Contents 1 History of the concept 2 Classifications 2.1 Holdridge (1947, 1964) life zones 2.2 Allee (1949) biome-types 2.3 Kendeigh (1961) biomes 2.4 Whittaker (1962, 1970, 1975) biome-types 2.4.1 Key definitions for understanding Whittaker's scheme 2.4.2 Whittaker's parameters for classifying biome-types 2.4.3 Biome-types 2.5 Goodall (1974-) ecosystem types 2.6 Walter (1976, 2002) zonobiomes 2.7 Schultz (1988) ecozones 2.8 Bailey (1989) ecoregions 2.9 Olson & Dinerstein (1998) biomes for WWF / Global 200 2.9.1 Biogeographic realms (terrestrial and freshwater) 2.9.2 Biogeographic realms (marine) 2.9.3 Biomes (terrestrial) 2.9.4 Biomes (freshwater) 2.9.5 Biomes (marine) 2.9.6 Summary of the scheme 3 Other biomes 3.1 Marine biomes 3.2 Anthropogenic biomes 3.3 Microbial biomes 3.3.1 Endolithic biomes 4 See also 5 References 6 External links


History of the concept The term was suggested in 1916 by Clements, originally as a synonym for biotic community of Möbius (1877).[4] Later, it gained its current definition, based on earlier concepts of phytophysiognomy, formation and vegetation (used in opposition to flora), with the inclusion of the animal element and the exclusion of the taxonomic element of species composition.[5][6] In 1935, Tansley added the climatic and soil aspects to the idea, calling it ecosystem.[7][8] The International Biological Program (1964–74) projects popularized the concept of biome.[9] However, in some contexts, the term biome is used in a different manner. In German literature, particularly in the Walter terminology, the term is used similarly as biotope (a concrete geographical unit), while the biome definition used in this article is used as an international, non-regional, terminology - irrespectively of the continent in which an area is present, it takes the same biome name - and corresponds to his "zonobiome", "orobiome" and "pedobiome" (biomes determinated by climate zone, altitude or soil).[10] In Brazilian literature, the term "biome" is sometimes used as synonym of "biogeographic province", an area based on species composition (the term "floristic province" being used when plant species are considered), or also as synonym of the "morphoclimatic and phytogeographical domain" of Ab'Sáber, a geographic space with subcontinental dimensions, with the predominance of similar geomorphologic and climatic characteristics, and of a certain vegetation form. Both includes many biomes in fact.[5][11][12]


Classifications To divide the world in a few ecological zones is a difficult attempt, notably because of the small-scale variations that exist everywhere on earth and because of the gradual changeover from one biome to the other. Their boundaries must therefore be drawn arbitrarily and their characterization made according to the average conditions that predominate in them.[13] A 1978 study on North American grasslands[14] found a positive logistic correlation between evapotranspiration in mm/yr and above-ground net primary production in g/m2/yr. The general results from the study were that precipitation and water use led to above-ground primary production, while solar irradiation and temperature lead to below-ground primary production (roots), and temperature and water lead to cool and warm season growth habit.[15] These findings help explain the categories used in Holdridge’s bioclassification scheme (see below), which were then later simplified by Whittaker. The number of classification schemes and the variety of determinants used in those schemes, however, should be taken as strong indicators that biomes do not fit perfectly into the classification schemes created. Holdridge (1947, 1964) life zones Main article: Holdridge life zones Holdridge classified climates based on the biological effects of temperature and rainfall on vegetation under the assumption that these two abiotic factors are the largest determinants of the types of vegetation found in a habitat. Holdridge uses the four axes to define 30 so-called "humidity provinces", which are clearly visible in his diagram. While this scheme largely ignores soil and sun exposure, Holdridge acknowledged that these were important. Allee (1949) biome-types The principal biome-types by Allee (1949):[16] Tundra Taiga Deciduous forest Grasslands Desert High plateaus Tropical forest Minor terrestrial biomes Kendeigh (1961) biomes The principal biomes of the world by Kendeigh (1961):[17] Terrestrial Temperate deciduous forest Coniferous forest Woodland Chaparral Tundra Grassland Desert Tropical savanna Tropical forest Marine Oceanic plankton and nekton Balanoid-gastropod-thallophyte Pelecypod-annelid Coral reef Whittaker (1962, 1970, 1975) biome-types The distribution of vegetation types as a function of mean annual temperature and precipitation. Whittaker classified biomes using two abiotic factors: precipitation and temperature. His scheme can be seen as a simplification of Holdridge's; more readily accessible, but missing Holdridge's greater specificity. Whittaker based his approach on theoretical assertions and empirical sampling. He was in a unique position to make such a holistic assertion because he had previously compiled a review of biome classifications.