Contents 1 Designs 2 Applications 2.1 Law enforcement 2.2 Military combat 3 Privacy concerns 4 See also 5 References 6 External links


Designs[edit] Body worn cameras are often designed to be worn in one of three locations: on the torso, on or built into a helmet, and on or built into glasses. Some feature live streaming capabilities while others are based on local storage.


Applications[edit] Law enforcement[edit] Main article: Body worn video (police equipment) Wearable cameras are often utilized by law enforcement in several countries to record their interactions with the public or gather video evidence at crime scenes.[3][4] It has been suggested to increase both officer and citizen accountability, although arguments have been made that BWVs primarily protect police.[5] Because traumatic events may have an effect on memory, the cameras also allow video playback in the case of memory loss.[6] The first generation of 'modern' police body cameras was introduced around 2005 in the United Kingdom. Over twenty-three million dollars has been given to police departments all across the United States to put toward the implementation of body cameras. This is to further reduce police brutality and public inquiry.[7] JINGYI police body-worn camera Early research based on pilot projects has sometimes shown significant positive results. But the first meta-evaluation that was published in 2014 warned that more research is needed. This meta-evaluation was based on five evaluations from body camera projects in the United Kingdom (Plymouth 2007 and Renfrewshire/Aberdeen 2011) and the United States (Rialto, Mesa and Phoenix – all published in 2013). Most of these studies documented a reduction in citizen complaints against the police and, in some cases, similar reductions in use of force and assaults on officers. Most of these evaluations had 'significant methodological limitations', for instance no comparison group or no independent evaluation.[8] Later studies showed conflicting results. In a large-scale study in London from 2015, involving 2,000 police officers, complaints related to interactions with the public reduced, but not statistically significant. There was no impact on the number of stop and searches conducted, no difference in officers' self-reported behaviour relating to how they conducted stops, no effect on the proportion of arrests for violent crime and no evidence that the cameras changed the way police officers dealt with victims or suspects.[9] A 2017 study from Washington, D.C. including a large number of law enforcement officers showed no effect of body cameras on documented uses of force and civilian complaints, or on a variety of additional policing activities and judicial outcomes. The authors suggest 'we should recalibrate our expectations' of body worn cameras: "they may have great utility in specific policing scenarios, but we cannot conclude from this experiment that they can be expected to produce large, department-wide improvements in outcomes".[10] In reviewing the existing research on police body-worn cameras in 2017, University of Virginia economist Jennifer Doleac noted that the existing research was mixed as to whether the cameras reduce the use of force by police officers or increase the communities' trust in police.[2][11] But a reduction in complaints against police using excessive force does not necessarily mean there are fewer cases of misconduct, it could mean that citizens are just not speaking up or the body camera was not tuned on and the footage cannot be investigated. More time and research will allow a more precise answer to whether or not body worn cameras improve officer conduct.[12] As police departments increasingly implement body-worn cameras, the issue of failing to turn them on has also arisen. Actions have been introduced and viewed in the courts brought up by unions in such case of the ‘Boston Police Union’. As cameras become more of the standard, officers voiced possible apprehensions of department supervisors and uses as a way of the conduct review.[13] As of July 2017, only 10% of police shooting fatalities in the U.S. had been recorded by body-worn video for that year. Various other investigations have found shockingly low numbers of footage recorded as compared to the amount of time officers were on duty.[14] Studies show acceptance of the relatively new technology by Police officers is a problem where privacy is concerned.  There are fears that the body-worn cameras may capture private conversations and result in the unintended footage being used in court or for corrective action by superiors. Other factors that lead to low use have been shown to be based on officer demographics such as the officers age, gender, or years of service.[15] Another concern for law enforcement is storage costs. With many state and local police departments in the U.S. purchasing body-cameras for their officers, storage of the videos is becoming an obstacle.  Because departments in larger cities can generate body cam footage in excess of 10,000 hours a week, some of these agencies are utilizing cloud-based high-volume storage facilities.[16] Military combat[edit] Body worn cameras, as well as helmet cameras are used to document military combat.[17]


