Contents 1 Commercial book scanners 2 Book scanning by organizations on a large scale 3 Destructive scanning methods 3.1 Unbinding 3.2 Cutting 3.3 Scanning 3.4 A test case: PGP 4 Non-destructive scanning 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

Commercial book scanners[edit] Sketch of a V-shaped book scanner from Atiz Sketch of a typical manual book scanner Commercial book scanners are not like normal scanners; these book scanners are usually a high quality digital camera with light sources on either side of the camera mounted on some sort of frame to provide easy access for a person or machine to flip the pages of the book. Some models involve V-shaped book cradles, which provide support for book spines and also center book position automatically. The advantage of this type of scanner is that it is very fast, compared to the productivity of overhead scanners.

Book scanning by organizations on a large scale[edit] This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Projects like Project Gutenberg (est. 1971), Million Book Project (est. circa 2001), Google Books (est. 2004), and the Open Content Alliance (est. 2005) scan books on a large scale. One of the main challenges to this is the sheer volume of books that must be scanned. In 2010 the total number of works appearing as books in human history was estimated to be around 130 million.[2] All of these must be scanned and then made searchable online for the public to use as a universal library. Currently, there are three main ways that large organizations are relying on: outsourcing, scanning in-house using commercial book scanners, and scanning in-house using robotic scanning solutions. As for outsourcing, books are often shipped to be scanned by low-cost sources to India or China. Alternatively, due to convenience, safety and technology improvement, many organizations choose to scan in-house by using either overhead scanners which are time-consuming, or digital camera-based scanning machines which are substantially faster and is a method employed by Internet Archive as well as Google. Traditional methods have included cutting off the book's spine and scanning the pages in a scanner with automatic page-feeding capability, with subsequent rebinding of the loose pages. Once the page is scanned, the data is either entered manually or via OCR, another major cost of the book scanning projects.[according to whom?] Due to copyright issues, most scanned books are those that are out of copyright; however, Google Book Search is known to scan books still protected under copyright unless the publisher specifically prohibits this.[citation needed]