[18] Key definitions for understanding Whittaker's scheme Physiognomy: the apparent characteristics, outward features, or appearance of ecological communities or species. Biome: a grouping of terrestrial ecosystems on a given continent that are similar in vegetation structure, physiognomy, features of the environment and characteristics of their animal communities. Formation: a major kind of community of plants on a given continent. Biome-type: grouping of convergent biomes or formations of different continents, defined by physiognomy. Formation-type:a grouping of convergent formations. Whittaker's distinction between biome and formation can be simplified: formation is used when applied to plant communities only, while biome is used when concerned with both plants and animals. Whittaker's convention of biome-type or formation-type is simply a broader method to categorize similar communities.[19] Whittaker's parameters for classifying biome-types Whittaker, seeing the need for a simpler way to express the relationship of community structure to the environment, used what he called "gradient analysis" of ecocline patterns to relate communities to climate on a worldwide scale. Whittaker considered four main ecoclines in the terrestrial realm.[19] Intertidal levels: The wetness gradient of areas that are exposed to alternating water and dryness with intensities that vary by location from high to low tide Climatic moisture gradient Temperature gradient by altitude Temperature gradient by latitude Along these gradients, Whittaker noted several trends that allowed him to qualitatively establish biome-types: The gradient runs from favorable to extreme, with corresponding changes in productivity. Changes in physiognomic complexity vary with how favorable of an environment exists (decreasing community structure and reduction of stratal differentiation as the environment becomes less favorable). Trends in diversity of structure follow trends in species diversity; alpha and beta species diversities decrease from favorable to extreme environments. Each growth-form (i.e. grasses, shrubs, etc.) has its characteristic place of maximum importance along the ecoclines. The same growth forms may be dominant in similar environments in widely different parts of the world. Whittaker summed the effects of gradients (3) and (4) to get an overall temperature gradient, and combined this with gradient (2), the moisture gradient, to express the above conclusions in what is known as the Whittaker classification scheme. The scheme graphs average annual precipitation (x-axis) versus average annual temperature (y-axis) to classify biome-types. Biome-types Tropical rainforest Tropical seasonal rainforest deciduous semideciduous Temperate giant rainforest Montane rainforest Temperate deciduous forest Temperate evergreen forest needleleaf sclerophyll Subarctic-subalpin needle-leaved forests (taiga) Elfin woodland Thorn forests and woodlands Thorn scrub Temperate woodland Temperate shrublands deciduous heath sclerophyll subalpine-needleleaf subalpine-broadleaf Savanna Temperate grassland Alpine grasslands Tundra Tropical desert Warm-temperate desert Cool temperate desert scrub Arctic-alpine desert Bog Tropical fresh-water swamp forest Temperate fresh-water swamp forest Mangrove swamp Salt marsh Wetland[20] Goodall (1974-) ecosystem types ... The multiauthored series Ecosystems of the world, edited by David W. Goodall, provides a comprehensive coverage of the major "ecosystem types or biomes" on earth:[21] Terrestrial Ecosystems Natural Terrestrial Ecosystems Wet Coastal Ecosystems Dry Coastal Ecosystems Polar and Alpine Tundra Mires: Swamp, Bog, Fen and Moor Temperate Deserts and Semi-Deserts Coniferous Forests Temperate Deciduous Forests Natural Grasslands Heathlands and Related Shrublands Temperate Broad-Leaved Evergreen Forests Mediterranean-Type Shrublands Hot Deserts and Arid Shrublands Tropical Savannas Tropical Rain Forest Ecosystems Wetland Forests Ecosystems of Disturbed Ground Managed Terrestrial Ecosystems Managed Grasslands Field Crop Ecosystems Tree Crop Ecosystems Greenhouse Ecosystems Bioindustrial Ecosystems Aquatic Ecosystems Inland Aquatic Ecosystems River and Stream Ecosystems Lakes and Reservoirs Marine Ecosystems Intertidal and Littoral Ecosystems Coral Reefs Estuaries and Enclosed Seas Ecosystems of the Continental Shelves Ecosystems of the Deep Ocean Managed Aquatic Ecosystems Managed Aquatic Ecosystems Underground Ecosystems Cave Ecosystems Walter (1976, 2002) zonobiomes The eponymously-named Heinrich Walter classification scheme considers the seasonality of temperature and precipitation. The system, also assessing precipitation and temperature, finds nine major biome types, with the important climate traits and vegetation types. The boundaries of each biome correlate to the conditions of moisture and cold stress that are strong determinants of plant form, and therefore the vegetation that defines the region. Extreme conditions, such as flooding in a swamp, can create different kinds of communities within the same biome.