political parties that frequently changed coalitions and alliances with parties in other Yugoslav regions.[41] The dominant ideological conflict of the Yugoslav state, between Croatian regionalism and Serbian centralization, was approached differently by Bosnia's major ethnic groups and was dependent on the overall political atmosphere.[19] The political reforms brought about in the newly established Yugoslavian kingdom saw few benefits for the Bosniaks; according to the 1910 final census of land ownership and population according to religious affiliation conducted in Austro-Hungary, Muslims (Bosniaks) owned 91.1%, Orthodox Serbians owned 6.0%, Croatian Catholics owned 2.6% and others, 0.3% of the property. Following the reforms Bosnian Muslims had a total of 1,175,305 hectares of agricultural and forest land taken away from them.[56] Although the initial split of the country into 33 oblasts erased the presence of traditional geographic entities from the map, the efforts of Bosnian politicians such as Mehmed Spaho ensured that the six oblasts carved up from Bosnia and Herzegovina corresponded to the six sanjaks from Ottoman times and, thus, matched the country's traditional boundary as a whole.[19] The establishment of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929, however, brought the redrawing of administrative regions into banates or banovinas that purposely avoided all historical and ethnic lines, removing any trace of a Bosnian entity.[19] Serbo-Croat tensions over the structuring of the Yugoslav state continued, with the concept of a separate Bosnian division receiving little or no consideration. The Cvetković-Maček Agreement that created the Croatian banate in 1939 encouraged what was essentially a partition of Bosnia between Croatia and Serbia.[43] However the rising threat of Adolf Hitler's Nazi Germany forced Yugoslav politicians to shift their attention. Following a period that saw attempts at appeasement, the signing of the Tripartite Treaty, and a coup d'état, Yugoslavia was finally invaded by Germany on 6 April 1941.[19] World War II (1941–45) Main article: History of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1941–1945) The railway bridge over the Neretva river in Jablanica, twice destroyed during the Battle of the Neretva Once the kingdom of Yugoslavia was conquered by Nazi forces in World War II, all of Bosnia was ceded to the Nazi puppet regime, the Independent State of Croatia (NDH). The NDH leaders embarked on a campaign of extermination of Serbs, Jews, Romani, Croats who opposed the regime, communists and large numbers of Josip Broz Tito's Partisans by setting up a number of death camps.[57] An estimated 209,000 Serbs and Montenegrins were killed on the territory of Bosnia-Herzegovina during the war.[58][dubious – discuss] The Ustaše recognized both Roman Catholicism and Islam as the national religions, but held the position that Eastern Orthodoxy, as a symbol of Serbian identity, was their greatest foe.[59] Although Croats were by far the largest ethnic group to constitute the Ustaše, the Vice President of the NDH and leader of the Yugoslav Muslim Organization Džafer Kulenović was a Muslim, and Muslims (Bosniaks) in total constituted nearly 12% of the Ustaše military and civil service authority.[60] Many Serbs themselves took up arms and joined the Chetniks, a Serb nationalist movement with the aim of establishing an ethnically homogeneous 'Greater Serbian' state.[61] The Chetniks were responsible for widespread persecution and murder of non-Serbs and communist sympathizers, with the Muslim population of Bosnia, Herzegovina and Sandžak being a primary target.[62] Once captured, Muslim villagers were systematically massacred by the Chetniks.[63] Of the 75,000 Muslims who lost their lives in Bosnia and Herzegovina during the war,[58] approximately 30,000 (mostly civilians) were killed by the Chetniks.[64] Later, a number of Muslims served in Nazi Waffen-SS units.[65] Between 64,000 and 79,000 Bosnian Croats also perished from April 1941 to May 1945.[58] Of these, about 18,000 were killed by the Chetniks.[64] Eternal flame memorial to the military and civilian World War II victims On 12 October 1941, a group of 108 notable Muslim citizens of Sarajevo signed the Resolution of Sarajevo Muslims by which they condemned the persecution of Serbs organized by the Ustaše, made distinction between Muslims who participated in such persecutions and whole Muslim population, presented information about the persecutions of Muslims by Serbs and requested security for all citizens of the country, regardless of their identity.[66] Starting in 1941, Yugoslav communists under the leadership of Josip Broz Tito organized their own multi-ethnic resistance group, the partisans, who fought against both Axis and Chetnik forces. On 29 November 1943 the Anti-Fascist Council of National Liberation of Yugoslavia with Tito at its helm held a founding conference in Jajce where Bosnia and Herzegovina was reestablished as a republic within the Yugoslavian federation in its Habsburg borders. Military success eventually prompted the Allies to support the Partisans, but Tito declined their offer to help and relied on his own forces instead. All the major military offensives by the antifascist movement of Yugoslavia against Nazis and their local supporters were conducted in Bosnia-Herzegovina and its peoples bore the brunt of fighting. More than 300,000 people died in Bosnia and Herzegovina in World War II.[67] At the end of the war the establishment of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, with the constitution of 1946, officially made Bosnia and Herzegovina one of six constituent republics in the new state.[19] Socialist Federative Republic of Yugoslavia (1945–1992) Main article: History of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1945–1992) See also: Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina's flag while in the Socialist Federative Republic of Yugoslavia Due to its central geographic position within the Yugoslavian federation, post-war Bosnia was selected as a base for the development of the military defense industry. This contributed to a large concentration of arms and military personnel in Bosnia; a significant factor in the war that followed the break-up of Yugoslavia in the 1990s.[19] However, Bosnia's existence within Yugoslavia, for the large part, was a peaceful and very prosperous country, with high employment, a strong industrial and export oriented economy, good education system and social and medical security for every citizen of S. R. Bosnia and Herzegovina. Several international corporations operated in Bosnia— Volkswagen (car factory in Sarajevo, from 1972), Coca-Cola (from 1975), SKF Sweden (from 1967), Marlboro, (a tobacco factory in Sarajevo), and Holiday Inn hotels. Sarajevo was the site of the 1984 Winter Olympics. During the 1950s and 1960s Bosnia was a political backwater of the Republic of Yugoslavia. In the 1970s a strong Bosnian political elite arose, fueled in part by Tito's leadership in the Non-Aligned Movement and Bosnians serving in Yugoslavia's diplomatic corps. While working within the Socialist system, politicians such as Džemal Bijedić, Branko Mikulić and Hamdija Pozderac reinforced and protected the sovereignty of Bosnia and Herzegovina.[68] Their efforts proved key during the turbulent period following Tito's death in 1980, and are today considered some of the early steps towards Bosnian independence. However, the republic did not escape the increasingly nationalistic climate of the time. With the fall of the Soviet Union and the start of the break-up of Yugoslavia, doctrine of tolerance began to lose its potency, creating an opportunity for nationalist elements in the society to spread their influence.[citation needed] Bosnian War (1992–1995) Main article: Bosnian War See also: Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina The Parliament of Bosnia and Herzegovina burns after being struck by tank fire during the Siege of Sarajevo, 1992 Dissolution process of SFRJ On 18 November 1990, multi-party parliamentary elections were held throughout Bosnia and Herzegovina. A second round followed on 25 November, resulting in a national assembly where communist power was replaced by a coalition of three ethnically-based parties.[69] Following Slovenia and Croatia's declarations of independence from Yugoslavia, a significant split developed among the residents of Bosnia and Herzegovina on the issue of whether to remain within Yugoslavia (overwhelmingly favored by Serbs) or seek independence (overwhelmingly favored by Bosniaks and Croats).[citation needed] The Serb members of parliament, consisting mainly of the Serb Democratic Party members, abandoned the central parliament in Sarajevo, and formed the Assembly of the Serb People of Bosnia and Herzegovina on 24 October 1991, which marked the end of the tri-ethnic coalition that governed after the elections in 1990. This Assembly established the Serbian Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina on 9 January 1992, which was renamed Republika Srpska in August 1992. On 18 November 1991, the party branch in Bosnia and Herzegovina of the ruling party in the Republic of Croatia, the Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ), proclaimed the existence of the Croatian Community of Herzeg-Bosnia, with the Croatian Defence Council (HVO) as its military branch.[70] It went unrecognized by the Government of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which declared it illegal.[71][72] A declaration of the sovereignty of Bosnia and Herzegovina on 15 October 1991 was followed by a referendum for independence on 29 February/1 March 1992, which was boycotted by the great majority of Serbs. The turnout in the independence referendum was 63.4 percent and 99.7 percent of voters voted for independence.