Privacy concerns[edit] Concerns over privacy have been raised with this technology, for example in the context of both Google Glasses and policing. Although this equipment has benefits in certain situations, the advent of large-scale data collection concerns, combined with facial recognition and other technologies capable of interpreting videos in bulk, means that any use of such cameras potentially creates a means of tracking much of the population at any time or place where other people may go. In policing, every police officer wearing this technology could become a "roving surveillance camera"[18] and with facial recognition technology, this could become a huge impact on people's everyday lives, especially those with any slight resemblance to a wanted fugitive or terrorist. This can lead to not only an increase in police harassment cases but racial bias cases as well. There are also issues concerning party consent laws.[19] In the context of recording, the biggest issues arise from whether consent from one or all parties is required before recording a conversation or interaction.[20] Federal and individual states have varying statutes regarding consent laws. The nature of police work has officers interacting with citizens during their most vulnerable moments,[21] such as citizens in the hospital, or domestic violence cases, there is also a threat of citizens not coming forward with tips for fear of being recorded. And in terms of the police officer's private contexts, they may forget to turn off cameras in the bathroom or in private conversations. These situations should be considered as the technology is developed further and the use of it is becoming more saturated. Departments will need to work with advocacy groups like the American Civil Liberties Union to develop policies that balance citizen's Fourth Amendment rights with the public's desire for transparency.[21]


See also[edit] Helmet camera Sousveillance


References[edit] ^ Visual Memory Prosthetic, 1996 ^ a b "Do Police Body-Worn Cameras Reduce the Use of Force? | Econofact". Econofact. 2017-11-17. Retrieved 2017-11-18.  ^ Bayley, David H.; Stenning, Philip C. (2016). Governing the Police: Experience in Six Democracies. Transaction Publishers. ISBN 1412862310.  ^ Hung, Esq.; Babin, MD; PhD.; Coberly, PhD., Vivian; Steven; Jacqueline. "A Market Survey on Body Worn Camera Technologies" (PDF). The Department of Justice's National Institute of Justice. Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Pelt, Mason. "Do police body cameras protect the public?". siliconangle.com. SiliconANGLE. Retrieved 5 November 2015.  ^ Cubitt, Timothy. "Body-worn video: A systematic review of literature". Retrieved 3 September 2017.  ^ Gimbel, V. N. (2016, August). Body cameras and criminal discovery. Georgetown Law Journal, 104(6), 1581+. Retrieved from http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?p=AONE&sw=w&u=mcc_pv&v=2.1&it=r&id=GALE%7CA481244344&sid=summon&asid=092d5e805811bd642795a0d0b8d4c426 ^ White, Michael D (2014). "Police Officer Body-Worn Cameras: Assessing the Evidence" (PDF). Washington, DC: Office of Community Oriented Policing Services. Retrieved 3 September 2017.  ^ Grossmith, Lynne; Owens, Catherine; Finn, Will (2015). Police, Camera, Evidence: London’s cluster randomised controlled trial of Body Worn Video (PDF). London: College of Policing.  ^ Yokum, David (2017). Evaluating the Effects of Police Body-Worn Cameras: A Randomized Controlled Trial (PDF). Washington D.C.: The Lab@DC.  ^ Doleac, Jennifer L. (2017-10-25). "Do body-worn cameras improve police behavior?". Brookings. Retrieved 2017-11-18.  ^ Template:"Considering police body cameras." Harvard Law Review, Apr. 2015, p. 1794+. LegalTrac, http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A412800618/LT?u=mcc pv&sid=LT&xid=6c6dea30. Accessed 25 Jan. 2018. ^ "Body-worn police cameras: separating fact from fiction: a look at [5] important claims about the technology". link.galegroup.com. Retrieved 2018-01-27.  ^ "Officers, turn on your body cameras". Washington Post. 2017-07-22. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2018-02-02.  ^ Obasi, Jonah (2018). "Police Officers' Perceptions of Body-Worn Camera Technology". Walden University ScholarWorks.  ^ Sanburn, Josh (January 25, 2016). "Storing Body Cam Data is the Next Big Challenge for Police". Time. Retrieved 2018-02-02.  ^ Bud, T. K. (2016). The Rise and Risks of Police Body-Worn Cameras in Canada. Surveillance & Society, 14(1), 117-121. ^ Tilley, Aaron. "Artificial Intelligence Is Coming To Police Bodycams, Raising Privacy Concerns". Forbes. Retrieved 2017-03-03.  ^ "How Police Body Cameras Work". HowStuffWorks. 2015-06-12. Retrieved 2017-03-03.  ^ "Recording Phone Calls and Conversations | Digital Media Law Project". www.dmlp.org. Retrieved 2017-03-03.  ^ a b "Police Perspective: The Pros & Cons of Police Body Cameras". www.rasmussen.edu. Retrieved 2017-04-16. 


External links[edit] Tanner S., Meyer M., Police work and new 'security devices' : a tale from the beat. Security Dialogue, 46 (4), 2015: 384-400. Police Body Cameras: What Do You See?. The New York Times. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Body_worn_video&oldid=827136789" Categories: Video surveillancePortable electronicsHidden categories: CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list


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