Destructive scanning methods[edit] This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) For book scanning on a low budget, the least expensive method to scan a book or magazine is to cut off the binding. This converts the book or magazine into a sheaf of looseleaf papers, which can then be loaded into a standard automatic document feeder (ADF) and scanned using inexpensive and common scanning technology. While this is not a desirable solution for very old and uncommon books, it is a useful tool for book and magazine scanning where the book is not an expensive collector's item and replacement of the scanned content is easy. There are two technical difficulties with this process, first with the cutting and second with the scanning. Unbinding[edit] More precise and less destructive than cutting pages with a paper guillotine or razor or scissors is the technique of meticulous unbinding by hand, assisted with tools. This technique has been successfully employed for tens of thousands of pages of archival original paper scanned for the Riazanov Library digital archive project from newspapers and magazines and pamphlets, varying from 50 to 100 years old and more, and often composed of fragile, brittle paper. Although the monetary value for some collectors (and for most sellers of this sort of material) is destroyed by unbinding, unbinding in many cases actually greatly assists preservation of the physical pages themselves, making them more accessible to researchers and less likely to be damaged when subsequently examined. The down side is that unbound stacks of pages are "fluffed up", and therefore more exposed to oxygen in the air, which may in some cases (theoretically) speed deterioration. This can be addressed by putting weights on the pages after they are unbound, and storage in appropriate containers. Hand unbinding will preserve text that runs into the gutters of bindings, and most critically allows more easy and complete high quality scans to be made of two page wide material, such as center cartoons, graphic art, and photos in magazines. The digital archive of The Liberator 1918-1924 on Marxist Internet Archive nicely demonstrates the quality of two page wide graphic art scans made possible by careful hand unbinding prior to flat bed or other scanning. Unbinding techniques vary with the binding technology, from simply removing a few staples to unbending and removing nails to meticulous grinding down of layers of glue on the spine of a book to precisely the right point, followed by laborious removal of the string used to hold the book together. Note that with some newspapers (such as Labor Action 1950-1952) there are columns on the center facing pages that run right in-between the pages. Chopping off part of the spine of a bound volume of such papers will lose part of this text. Even the Greenwood Reprint of this publication failed to preserve the text content of those center columns, cutting off significant amounts of text there. Only when bound volumes of the original newspaper were meticulously unbound, and the opened pair of center pages were scanned as a single page on a flat bed scanner was the center column content made digitally available. Alternatively, one can present the two facing center pages as three scans. One of each individual page, and one of a page sized area situated over the center of the two pages. Cutting[edit] One method of cutting a stack of 500 to 1000 pages in one pass is accomplished with a guillotine paper cutter. This is a large steel table with a paper vise that screws down onto the stack and firmly secures it before cutting. The cut is accomplished with a large sharpened steel blade which moves straight down and cuts the entire length of each sheet all at once. A lever on the blade permits several hundred pounds of force to be applied to the blade for a quick one-pass cut. A clean cut through a thick stack of paper cannot be made with a traditional inexpensive sickle-shaped hinged paper cutter. These cutters are only intended for a few sheets, with up to ten sheets being the practical cutting limit. A large stack of paper applies torsional forces on the hinge, pulling the blade away from the cutting edge on the table. The cut becomes more inaccurate as the cut moves away from the hinge, and the force required to hold the blade against the cutting edge increases as the cut moves away from the hinge. The guillotine cutting process dulls the blade over time, requiring that it be resharpened. Coated paper such as slick magazine paper dulls the blade more quickly than plain book paper, due to the kaolinite clay coating. Additionally, removing the binding of an entire hardcover book causes excessive wear due to cutting through the cover's stiff backing material. Instead the outer cover can be removed and only interior pages need be cut. An alternate method of unbinding books is to use a table saw. While this method is potentially dangerous and does not leave as smooth an edge as the guillotine paper cutter method, it is more readily available to the average person. The ideal method is to clamp the book between two thick boards using heavy machine screws to provide the clamping force. The entire wood and book package is fed through the table saw using the rip fence as a guide. A sharp fine carbide tooth blade is ideal for generating an acceptable cut. The quality of the cut depends on the blade, feed rate, type of paper, paper coating, and binding material. Scanning[edit] Once the paper is liberated from the spine, it can be scanned one sheet at a time using a traditional flatbed scanner or automatic document feeder. Pages with a decorative riffled edging or curving in an arc due to a non-flat binding can be difficult to scan using an ADF. An ADF is designed to scan pages of uniform shape and size, and variably sized or shaped pages can lead to improper scanning. The riffled edges or curved edge can be guillotined off to render the outer edges flat and smooth before the binding is cut. The coated paper of magazines and bound textbooks can make them difficult for the rollers in an ADF to pick up and guide along the paper path. An ADF which uses a series of rollers and channels to flip sheets over may jam or misfeed when fed coated paper. Generally there are fewer problems by using as straight of a paper path as is possible, with few bends and curves. The clay can also rub off the paper over time and coat sticky pickup rollers, causing them to loosely grip the paper. The ADF rollers may need periodic cleaning to prevent this slipping. Magazines can pose a bulk-scanning challenge due to small nonuniform sheets of paper in the stack, such as magazine subscription cards and fold out pages. These need to be removed before the bulk scan begins, and are either scanned separately if they include worthwhile content, or are simply left out of the scan process. A test case: PGP[edit] In 1995, Phil Zimmerman published PGP Source Code and Internals as a $60 hardbound book, which under the First Amendment could legally be shipped abroad. The buyer could either display it in a library or destructively scan it so that the source code could be compiled via freely available GNU software into the Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) cryptosystem that the U.S. government regarded as a restricted munition. Zimmerman was being prosecuted for distributing PGP software and wanted to test the law in the courts. It was not directly tested, but export restrictions have eased: it is legal to export PGP anywhere but the seven countries and specified groups and individuals to which nothing can be exported from the U.S.