[73] Bosnia and Herzegovina declared independence on 3 March 1992 and received international recognition the following month on 6 April 1992.[74] The Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina was subsequently admitted as a member state of the United Nations on 22 May 1992.[75] Serbian leader Slobodan Milošević and Croatian leader Franjo Tuđman are believed to have agreed on a partition of Bosnia and Herzegovina in March 1991, with the aim of establishing Greater Serbia and Greater Croatia.[76] Following Bosnia and Herzegovina's declaration of independence, Bosnian Serb militias mobilized in different parts of the country. Government forces were poorly equipped and unprepared for the war.[77] International recognition of Bosnia and Herzegovina increased diplomatic pressure for the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) to withdraw from the republic's territory, which they officially did in June 1992. The Bosnian Serb members of the JNA simply changed insignia, formed the Army of Republika Srpska (VRS), and continued fighting. Armed and equipped from JNA stockpiles in Bosnia, supported by volunteers and various paramilitary forces from Serbia, and receiving extensive humanitarian, logistical and financial support from the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Republika Srpska's offensives in 1992 managed to place much of the country under its control.[19] The Bosnian Serb advance was accompanied by the ethnic cleansing of Bosniaks and Bosnian Croats from VRS-controlled areas. This was accompanied by the establishment of concentration camps, in which inmates were subjected to violence and abuse, including rape.[78] The ethnic cleansing culminated in the Srebrenica massacre of more than 8,000 Bosniak men and boys in July 1995, which was ruled to have been a genocide by the ICTY.[79] Bosniak and Bosnian Croat forces also committed war crimes against civilians from different ethnic groups, though on a smaller scale.[80][81][82][83] Most of the Bosniak and Croat atrocities were committed during the Bosniak-Croat war, a sub-conflict of the Bosnian War that pitted the ARBiH against the HVO. The Bosniak-Croat conflict ended in March 1994, with the signing of the Washington Agreement, leading to the creation of a joint Bosniak-Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which amalgamated HVO-held territory with that held by the ARBiH.[citation needed] Bosnia and Herzegovina after the Dayton Agreement Following the Srebrenica massacre, NATO launched a bombing campaign against Republika Srpska in August 1995. The bombing, together with a joint HV/HVO/ARBiH ground offensive in western Bosnia, convinced the Bosnian Serb leadership to consider a negotiated settlement, which manifested itself in the Dayton Agreement of December 1995. The agreement brought an end to active combat and roughly established the basic political structure of the present-day state. A NATO-led peacekeeping force was immediately dispatched to the country to enforce the agreement. An estimated 100,000 people were killed in the war, about two-thirds of whom were Bosniak.[84] An additional 2.2 million citizens of Bosnia and Herzegovina of all ethnicities were displaced.[85] According to a number of International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) judgements, the conflict involved Bosnia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (subsequently Serbia and Montenegro)[86] as well as Croatia.[87] Dozens of Bosnian Serb officials and soldiers have been convicted for their role in war crimes and crimes against humanity during the conflict, as well as for the genocide in Srebrenica. High-ranking Croat and Bosniak officials have also been convicted or indicted for war crimes.[88] The remains of victims are still being unearthed two decades later.[89] After the war, the Government of Bosnia and Herzegovina brought a lawsuit against Serbia before the International Court of Justice (ICJ), accusing the country of genocide. In 2007, the ICJ exonerated Serbia of direct responsibility for the genocide committed by Bosnian Serb forces in Srebrenica, but concluded that the country had not done enough to prevent the massacre.[90] Protests in 2014 Main article: 2014 riots in Bosnia and Herzegovina Tuzla government building burning after anti-government clashes on 7 February 2014 On 4 February 2014, the protests against the government of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, one of the country's two entities, dubbed the Bosnian Spring, the name being taken from the Arab Spring, began in the northern town of Tuzla. Workers from several factories that had been privatised and had gone bankrupt united to demand action over jobs, and unpaid salaries and pensions.[91] Soon protests spread to the rest of the Federation, with violent clashes reported in close to 20 towns, the biggest of which were Sarajevo, Zenica, Mostar, Bihać, Brčko and Tuzla.[92] The Bosnian news media reported that hundreds of people had been injured during the protests, including dozens of police officers, with bursts of violence in Sarajevo, in the northern city of Tuzla, in Mostar in the south, and in Zenica in central Bosnia. The same level of unrest or activism did not occur in the Republika Srpska, but hundreds of people also gathered in support of protests in the town of Banja Luka against its separate government.[93][94][95] The protests marked the largest outbreak of public anger over high unemployment and two decades of political inertia in the country since the end of the Bosnian War in 1995.[96]

Geography Main article: Geography of Bosnia and Herzegovina See also: List of mountains in Bosnia and Herzegovina, List of lakes in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and List of rivers of Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia is located in the western Balkans, bordering Croatia (932 km or 579 mi) to the north and west, Serbia (302 km or 188 mi) to the east, and Montenegro (225 km or 140 mi) to the southeast. It has a coastline about 20 kilometres (12 miles) long surrounding the city of Neum.[97][98] It lies between latitudes 42° and 46° N, and longitudes 15° and 20° E. Topographic map of Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosna river, Ilidža The country's name comes from the two regions Bosnia and Herzegovina, separated by a vaguely defined border. Bosnia occupies the northern areas, roughly four-fifths of the entire country—and Herzegovina occupies the rest of the southern part of the country. The country is mostly mountainous, encompassing the central Dinaric Alps. The northeastern parts reach into the Pannonian Plain, while in the south it borders the Adriatic. The Dinaric Alps generally run in a southeast-northwest direction, and get higher towards the south. The highest point of the country is the peak of Maglić at 2,386 metres (7,828.1 feet), on the Montenegrin border. Major mountains include Kozara, Grmeč, Vlašić, Čvrsnica, Prenj, Romanija, Jahorina, Bjelašnica and Treskavica. Overall, close to 50% of Bosnia and Herzegovina is forested. Most forest areas are in the centre, east and west parts of Bosnia. Herzegovina has drier Mediterranean climate, with dominant karst topography. Northern Bosnia (Posavina) contains very fertile agricultural land along the River Sava and the corresponding area is heavily farmed. This farmland is a part of the Pannonian Plain stretching into neighboring Croatia and Serbia. The country has only 20 kilometres (12 miles) of coastline,[97][99] around the town of Neum in the Herzegovina-Neretva Canton. Although the city is surrounded by Croatian peninsulas, by international law, Bosnia and Herzegovina has a right of passage to the outer sea. Sarajevo is the capital[1] and largest city.[2] Other major cities are Banja Luka in the northwest region known as Bosanska Krajina, Bijeljina and Tuzla in the northeast, Zenica and Doboj in the central part of Bosnia and Mostar, the largest city in Herzegovina. There are seven major rivers in Bosnia and Herzegovina:[100] The Sava is the largest river of the country, and forms its northern natural border with Croatia. It drains 76%[100] of the country's territory into the Danube and then the Black Sea. Bosnia and Herzegovina is a member of the International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River (ICPDR). The Una, Sana and Vrbas are right tributaries of Sava river. They are located in the northwestern region of Bosanska Krajina. The Bosna river gave its name to the country, and is the longest river fully contained within it. It stretches through central Bosnia, from its source near Sarajevo to Sava in the north. The Drina flows through the eastern part of Bosnia, and for the most part it forms a natural border with Serbia. The Neretva is the major river of Herzegovina and the only major river that flows south, into the Adriatic Sea. Phytogeographically, Bosnia and Herzegovina belongs to the Boreal Kingdom and is shared between the Illyrian province of the Circumboreal Region and Adriatic province of the Mediterranean Region. According to the World Wide Fund for Nature, the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina can be subdivided into three ecoregions: the Pannonian mixed forests, Dinaric Mountains mixed forests and Illyrian deciduous forests. View towards Neum, Bosnia and Herzegovina's 20 km (12 mi) of coastline access to the Adriatic Sea, summer 2010

Politics This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (February 2010) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Main articles: Politics of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Political divisions of Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina consists of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FBiH); Republika Srpska (RS); and Brčko District (BD). Bosnia and Herzegovina is a liberal democracy. It has several levels of political structuring, according to the Dayton accord. The most important of these levels is the division of the country into two entities: Republika Srpska and the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina covers 51% of Bosnia and Herzegovina's total area, while Republika Srpska covers 49%. The entities, based largely on the territories held by the two warring sides at the time, were formally established by the Dayton peace agreement in 1995 because of the tremendous changes in Bosnia and Herzegovina's ethnic structure. Since 1996, the power of the entities relative to the State government has decreased significantly. Nonetheless, entities still have numerous powers to themselves. The Brčko District in the north of the country was created in 2000, out of land from both entities. It officially belongs to both, but is governed by neither, and functions under a decentralized system of local government. For election purposes, Brčko District voters can choose to participate in either the Federation or Republika Srpska elections. The Brčko District has been praised for maintaining a multiethnic population and a level of prosperity significantly above the national average.[101] Bosnia and Herzegovina's government building in Sarajevo The Presidency Building in central Sarajevo The third level of Bosnia and Herzegovina's political subdivision is manifested in cantons. They are unique to the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina entity, which consists of ten of them. All of them have their own cantonal government, which is under the law of the Federation as a whole. Some cantons are ethnically mixed and have special laws implemented to ensure the equality of all constituent people. The fourth level of political division in Bosnia and Herzegovina is the municipalities. The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is divided in 74 municipalities, and Republika Srpska in 63. Municipalities also have their own local government, and are typically based on the most significant city or place in their territory. As such, many municipalities have a long tradition and history with their present boundaries. Some others, however, were only created following the recent war after traditional municipalities were split by the Inter-Entity Boundary Line. Each canton in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina consists of several municipalities, which are divided into local communities. Besides entities, cantons, and municipalities, Bosnia and Herzegovina also has four "official" cities. These are: Banja Luka, Mostar, Sarajevo, and East Sarajevo. The territory and government of the cities of Banja Luka and Mostar corresponds to the municipalities of the same name, while the cities of Sarajevo and East Sarajevo officially consist of several municipalities. Cities have their own city government whose power is in between that of the municipalities and cantons (or the entity, in the case of Republika Srpska). As a result of the Dayton Accords, the civilian peace implementation is supervised by the High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina selected by the Peace Implementation Council. The High Representative has many governmental and legislative powers, including the dismissal of elected and non-elected officials. More recently, several central institutions have been established (such as defense ministry, security ministry, state court, indirect taxation service and so on) in the process of transferring part of the jurisdiction from the entities to the state. The representation of the government of Bosnia and Herzegovina is by elites who represent the country's three major groups, with each having a guaranteed share of power. The Chair of the Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina rotates among three members (Bosniak, Serb, Croat), each elected as the Chair for an eight-month term within their four-year term as a member. The three members of the Presidency are elected directly by the people with Federation voters voting for the Bosniak and the Croat, and the Republika Srpska voters for the Serb. The Chair of the Council of Ministers is nominated by the Presidency and approved by the House of Representatives. He or she is then responsible for appointing a Foreign Minister, Minister of Foreign Trade, and others as appropriate. The Parliamentary Assembly is the lawmaking body in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It consists of two houses: the House of Peoples and the House of Representatives. The House of Peoples has 15 delegates chosen by parliaments of the entities, two-thirds of which come from the Federation (5 Croat and 5 Bosniaks) and one-third from the Republika Srpska (5 Serbs). The House of Representatives is composed of 42 Members elected by the people under a form of proportional representation (PR), two-thirds elected from the Federation and one-third elected from the Republika Srpska. The Constitutional Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina is the supreme, final arbiter of legal matters. It is composed of nine members: four members are selected by the House of Representatives of the Federation, two by the Assembly of the Republika Srpska, and three by the President of the European Court of Human Rights after consultation with the Presidency, but cannot be Bosnian citizens. However, the highest political authority in the country is the High Representative in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the chief executive officer for the international civilian presence in the country and is selected by the European Union. Since 1995, the High Representative has been able to bypass the elected parliamentary assembly, and since 1997 has been able to remove elected officials. The methods selected by the High Representative have been criticized as undemocratic.[102] International supervision is to end when the country is deemed politically and democratically stable and self-sustaining. Military The Armed Forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina were unified into a single entity in 2005, with the merger of the Army of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Army of Republika Srpska, which had defended their respective regions. The Ministry of Defense was founded in 2004. The Bosnian military consists of the Bosnian Ground Forces and Air Force and Air Defense. The Ground Forces number 14,725 active and 7,000 reserve personnel. They are armed with a mix of American, Yugoslavian, Soviet, and European-made weaponry, vehicles, and military equipment. The Air Force and Air Defense Forces have 3,000 personnel and about 62 aircraft. The Air Defense Forces operate MANPAD hand-held missiles, surface-to-air missile (SAM) batteries, anti-aircraft cannons, and radar. The Army has recently adopted remodeled MARPAT uniforms, used by Bosnian soldiers serving with ISAF in Afghanistan. A domestic production program is now underway to ensure that army units are equipped with the correct ammunition. Beginning in 2007, the Ministry of Defence of Bosnia and Herzegovina undertook the army's first ever international assistance mission, enlisting the military to serve with ISAF peace missions to Afghanistan, Iraq and the Democratic Republic of Congo in 2007. Five officers, acting as officers/advisors, served in the Democratic Republic of Congo. 45 soldiers, mostly acting as base security and medical assistants, served in Afghanistan. 85 Bosnian soldiers served as base security in Iraq, occasionally conducting infantry patrols there as well. All three deployed groups have been commended by their respective international forces as well as the Ministry of Defence of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The international assistance operations are still ongoing. The Air Force and Anti-Aircraft Defence Brigade of Bosnia and Herzegovina was formed when elements of the Army of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republika Srpska Air Force were merged in 2006. The Air Force has seen improvements in the last few years with added funds for aircraft repairs and improved cooperation with the Ground Forces as well as to the citizens of the country. The Ministry of Defense of Bosnia and Herzegovina is currently pursuing the acquisition of new aircraft including helicopters and perhaps even fighter jets.[103] Foreign relations Main article: Foreign relations of Bosnia and Herzegovina See also: Accession of Bosnia and Herzegovina to the European Union EU integration is one of the main political objectives of Bosnia and Herzegovina; it initiated the Stabilisation and Association Process in 2007. Countries participating in the SAP have been offered the possibility to become, once they fulfill the necessary conditions, Member States of the EU. Bosnia and Herzegovina is therefore a potential candidate country for EU accession.[104] The implementation of the Dayton Accords of 1995 has focused the efforts of policymakers in Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as the international community, on regional stabilization in the countries-successors of the former Yugoslavia. Within Bosnia and Herzegovina, relations with its neighbors of Croatia, Serbia and Montenegro have been fairly stable since the signing of the Dayton Agreement in 1995. On 23 April 2010, Bosnia and Herzegovina received the Membership Action Plan from NATO, which is the last step before full membership in the alliance. Full membership was expected in 2014 or 2015, depending on the progress of reforms. They are also a member of the Group of 77.