Non-destructive scanning[edit] An example of a DIY non-destructive book scanner/digitizer, with the book downwards design, allowing gravity to flatten pages Software driven machines and robots have been developed to scan books without the need of disbinding them in order to preserve both the contents of the document and create a digital image archive of its current state. This recent trend has been due in part to ever improving imaging technologies that allow a high quality digital archive image to be captured with little or no damage to a rare or fragile book in a reasonably short period of time. The first fully automated book scanner was the DL (Digitizing Line) scanner, manufactured by 4DigitalBooks in Switzerland. First known installation was at Stanford University in 2001.[3][4] Scanner received a Dow Jones Runner-Up award under Business Applications Category in 2001.[5] Play media Video of the robotic book scanner DL mini Most high-end commercial robotic scanners use traditional air and suction technology while some others use alternative approaches like bionic finger for turning the pages. Some scanners take advantage of Ultrasonic sensor or Photoelectric sensor to detect dual pages and prevent skipping of pages. With reports of machines being able to scan up to 2900 pages per hour[6] robotic book scanners are specifically designed for large-scale digitization projects. Google's patent 7508978 shows an infrared camera technology which allows to detect and automatically adjust the three-dimensional shape of the page.[7][8] Researchers from the University of Tokyo have an experimental non-destructive book scanner[9] that includes a 3D surface scanner to allow images of a curved page to be straightened in software. Thus the book or magazine can be scanned as quickly as the operator can flip through the pages; about 200 pages per minute.

See also[edit] Turning the pages in between taking scans. Digital library Institutional repository Optical character recognition Planetary scanner

References[edit] ^ "DIY High-Speed Book Scanner from Trash and Cheap Cameras". Retrieved 19 January 2014.  ^ Taycher, Leonid (2010-08-05). "As of Aug 5, 2010, google estimates that there are 129,864,880 different books in the world". Retrieved 2014-08-08.  ^ Davies, John. "4DigitalBooks launches digital book scanner". PrintWeek.  ^ "Stanford University Libraries (SUL) Robotic Book Scanner". Stanford University Libraries (SUL).  ^ "Technology Innovation Awards: Winners 2001". Dow Jones.  ^ Rapp, David. "Product Watch: Library Scanners". Library Journal. Retrieved 11 May 2014.  ^ US 7508978, Lefevere, Francois-Marie & Marin Saric, "Detection of grooves in scanned images", issued March 24, 2009, assigned to Google  ^ The Secret Of Google's Book Scanning Machine Revealed, by Maureen Clements, April 30, 2009. ^ Guizzo, Erico (2010-03-17). ""Superfast Scanner Lets You Digitize Book By Flipping Pages", IEEE Spectrum, March 17, 2010". Retrieved 2014-08-08. 

External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Book scanners. Do It Yourself book scanner device forum Google Open Source Linear Book Scanner Premier Non Destructive Book Scanning Service Stanford University video shows some book scanning University of Tokyo high speed scanner v t e Books Production Authors Binding By date Decade Year Covers Jackets Design Editing Illustration Literature Printing History Incunabula Publishing By country Typesetting Consumption Awards Bestsellers Bibliography Bibliophilia Bibliotherapy Bookmarks Bookselling Blurbs Book towns Shops Censorship Clubs Collecting Digitizing Fairs Furniture Bookcases Bookends Libraries Legislation Lists Print culture Reading Literacy Reviews Other By country Brazil France Germany Italy Pakistan UK US Formats Audiobooks E-books Genres Children's Fictional History of books Historians Intellectual property ISBN Outline Terminology Types Category Commons Portal WikiProject Retrieved from "" Categories: Book terminologyDigital librariesPublishingHidden categories: Articles needing additional references from January 2016All articles needing additional referencesArticles that may contain original research from January 2016All articles that may contain original researchArticles with multiple maintenance issuesAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from March 2013All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrasesArticles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from January 2016Articles with unsourced statements from April 2014

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