Demographics Main articles: Demographics of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Demographic history of Bosnia and Herzegovina According to the 1991 census, Bosnia and Herzegovina had a population of 4,377,000, while the 1996 UNHCR unofficial census showed a decrease to 3,920,000.[citation needed] Large population migrations during the Yugoslav wars in the 1990s have caused demographic shifts in the country. Between 1991 and 2013, political disagreements made it impossible to organize a census. A census had been planned for 2011,[105] and then for 2012,[106] but was delayed until October 2013. The 2013 census found a total population of 3,791,622 people in 1.16 million households; 585,411 fewer people than the 1991 census.[107] Ethnic groups Main article: Ethnic groups in Bosnia and Herzegovina Population density in Bosnia and Herzegovina by municipalities, early data from the 2013 census Bosnia and Herzegovina is home to three ethnic "constituent peoples", who are Bosniaks, Serbs and Croats, plus a number of smaller groups including Jews and Roma.[108] According to data from 2013 census published by the Agency for Statistics of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosniaks constitute 50.11% of the population, Serbs 30.78%, Croats 15.43%, and others form 2.73%, with the remaining respondents not declaring their ethnicity or not answering.[9] The census results are contested by the Republika Srpska statistical office and by Bosnian Serb politicians.[109] The dispute over the census concerns the inclusion of non-permanent Bosnian residents in the figures, which Republika Srpska officials oppose.[110] The European Union's statistics office, Eurostat, concluded in May 2016 that the census methodology used by the Bosnian statistical agency is in line with international recommendations.[111] Religion Main article: Religion in Bosnia and Herzegovina A Roman Catholic church, a Serbian Orthodox church and a mosque, in Bosanska Krupa Religion in Bosnia and Herzegovina (2013) religion percent Islam   51% Serbian Orthodoxy   31% Catholicism   15% Others/none/not stated   3% According to the 2013 census, Islam is the majority faith in Bosnia and Herzegovina, making up 51% of the population. 46% of the population identify as Christian; of these, the Serbian Orthodox Church makes up the largest group, accounting for 31% of the population (of whom most identify as Serbs), and the Roman Catholic Church 15% (of whom most identify as Croats). The smallest groups are Agnosticism 0.3%, Atheism 0.8% and other 1.15%, with the remainder not declaring their religion or not answering 1.1%.[9][112] A 2012 survey found that 54% of Bosnia's Muslims are non-denominational Muslims, while 38% follow Sunnism.[113] Languages Bosnia's constitution does not specify any official languages.[114][115][116] However, academics Hilary Footitt and Michael Kelly note that the Dayton Agreement states that it is "done in Bosnian, Croatian, English and Serbian", and they describe this as the "de facto recognition of three official languages" at the state level. The equal status of Bosnian, Serbian and Croatian was verified by the Constitutional Court in 2000.[116] It ruled that the provisions of the Federation and Republika Srpska constitutions on language were incompatible with the state constitution, since they only recognised "Bosniak" and Croatian (in the case of the Federation) and Serbian (in the case of Republika Srpska) as official languages at the entity level. As a result, the wording of the entity constitutions was changed and all three languages were made official in both entities.[116] The three languages are mutually intelligible and were previously known collectively as Serbo-Croatian. Use of one of the three languages has become a marker of ethnic identity.[117] Michael Kelly and Catherine Baker argue: "The three official languages of today's Bosnian state...represent the symbolic assertion of national identity over the pragmatism of mutual intelligibility".[118] According to the 1992 European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, Bosnia and Herzegovina recognizes the following minority languages: Albanian, Montenegrin, Czech, Italian, Hungarian, Macedonian, German, Polish, Romani, Romanian, Rysin, Slovak, Slovene, Turkish, Ukrainian and Jewish (Yiddish and Ladino).[119] The German minority in Bosnia and Herzegovina are mostly remnants of Donauschwaben (Danube Swabians), who settled in the area after the Habsburg monarchy claimed the Balkans from the Ottoman Empire. Due to expulsions and (forced) assimilation after the two World Wars, the number of ethnic Germans in Bosnia and Herzegovina was drastically diminished.[120] In a 2013 census, 52.86% of the population consider their mother tongue Bosnian, 30.76% Serbian, 14.6% Croatian and 1.57% another language, with 0.21% not giving an answer.[9] Cities Sarajevo is home to 395,133 inhabitants in its urban area which comprises the City of Sarajevo as well as municipalities of Ilidža, Vogošća, Istočna Ilidža, Istočno Novo Sarajevo and Istočni Stari Grad.[121] The metro area has a population of 555,210 and includes Sarajevo Canton, East Sarajevo and municipalities Breza, Kiseljak, Kreševo and Visoko.   v t e Largest municipalities in Bosnia and Herzegovina 2013 census final results[122] Rank Division Pop. Rank Division Pop. Sarajevo Banja Luka 1 Sarajevo Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina 356,454 11 Zvornik Republika Srpska 58,856 Tuzla Zenica 2 Banja Luka Republika Srpska 185,042 12 Živinice Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina 57,765 3 Tuzla Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina 110,979 13 Bihać Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina 56,261 4 Zenica Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina 110,663 14 Travnik Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina 53,482 5 Bijeljina Republika Srpska 107,715 15 Gradiška Republika Srpska 51,727 6 Mostar Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina 105,797 16 Gračanica Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina 45,220 7 Prijedor Republika Srpska 89,397 17 Lukavac Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina 44,520 8 Brčko Brčko District 83,516 18 Tešanj Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina 43,063 9 Doboj Republika Srpska 71,441 19 Sanski Most Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina 41,475 10 Cazin Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina 66,149 20 Velika Kladuša Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina 40,419

Economy Main article: Economy of Bosnia and Herzegovina See also: List of companies of Bosnia and Herzegovina Graphical depiction of Bosnia and Herzegovina's product exports in 28 color-coded categories Bosnia faces the dual-problem of rebuilding a war-torn country and introducing transitional liberal market reforms to its formerly mixed economy. One legacy of the previous era is a strong industry; under former republic president Džemal Bijedić and SFRY President Josip Broz Tito, metal industries were promoted in the republic, resulting in the development of a large share of Yugoslavia's plants; S.R. Bosnia and Herzegovina had a very strong industrial export oriented economy in the 1970s and 1980s, with large scale exports worth millions of US$. For most of Bosnia's history, agriculture has been conducted on privately owned farms; Fresh food has traditionally been exported from the republic.[123] The war in the 1990s, caused a dramatic change in the Bosnian economy.[124] GDP fell by 60% and the destruction of physical infrastructure devastated the economy.[125] With much of the production capacity unrestored, the Bosnian economy still faces considerable difficulties. Figures show GDP and per capita income increased 10% from 2003 to 2004; this and Bosnia's shrinking national debt being negative trends, and high unemployment 38.7% and a large trade deficit remain cause for concern. The national currency is the (Euro-pegged) Convertible Mark (KM), controlled by the currency board. Annual inflation is the lowest relative to other countries in the region at 1.9% in 2004.[126] The international debt was $5.1 billion (as on 31 December 2014) . Real GDP growth rate was 5% for 2004 according to the Bosnian Central Bank of BiH and Statistical Office of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Bosnia and Herzegovina has displayed positive progress in the previous years, which decisively moved its place from the lowest income equality rank of income equality rankings fourteen out of 193 nations.[127] According to Eurostat data, Bosnia and Herzegovina's PPS GDP per capita stood at 29 per cent of the EU average in 2010.[128] The International Monetary Fund (IMF) announced a loan to Bosnia worth US$500 million to be delivered by Stand-By Arrangement. This was scheduled to be approved in September 2012.[129] Overall value of foreign direct investment (1999–2014)[130] 1999: €166 million 2000: €159 million 2001: €133 million 2002: €282 million 2003: €338 million 2004: €534 million 2005: €421 million 2006: €556 million 2007: €1.329 billion 2008: €684 million 2009: €180 million 2010: €307 million 2011: €357 million 2012: €273 million 2013: €214 million 2014: €419 million[131] The top investor countries (May 1994 – December 2013) Austria (€1.329 billion) Serbia (€1.002 billion) Croatia (€733 million) Slovenia (€499 million) Russia (€343 million) Germany (€333 million) Switzerland (€273 million) Netherlands (€206 million) Foreign investments by sector for (May 1994 – December 2013) 32% manufacturing 22% banking 15% telecommunication 11% trade 5% estate 4% services 11% other The United States Embassy in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina produces the Country Commercial Guide – an annual report that delivers a comprehensive look at Bosnia and Herzegovina's commercial and economic environment, using economic, political, and market analysis. It can be viewed on Embassy Sarajevo’s website. In 2017, exports grew by 15.96% when compared to the previous year, totaling €5.64 billion.[132] Transport Main article: Transport in Bosnia and Herzegovina Apron overview of Sarajevo International Airport Train trip from Sarajevo to Mostar via Neretva River scenery Sarajevo International Airport (IATA: SJJ, ICAO: LQSA), also known as Butmir Airport, is the main international airport in Bosnia and Herzegovina, located 3.3 NM (6.1 km; 3.8 mi) southwest of the railway station[133] in the city of Sarajevo in the suburb of Butmir. Railway operations in Bosnia and Herzegovina are successors of the Yugoslav Railways within the country boundaries following independence from the Former Yugoslavia in 1992. Communications Main article: Telecommunications in Bosnia and Herzegovina The Bosnian communications market was fully liberalised in January 2006. There are three landline telephone providers, although each one predominantly serves a partile services are provided by three operators, with nationwide services. Mobile data services are also available, including high-speed EDGE and 3G services.[134] Oslobođenje (Liberation), founded in 1943, is one of the country's longest running continuously circulating newspapers. There are many national publications, only some of which include the Dnevni Avaz (Daily Voice), founded in 1995, and Jutarnje Novine (Morning News) in circulation in Sarajevo.[135] Other local periodicals include the Croatian newspaper Hrvatska riječ and the Bosnian magazine Start, as well as the weekly newspapers Slobodna Bosna (Free Bosnia) and BH Dani (BH Days). Novi Plamen, a monthly magazine, is the most left-wing publication currently. The international news station Al Jazeera maintains a sister channel that caters to the Balkan region, Al Jazeera Balkans, broadcasting out of and based in Sarajevo.[136] Additionally, the country is the most liberated in terms of freedom of the press in the region, ranking 43rd internationally.[137] Tourism Main article: Tourism in Bosnia and Herzegovina See also: Sites of interest in Sarajevo One of the city squares in the capital, Sarajevo, is Marijin Dvor (2010). Mostar's Stari Most Trebinje, on the banks of the Trebišnjica Mehmed Paša Sokolović Bridge in Višegrad; UNESCO world heritage site since 2007. Buna river, near the town of Blagaj, resurging as one of the biggest karst springs in Europe. Prokoško Lake in the municipality of Fojnica. The Shrine of Our Lady Queen of Peace in Međugorje. According to projections by the World Tourism Organization, Bosnia and Herzegovina will have the third highest tourism growth rate in the world between 1995 and 2020.[13] In 2012, 747,827 tourists visited Bosnia-Herzegovina, an increase of 9%, and had 1,645,521 overnight hotel stays, a 9.4% increase from the previous year. 58.6% of the tourists came from foreign countries.[138] In 2006, when ranking the best cities in the world, Lonely Planet placed Sarajevo, the national capital[1] and host of the 1984 Winter Olympic Games, as #43, ahead of Dubrovnik at #59, Ljubljana at #84, Bled at #90, Belgrade at #113, and Zagreb at #135.[139] Tourism in Sarajevo is chiefly focused on historical, religious, and cultural aspects. In 2010, Lonely Planet's "Best In Travel" nominated it as one of the top ten cities to visit that year.[140] Sarajevo also won travel blog Foxnomad's "Best City to Visit" competition in 2012, beating more than one hundred other cities around the entire world.[141] Međugorje has become one of the most popular pilgrimage sites for Christians in the world and has turned into Europe's third most important religious place, where each year more than 1 million people visit.[142] It has been estimated that 30 million pilgrims have come to Međugorje since the reputed apparitions began in 1981.[143] Bosnia has also become an increasingly popular skiing and Ecotourism destination. Bosnia and Herzegovina remains one of the last undiscovered natural regions of the southern area of the Alps, with vast tracts of wild and untouched nature attracting adventurers and nature lovers. National Geographic magazine named Bosnia and Herzegovina as the best mountain biking adventure destination for 2012.[144] The central Bosnian Dinaric Alps are favored by hikers and mountaineers, containing both Mediterranean and Alpine climates. Whitewater rafting is somewhat of a national pastime, with three rivers, including the deepest river canyon in Europe, the Tara River Canyon.[13] Most recently, The Huffington Post named Bosnia and Herzegovina the "9th Greatest Adventure in the World for 2013", adding that the country boasts "the cleanest water and air in Europe; the greatest untouched forests; and the most wildlife. The best way to experience is the three rivers trip, which purls through the best the Balkans have to offer."[145] In 2017, 1,307,319 tourists visited Bosnia-Herzegovina, an increase of 13.7%, and had 2,677,125 overnight hotel stays, a 12.3% increase from the previous year. Also, 71.5% of the tourists came from foreign countries.[146] Tourist attractions Some of the tourist attractions in Bosnia and Herzegovina include: Sarajevo, the "Olympic City" or "European Jerusalem"; the scientific, cultural, tourist and commercial center of Bosnia and Herzegovina Vratnik old town and Bijela Tabija fortress in Sarajevo Shrine of Our Lady of Međugorje, with Annual Youth Festival; the site of a Marian apparition and subsequent Catholic pilgrimage destination Mostar, the "City on Neretva" or "City of Sunshine"; the location of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites of Stari most and old-town Mostar Višegrad, location of the UNESCO World Heritage Site of the Mehmed Paša Sokolović Bridge Banja Luka, the "Green City", with sights such as the Kastel fortress and Ferhadija mosque Bihać and the waterfalls of the river Una within Una National Park Jajce, city of the Bosnian kings and the place where the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia was founded, Pliva lakes and waterfall Prijedor, featuring its Old City Mosque, Kozara National Park and, at Mrakovica, Bosnia's largest World War II monument The salt-lakes of Tuzla, birthplace of Meša Selimović The Neretva river and the Rakitnica river canyons in Upper Neretva The Trebižat river and its waterfalls at Kravice and Kočuša The Buna with its spring and historic town of Blagaj The Lower Tara river canyon, the deepest canyon in Europe Sutjeska National Park, featuring the ancient forest of Perućica (one of the last two remaining primeval forests in Europe) and the Sutjeska river canyon Počitelj historical village Mount Bjelašnica and Jahorina, sites used during XIV Olympic Winter Games in 1984 The coastal city of Neum Doboj and its 13th-century fortress Stolac, featuring the Begovina neighborhood and Radimlja tombstones Visoko, city of the Bosnian nobility and monarchy, historical capital of the Kingdom of Bosnia and the site of the alleged Bosnian pyramids Prokoško Lake in Fojnica Tešanj, one of Bosnia's oldest known cities Bijeljina, known for its agriculture and ethnic village Stanišić Lukavac, featuring Modrac Lake, the largest artificial lake in Bosnia and Herzegovina Travnik, the birthplace of Ivo Andrić and once the capital city of the Bosnia Eyalet Jablanica, Museum of Battle of Neretva and Old bridge destroyed by Yugoslav army in Second World War Ostrožac Castle, a 16th-century castle built by the Ottoman Empire and later expanded by the House of Habsburg Gornji Vakuf Konjic, featuring Tito's underground nuclear bunker[147] Panoramic view of Željeznica river at Ilidža near Sarajevo.

Education Main article: Education in Bosnia and Herzegovina The University of Sarajevo's Faculty of Law Higher education has a long and rich tradition in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The first bespoke higher-education institution was a school of Sufi philosophy established by Gazi Husrev-beg in 1531. Numerous other religious schools then followed. In 1887, under the Austro-Hungarian Empire, a Sharia law school began a five-year program.[148] In the 1940s the University of Sarajevo became the city's first secular higher education institute. In the 1950s post-bachelaurate graduate degrees became available.[149] Severely damaged during the war, it was recently rebuilt in partnership with more than 40 other universities. There are various other institutions of higher education, including: University "Džemal Bijedić" of Mostar, University of Banja Luka, University of Mostar, University of East Sarajevo, University of Tuzla, American University in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which is held in high regard as one of the most prestigious creative arts academies in the region. Also, Bosnia and Herzegovina is home to several private and international higher education institutions, some of which are: Sarajevo School of Science and Technology International University of Sarajevo American University in Bosnia and Herzegovina Sarajevo Graduate School of Business International Burch University Primary schooling lasts for nine years. Secondary education is provided by general and technical secondary schools (typically Gymnasiums) where studies typically last for four years. All forms of secondary schooling include an element of vocational training. Pupils graduating from general secondary schools obtain the Matura and can enroll in any tertiary educational institution or academy by passing a qualification examination prescribed by the governing body or institution. Students graduating technical subjects obtain a Diploma.[150]

Culture Main article: Culture of Bosnia and Herzegovina The National Library in Sarajevo. Architecture Main article: Architecture of Bosnia and Herzegovina The architecture of Bosnia and Herzegovina is largely influenced by four major periods where political and social changes influenced the creation of distinct cultural and architectural habits of the population. Each period made its influence felt and contributed to a greater diversity of cultures and architectural language in this region. Media Main article: Media of Bosnia and Herzegovina The Radio and Television of Bosnia and Herzegovina headquarter in Sarajevo. Some television, magazines, and newspapers in Bosnia and Herzegovina are state-owned, and some are for-profit corporations funded by advertising, subscription, and other sales-related revenues. The Constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina guarantees freedom of speech. As a country in transition with a post-war legacy and a complex domestic political structure Bosnia and Herzegovina's media system is under transformation. In the early post-war period (1995–2005), media development was guided mainly by international donors and cooperation agencies, who invested to help reconstruct, diversify, democratize and professionalize media outlets.[151][152] Post-war developments included the establishment of an independent Communication Regulatory Agency, the adoption of a Press Code, the establishment of the Press Council, the decriminalization of label and defamation, the introduction of a rather advanced Freedom of Access to Information Law, and the creation of a Public Service Broadcasting System from the formerly state-owned broadcaster. Yet, internationally backed positive developments have been often obstructed by domestic elites, and the professionalisation of media and journalists has proceeded only slowly. High levels of partisanship and linkages between the media and the political systems hinder the adherence to professional code of conducts.[152] Literature Main article: Literature of Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina has a rich literature, including the Nobel prize winner Ivo Andrić and poets such as Croat Antun Branko Šimić, Aleksa Šantić, Jovan Dučić and Mak Dizdar, writers such as Zlatko Topčić, Meša Selimović, Semezdin Mehmedinović, Miljenko Jergović, Isak Samokovlija, Safvet beg Bašagić, Abdulah Sidran, Petar Kočić, Aleksandar Hemon, and Nedžad Ibrišimović. The National Theater was founded 1919 in Sarajevo and its first director was the dramatist Branislav Nušić. Magazines such as Novi Plamen or Sarajevske sveske are some of the more prominent publications covering cultural and literary themes. Art Main article: Art of Bosnia and Herzegovina Stećci from Radimlja, near Stolac (13th century) The art of Bosnia and Herzegovina was always evolving and ranged from the original medieval tombstones called Stećci to paintings in Kotromanić court. However, only with the arrival of Austro-Hungarians did the painting renaissance in Bosnia really begin to flourish. The first educated artists from European academies appeared with the beginning of the 20th century. Among those are: Gabrijel Jurkić, Petar Šain, Roman Petrović and Lazar Drljača. After World War II artists like Mersad Berber and Safet Zec rose in popularity. In 2007, Ars Aevi, a museum of contemporary art that includes works by renowned world artists was founded in Sarajevo. Music Main article: Music of Bosnia and Herzegovina See also: List of Bosnia and Herzegovina patriotic songs Typical Bosnian and Herzegovinian songs are ganga, rera, and the traditional Slavic music for the folk dances such as kolo and from Ottoman era the most popular is sevdalinka. Pop and Rock music has a tradition here as well, with the more famous musicians including Dino Zonić, Goran Bregović, Davorin Popović, Kemal Monteno, Zdravko Čolić, Elvir Laković, Edo Maajka, Hari Mata Hari and Dino Merlin. Other composers such as Đorđe Novković, Al' Dino, Haris Džinović, Kornelije Kovač, and many pop and rock bands, for example, Bijelo Dugme, Crvena Jabuka, Divlje Jagode, Indexi, Plavi Orkestar, Zabranjeno Pušenje, Ambasadori, Dubioza kolektiv, who were among the leading ones in the former Yugoslavia. Bosnia is home to the composer Dušan Šestić, the creator of the current national anthem of Bosnia and Herzegovina and father of singer Marija Šestić, to the world known jazz musician, educator and Bosnian jazz ambassador Sinan Alimanović, composer Saša Lošić and pianist Saša Toperić. In the villages, especially in Herzegovina, Bosniaks, Serbs, and Croats play the ancient Gusle. The gusle is used mainly to recite epic poems in a usually dramatic tone. Probably the most distinctive and identifiably "Bosnian" of music, Sevdalinka is a kind of emotional, melancholic folk song that often describes sad subjects such as love and loss, the death of a dear person or heartbreak. Sevdalinkas were traditionally performed with a saz, a Turkish string instrument, which was later replaced by the accordion. However the more modern arrangement, to the derision of some purists, is typically a vocalist accompanied by the accordion along with snare drums, upright bass, guitars, clarinets and violins. Cinema and theatre Main article: List of Bosnia-Herzegovina films Sarajevo is internationally renowned for its eclectic and diverse selection of festivals. The Sarajevo Film Festival was established in 1995, during the Bosnian War and has become the premier and largest film festival in the Balkans and South-East Europe. Bosnia has a rich cinematic and film heritage, dating back to the Kingdom of Yugoslavia; many Bosnian filmmakers have achieved international prominence and some have won international awards ranging from the Academy Awards to multiple Palme d'Ors and Golden Bears. Some notable Bosnian filmmakers, screenwriters and cinematographers are Danis Tanović (known for the Academy Award– and Golden Globe Award–winning 2001 film No Man's Land and Silver Bear Grand Jury Prize–winning 2016 film Death in Sarajevo),[153] Dušan Vukotić (won an Oscar for best animated short film in 1961 for Surogat ("Ersatz"), being the first foreigner to do so), Emir Kusturica (won two Palme d'Or at Cannes), Jasmila Žbanić (won Golden Bear), Zlatko Topčić, Ademir Kenović, Dino Mustafić, Benjamin Filipović, Jasmin Dizdar, Pjer Žalica, Srđan Vuletić, Aida Begić etc. Vedran Smailović, the "Cellist of Sarajevo" Danis Tanović Emir Kusturica Cuisine Main article: Bosnia and Herzegovina cuisine Bosnian meat platter A waitress in the Old City of Mostar wearing traditional dress. Bosnian cuisine uses many spices, in moderate quantities. Most dishes are light, as they are cooked in lots of water; the sauces are fully natural, consisting of little more than the natural juices of the vegetables in the dish. Typical ingredients include tomatoes, potatoes, onions, garlic, peppers, cucumbers, carrots, cabbage, mushrooms, spinach, zucchini, dried beans, fresh beans, plums, milk, paprika and cream called Pavlaka. Bosnian cuisine is balanced between Western and Eastern influences. As a result of the Ottoman administration for almost 500 years, Bosnian food is closely related to Turkish, Greek, and other former Ottoman and Mediterranean cuisines. However, because of years of Austrian rule, there are many influences from Central Europe. Typical meat dishes include primarily beef and lamb. Some local specialties are ćevapi, burek, dolma, sarma, pilav, goulash, ajvar and a whole range of Eastern sweets. Ćevapi is a grilled dish of minced meat, a type of kebab, popular in former Yugoslavia and considered a national dish in Bosnia and Herzegovina[154] and Serbia.[155][156][157] Local wines come from Herzegovina where the climate is suitable for growing grapes. Herzegovinian loza (similar to Italian Grappa but less sweet) is very popular. Plum (rakija) or apple (jabukovača) alcohol beverages are produced in the north. In the south, distilleries used to produce vast quantities of brandy and supply all of ex-Yugoslav alcohol factories (brandy is the base of most alcoholic drinks). Leisure activities Coffeehouses, where Bosnian coffee is served in džezva with rahat lokum and sugar cubes, proliferate Sarajevo and every city in the country. Coffee drinking is a favorite Bosnian pastime and part of the culture. Bosnia and Herzegovina is the tenth country in the entire world by per capita coffee consumption.[158] Sports See also: Bosnia and Herzegovina at the Olympics and Football in Bosnia and Herzegovina Edin Džeko, playing for the Bosnian national football team in the year 2015 The Asim Ferhatović Hase Stadium in Sarajevo hosted the opening ceremony to the 1984 Winter Olympics Bosnia and Herzegovina has produced many athletes, both as a state in Yugoslavia and independently after 1992. The most important international sporting event in the history of Bosnia and Herzegovina was the 14th Winter Olympics, held in Sarajevo from 7 to 19 February 1984. The Borac handball club has won seven Yugoslav Handball Championships, as well as the European Championship Cup in 1976 and the International Handball Federation Cup in 1991. Amel Mekić, Bosnian judoka, became European champion in 2011. Track and field athlete Amel Tuka won the bronze medal in 800 metres at the 2015 World Championships and Hamza Alić won the silver medal in shot put at the 2013 European Indoor Championships. The Bosna basketball club from Sarajevo were European Champions in 1979. The Yugoslav national basketball team, which won medals in every world championship from 1963 through 1990, included Bosnian players such as FIBA Hall of Famers Dražen Dalipagić and Mirza Delibašić. Bosnia and Herzegovina regularly qualifies for the European Championship in Basketball, with players including Mirza Teletović, Nihad Đedović and Jusuf Nurkić. Bosnia and Herzegovina national u-16 team won two gold medals in 2015, winning both 2015 European Youth Summer Olympic Festival as well as 2015 FIBA Europe Under-16 Championship. Women's basketball club Jedinstvo Aida from Tuzla won Women's European Club Championship in 1989 and Ronchetti Cup final in 1990, led by Razija Mujanović, three times best female European basketball player, and Mara Lakić. The Bosnian chess team was Champion of Yugoslavia seven times, in addition to club ŠK Bosna winning four European Chess Club Cups. Chess grandmaster Borki Predojević has also won two European Championships. The most impressive success of Bosnian Chess was runner-up position in Chess Olympiad of 1994 in Moscow, featuring Grandmasters Predrag Nikolić, Ivan Sokolov and Bojan Kurajica. Middle-weight boxer Marijan Beneš has won several Championships of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Yugoslav Championships and the European Championship.[159] In 1978, he won the World Title against Elisha Obed from the Bahamas. Association football is the most popular sport in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It dates from 1903, but its popularity grew significantly after World War I. Bosnian clubs FK Sarajevo and Željezničar, won the Yugoslav Championship, while the Yugoslav national football team included Bosnian players of all ethnic backgrounds and generations, such as Safet Sušić, Zlatko Vujović, Mehmed Baždarević, Davor Jozić, Faruk Hadžibegić, Predrag Pašić, Blaž Slišković, Vahid Halilhodžić, Dušan Bajević, Ivica Osim, Josip Katalinski, Tomislav Knez, Velimir Sombolac and numerous others. The Bosnia and Herzegovina national football team played at the 2014 FIFA World Cup, its first major tournament. Notable players on the team included Edin Džeko, Asmir Begović, Emir Spahić, Miralem Pjanić, Muhamed Bešić, and Vedad Ibišević. Former Bosnian footballers include Hasan Salihamidžić, who became only the second Bosnian to ever win a UEFA Champions League trophy, after Elvir Baljić. He made 234 appearances and scored 31 goals for German club FC Bayern Munich. Sergej Barbarez, who played for several clubs in the German Bundesliga including Borussia Dortmund, Hamburger SV and Bayer Leverkusen was joint-top scorer in the 2000–01 Bundesliga season with 22 goals. Meho Kodro spent most of his career playing in Spain most notably with Real Sociedad and FC Barcelona. Elvir Rahimić made 302 appearances for Russian club CSKA Moscow with whom he won the UEFA Cup in 2005. Milena Nikolić, member of women's national team, was 2013–14 UEFA Women's Champions League top scorer. Bosnia and Herzegovina was the world champion of volleyball at the 2004 Summer Paralympics and volleyball at the 2012 Summer Paralympics. Many among those on the team lost their legs in the Bosnian War. Tennis is also gaining a lot of popularity after the recent successes of Damir Džumhur and Mirza Bašić at Grand Slam level. Other notable tennis players who represented Bosnia are, Amer Delić and Mervana Jugić-Salkić.

See also Bosnia and Herzegovina portal Outline of Bosnia and Herzegovina

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Retrieved 12 February 2016.  ^ "Bosnia-Herzegovina – Telecoms Market Overview & Statistics Report Covers the Regulatory Environment, Major Players and Market Developments". 8 October 2008. Retrieved 3 January 2009.  ^ Udovicic, Radenko (3 May 2002). What is Happening with the Oldest Bosnian-Herzegovinian Daily: Oslobođenje to be sold for 4.7 Million Marks Southeast European Media Journal. ^ "Al Jazeera Launches Its Balkans Broadcast Centre". London: The Guardian. 11 November 2011.  ^ "Press Freedom Index". Reporters Without Borders. Archived from the original on 21 November 2011. Retrieved 12 February 2016.  ^ "Statistika Turizma" [Tourism Statistics] (PDF) (pdf). Agency for statistics of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Retrieved 4 July 2015.  ^ "Lonely Planet: Sarajevo 43th [sic] Best City in the World". Bosnia Travel. Archived from the original on 23 February 2007.  ^ "Press Centre & Lonely Planet Reveals Its Best Destinations, Journeys & Experiences for 2010". Lonely Planet. 2 November 2009. Archived from the original on 6 November 2010. Retrieved 4 January 2011.  ^ Polat, Anil (27 March 2012). "The Best City To Visit Travel Tournament 2012: Championship". Foxnomad. Retrieved 30 March 2012.  ^ RomeReports: Visionaries of Medjugorje may appear before the Vatican. Archived 5 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 26 February 2011. ^ Vatican Probes Claims of Apparitions at Medugorje Reuters. Retrieved 17 March 2010. ^ [1], ^ Bangs, Richard (10 January 2013). "13 Greatest Adventures For 2013". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 11 January 2013.  ^ ^ Caludio Agostoni, Parallelzero. "Exploring Tito's Cold War bunker".  ^ University of Sarajevo on Sarajevo official web site ^ "About University". University of Sarajevo. Archived from the original on 4 December 2008.  ^ "Education System in Bosnia and Herzegovina". – The European Education Directory.  ^ Hozić, 2008; Thompson & De Luce, 2002; Kurspahić, 2003; Jusić, 2006 ^ a b Tarik Jusić, "Bosnia and Herzegovina", EJC Media Landscapes ^ "Home Festival Awards & Juries: International Jury "Prizes Of The International Jury". 2016. Retrieved 23 February 2016.  ^ "Bosnia and Herzegovina". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2009. Retrieved 27 July 2009.  ^ The new Encyclopædia Britannica: A-ak – Bayes, Volume 1.  ^ Countries and Their Cultures: Saint Kitts and Nevis to Zimbabwe. p. 68.  ^ "Serbian cuisine". TravelSerbia.Info – Your travel guide for Serbia. Retrieved 9 August 2010.  ^ "Bosnian traditional coffee " World of Sevdah". 8 March 2007. Retrieved 19 May 2010.  ^ "Ring zamijenio nalivperom" (in Bosnian, Croatian, and Serbian). Nezavisne novine. 12 June 2005. Archived from the original on 1 October 2007. 

Bibliography Fine, John Van Antwerp, Jr. (1991). The Early Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century. University of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-0-472-08149-3.  Fine, John Van Antwerp, Jr. (1994). The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest. University of Michigan Press. ISBN 9780472082605.  Basic, Denis (2009). "4.1.1. Early Medieval Bosnia in Porphyrogenitus' De Administrando Imperio". The Roots of the Religious, Ethnic, and National Identity of the Bosnian-Herzegovinian Muslims. University of Washington.  Coupland, Nikolas (2010). The Handbook of Language and Globalization. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4051-7581-4.  Phillips, Douglas A. Bosnia and Herzegovina (Philadelphia: Chelsea House, 2004). Robin Okey, Taming Balkan Nationalism: The Habsburg 'Civilizing' Mission in Bosnia, 1878–1914 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007) Tomasevich, Jozo (2001). War and Revolution in Yugoslavia: 1941–1945. Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-7924-1. Retrieved 4 December 2013.  Albertini, Luigi (1952). The Origins of the War of 1914: European relations from the Congress of Berlin to the eve of the Sarajevo murder. Oxford University Press.  Albertini, Luigi (2005). Jochen Thies, ed. The Origins of the War of 1914. Enigma Books. ISBN 978-1-929631-26-1.  Malcolm, Noel (2002). Bosnia: A Short History. Pan Books. ISBN 978-0-330-41244-5.  Velikonja, Mitja (2003). Religious Separation and Political Intolerance in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Texas A&M University Press. ISBN 978-1-58544-226-3.  Bataković, Dušan T. (1996). The Serbs of Bosnia & Herzegovina: History and Politics. Dialogue Association. 

External links Find more aboutBosnia and Herzegovinaat Wikipedia's sister projects Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Learning resources from Wikiversity Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Bosnia and Herzegovina. CIA. "Bosnia and Herzegovina". The World Factbook. Retrieved 12 February 2016.  Bosnia and Herzegovina Corruption Profile from the Business Anti-Corruption Portal Bosnia and Herzegovina from UCB Libraries GovPubs Bosnia and Herzegovina at Facebook Bosnia and Herzegovina at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Relevant laws of Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia-Hercegovina profile from the BBC News. Wikimedia Atlas of Bosnia and Herzegovina Coordinates: 44°N 18°E / 44°N 18°E / 44; 18 Articles related to Bosnia and Herzegovina v t e Bosnia and Herzegovina topics History Illyricum Bosnian Kingdom Ottoman Bosnia and Herzegovina Kingdom of Yugoslavia World War II Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnian War Bosnia and Herzegovina Geography Cities Mountains Extreme points Rivers Lakes Climate Protected areas Fauna Governance Administrative divisions Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Republika Srpska Constitution Parliament Politics Presidency Chairman Council of Ministers Chairman Elections Political parties Foreign relations Government Law enforcement Armed Forces Economy Currency Central Bank Communications Tourism Transport Society Bosnians (Bosniaks, Croats, Serbs) Demographics Ethnic groups Religion Languages Education Human rights LGBT rights LGBT history Culture Architecture National monuments Art Cinema Music Cuisine (Ćevapi) Bosnian language Literature Public holidays Radio Television Symbols National Flag Coat of arms Anthem Decorations and medals v t e Political divisions of Bosnia and Herzegovina v t e Entities of Bosnia and Herzegovina Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Republika Srpska v t e Cantons of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina      Una-Sana  Central Bosnia  Posavina  Herzegovina-Neretva  Tuzla  West Herzegovina  Zenica-Doboj  Sarajevo  Bosnian Podrinje  Canton 10 v t e Districts of Bosnia and Herzegovina Brčko distrikt v t e Municipalities and cities in Bosnia and Herzegovina Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Cities Bihać Mostar Sarajevo (capital) Široki Brijeg Tuzla Zenica Municipalities Banovići Bosanska Krupa Bosanski Petrovac Bosansko Grahovo Breza Brčko Bugojno Busovača Bužim Čapljina Cazin Čelić Čitluk Drvar Doboj East Doboj South Dobretići Domaljevac-Šamac Donji Vakuf Foča-Ustikolina Fojnica Glamoč Goražde Gornji Vakuf-Uskoplje Gračanica Gradačac Grude Hadžići Ilidža Ilijaš Jablanica Jajce Kakanj Kalesija Kiseljak Kladanj Ključ Konjic Kreševo Kupres Livno Ljubuški Lukavac Maglaj Neum Novi Travnik Odžak Olovo Orašje Pale-Prača Posušje Prozor-Rama Ravno Sanski Most Sapna Sarajevo Centar Novi Grad Novo Sarajevo Stari Grad Srebrenik Stolac Teočak Tešanj Tomislavgrad Travnik Trnovo Usora Vareš Velika Kladuša Visoko Vitez Vogošća Zavidovići Žepče Živinice Republika Srpska Cities Banja Luka Bijeljina Doboj Istočno Sarajevo Prijedor Trebinje Municipalities Berkovići Bileća Brod Bratunac Brčko Čajniče Čelinac Derventa Donji Žabar Foča Gacko Gradiška Han Pijesak Istočni Drvar Istočni Mostar Istočno Sarajevo Istočna Ilidža Istočno Novo Sarajevo Istočni Stari Grad Pale Sokolac Trnovo Jezero Kalinovik Kneževo Kostajnica Kozarska Dubica Kotor Varoš Krupa na Uni Kupres Laktaši Ljubinje Lopare Milići Modriča Mrkonjić Grad Nevesinje Novi Grad Novo Goražde Osmaci Oštra Luka Pelagićevo Petrovac Petrovo Prnjavor Ribnik Rogatica Rudo Stanari Šamac Šekovići Šipovo Srbac Srebrenica Teslić Ugljevik Višegrad Vlasenica Vukosavlje Zvornik Geographic locale v t e Balkan Peninsula countries Geographically fully located Albania Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Kosovo1 Macedonia Montenegro Significantly located Serbia Greece Croatia Mostly outside of the peninsula Romania Slovenia Turkey See also Southeast Europe History of the Balkans Balkan languages (Sprachbund) Balkanization 1 Declared independence from Serbia on 17 February 2008 and is recognised by 113 United Nations member states. v t e Sovereign states and dependencies of Europe Sovereign states Albania Andorra Armenia2 Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus2 Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland1 Ireland Italy Kazakhstan Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom Vatican City States with limited recognition Abkhazia2 Artsakh2 Kosovo Northern Cyprus2 South Ossetia2 Transnistria Dependencies Denmark Faroe Islands1 autonomous country of the Kingdom of Denmark United Kingdom Akrotiri and Dhekelia2 Sovereign Base Areas Gibraltar British Overseas Territory Guernsey Isle of Man Jersey Crown dependencies Special areas of internal sovereignty Finland Åland Islands autonomous region subject to the Åland Convention of 1921 Norway Svalbard unincorporated area subject to the Svalbard Treaty United Kingdom Northern Ireland country of the United Kingdom subject to the British-Irish Agreement 1 Oceanic islands within the vicinity of Europe are usually grouped with the continent even though they are not situated on its continental shelf. 2 Some countries completely outside the conventional geographical boundaries of Europe are commonly associated with the continent due to ethnological links. v t e Countries and territories of the Mediterranean Sea Sovereign states Albania Algeria Bosnia-Herzegovina Croatia Cyprus Egypt France Greece Israel Italy Lebanon Libya Malta Monaco Montenegro Morocco Slovenia Spain Syria Tunisia Turkey Non-independent countries Catalonia Balearic Islands Corsica Sardinia Sicily States with limited recognition Northern Cyprus Palestine Dependencies and other territories Akrotiri and Dhekelia (UK) Gibraltar (UK) International membership v t e Council of Europe Institutions Secretary General Committee of Ministers Parliamentary Assembly Congress Court of Human Rights Commissioner for Human Rights Commission for the Efficiency of Justice Commission against Racism and Intolerance Members Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia1 Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom Observers Canada Holy See Israel Japan Mexico United States Sovereign Military Order of Malta Former members Czechoslovakia (1991–1992) Saar (assoc. 1950–1956) 1 Provisionally referred to by the Council of Europe as "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia"; see Macedonia naming dispute. v t e Enlargement and partners of the European Union Previous enlargements 1973 1981 1986 1995 2004 2007 2013 Statistics Negotiating  Montenegro (status)  Serbia (status)  Turkey (status) Candidate status  Albania (status)  Macedonia (status) Potential candidates  Bosnia and Herzegovina (status)  Kosovo* (under the Belgrade–Pristina agreement; status) Partnerships Free trade agreements  Iceland (relations)  Liechtenstein (relations)  Norway (relations)   Switzerland (relations) Eastern Partnership  Armenia (relations)  Azerbaijan (relations)  Belarus (relations)  Georgia (relations) (accession)  Moldova (relations)  Ukraine (relations) Northern Dimension  Russia (relations)  Norway (relations) Union for the Mediterranean  Algeria  Egypt  Israel (relations)  Jordan (relations)  Lebanon (relations)  Mauritania  Monaco  Morocco (relations)  Palestine (relations)  Syria  Tunisia Current membership Criteria Withdrawal v t e Members of the Central European Free Trade Agreement Albania Bosnia and Herzegovina Kosovo/UNMIK Macedonia Moldova Montenegro Serbia v t e Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) Members Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Canada Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Holy See Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Tajikistan Turkey Turkmenistan Ukraine United Kingdom United States Uzbekistan Partners for Cooperation Afghanistan Algeria Australia Egypt Israel Japan Jordan Morocco South Korea Thailand Tunisia Bodies and posts Parliamentary Assembly ODIHR Commissioner on National Minorities Representative on Freedom of the Media v t e Non-Aligned Movement Members List of members of Non-Aligned Movement India and the Non-Aligned Movement Yugoslavia and the Non-Aligned Movement Egypt and the Non-Aligned Movement Structure Organizations NAM News Network Principles Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence Summits Bandung Conference Non-Aligned Foreign Ministers Conference 16th Summit of the Non-Aligned Movement Founders Josip Broz Tito (Yugoslavia) Sukarno (Indonesia) Jawaharlal Nehru (India) Kwame Nkrumah (Ghana) Gamal Abdel Nasser (Egypt) People Houari Boumediene Fidel Castro Nelson Mandela Mohamed Morsi Nicolás Maduro v t e Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) Members Afghanistan Albania Algeria Azerbaijan Bahrain Bangladesh Benin Burkina Faso Brunei Cameroon Chad Comoros Djibouti Egypt Gabon Gambia Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Indonesia Iran Iraq Ivory Coast Jordan Kuwait Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Lebanon Libya Maldives Malaysia Mali Mauritania Morocco Mozambique Niger Nigeria Oman Pakistan Palestine Qatar Saudi Arabia Senegal Sierra Leone Somalia Sudan Suriname Tajikistan Turkey Tunisia Togo Turkmenistan Uganda Uzbekistan United Arab Emirates Yemen Suspended Syria Observers Countries and territories Bosnia and Herzegovina Central African Republic Northern Cyprus1 Russia Thailand Muslim communities Moro National Liberation Front International organizations Economic Cooperation Organization African Union Arab League Non-Aligned Movement United Nations 1 As the "Turkish Cypriot State". v t e Republics and autonomous provinces of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Bosnia and Herzegovina Croatia Macedonia Montenegro Serbia Vojvodina Kosovo Slovenia Authority control WorldCat Identities VIAF: 126120141 LCCN: n81035836 GND: 4088119-2 BNF: cb11709959t (data) HDS: 32206 NDL: 00577605 Retrieved from "" Categories: Bosnia and HerzegovinaBalkan countriesBosnian-speaking countries and territoriesCroatian-speaking countries and territoriesFederal republicsMember states of the Council of EuropeMember states of the Union for the MediterraneanMember states of the United NationsSerbian-speaking countries and territoriesSlavic countries and territoriesStates and territories established in 1992Countries in EuropeHidden categories: CS1 maint: Uses editors parameterWebarchive template wayback linksCS1 maint: Uses authors parameterCS1 Serbo-Croatian-language sources (sh)CS1 Bosnian-language sources (bs)CS1 Croatian-language sources (hr)CS1 Serbian-language sources (sr)Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pagesWikipedia indefinitely move-protected pagesUse dmy dates from February 2018Articles containing explicitly 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This Article Is Semi-protected.Bosnia (disambiguation)BiH (disambiguation)Flag Of Bosnia And HerzegovinaFlag Of Bosnia And HerzegovinaCoat Of Arms Of Bosnia And HerzegovinaCoat Of Arms Of Bosnia And HerzegovinaNational Anthem Of Bosnia And HerzegovinaLocation Of  Bosnia And Herzegovina  (green)in Europe  (dark Grey)EuropeSarajevoNational LanguageBosnian LanguageCroatian LanguageSerbian LanguageDemonymBosniansHerzegoviniansPolitics Of Bosnia And HerzegovinaFederal RepublicParliamentary SystemConstitution Of Bosnia And HerzegovinaRepublicHigh Representative For Bosnia And HerzegovinaValentin InzkoChairmen Of The Presidency Of Bosnia And HerzegovinaDragan ČovićPresidency Of Bosnia And HerzegovinaMladen IvanićBakir IzetbegovićChairman Of The Council Of Ministers Of Bosnia And HerzegovinaDenis ZvizdićParliamentary Assembly Of Bosnia And HerzegovinaUpper HouseHouse Of Peoples (Bosnia And Herzegovina)Lower HouseHouse Of Representatives Of Bosnia And HerzegovinaBanate Of BosniaKingdom Of 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