[10][22][23] Zonobiome Zonal soil type Zonal vegetation type ZB I. Equatorial, always moist, little temperature seasonality Equatorial brown clays Evergreen tropical rainforest ZB II. Tropical, summer rainy season and cooler “winter” dry season Red clays or red earths Tropical seasonal forest, seasonal dry forest, scrub, or savanna ZB III. Subtropical, highly seasonal, arid climate Serosemes, sierozemes Desert vegetation with considerable exposed surface ZB IV. Mediterranean, winter rainy season and summer drought Mediterranean brown earths Sclerophyllous (drought-adapted), frost-sensitive shrublands and woodlands ZB V. Warm temperate, occasional frost, often with summer rainfall maximum Yellow or red forest soils, slightly podsolic soils Temperate evergreen forest, somewhat frost-sensitive ZB VI. Nemoral, moderate climate with winter freezing Forest brown earths and grey forest soils Frost-resistant, deciduous, temperate forest ZB VII. Continental, arid, with warm or hot summers and cold winters Chernozems to serozems Grasslands and temperate deserts ZB VIII. Boreal, cold temperate with cool summers and long winters Podsols Evergreen, frost-hardy, needle-leaved forest (taiga) ZB IX. Polar, short, cool summers and long, cold winters Tundra humus soils with solifluction (permafrost soils) Low, evergreen vegetation, without trees, growing over permanently frozen soils Schultz (1988) ecozones Schultz (1988) defined nine ecozones (note that his concept of ecozone is more similar to the concept of biome used in this article than to the concept of ecozone of BBC):[24] polar/subpolar zone boreal zone humid mid-latitudes arid mid-latitudes tropical/subtropical arid lands Mediterranean-type subtropics seasonal tropics humid subtropics humid tropics Bailey (1989) ecoregions Robert G. Bailey nearly developed a biogeographical classification system of ecoregions for the United States in a map published in 1976. He subsequently expanded the system to include the rest of North America in 1981, and the world in 1989. The Bailey system, based on climate, is divided into seven domains (polar, humid temperate, dry, humid, and humid tropical), with further divisions based on other climate characteristics (subarctic, warm temperate, hot temperate, and subtropical; marine and continental; lowland and mountain).[25][26] 100 Polar Domain 120 Tundra Division (Köppen: Ft) M120 Tundra Division – Mountain Provinces 130 Subarctic Division (Köppen: E) M130 Subarctic Division – Mountain Provinces 200 Humid Temperate Domain 210 Warm Continental Division (Köppen: portion of Dcb) M210 Warm Continental Division – Mountain Provinces 220 Hot Continental Division (Köppen: portion of Dca) M220 Hot Continental Division – Mountain Provinces 230 Subtropical Division (Köppen: portion of Cf) M230 Subtropical Division – Mountain Provinces 240 Marine Division (Köppen: Do) M240 Marine Division – Mountain Provinces 250 Prairie Division (Köppen: arid portions of Cf, Dca, Dcb) 260 Mediterranean Division (Köppen: Cs) M260 Mediterranean Division – Mountain Provinces 300 Dry Domain 310 Tropical/Subtropical Steppe Division M310 Tropical/Subtropical Steppe Division – Mountain Provinces 320 Tropical/Subtropical Desert Division 330 Temperate Steppe Division 340 Temperate Desert Division 400 Humid Tropical Domain 410 Savanna Division 420 Rainforest Division Olson & Dinerstein (1998) biomes for WWF / Global 200 Main article: Global 200 A team of biologists convened by the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) developed a scheme that divided the world's land area into biogeographic realms (called "ecozones" in a BBC scheme), and these into ecoregions (Olson & Dinerstein, 1998, etc.). Each ecoregion is characterized by a main biome (also called major habitat type).[27][28] This classification is used to define the Global 200 list of ecoregions identified by the WWF as priorities for conservation.[27] For the terrestrial ecoregions, there is a specific EcoID, format XXnnNN (XX is the biogeographic realm, nn is the biome number, NN is the individual number). Biogeographic realms (terrestrial and freshwater) NA: Nearctic PA: Palearctic AT: Afrotropic IM: Indomalaya AA: Australasia NT: Neotropic OC: Oceania AN: Antarctic[28] The applicability of the realms scheme above - based on Udvardy (1975) - to most freshwater taxa is unresolved.[29] Biogeographic realms (marine) Arctic Temperate Northern Atlantic Temperate Northern Pacific Tropical Atlantic Western Indo-Pacific Central Indo-Pacific Eastern Indo-Pacific Tropical Eastern Pacific Temperate South America Temperate Southern Africa Temperate Australasia Southern Ocean[30] Biomes (terrestrial) Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests (tropical and subtropical, humid) Tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests (tropical and subtropical, semihumid) Tropical and subtropical coniferous forests (tropical and subtropical, semihumid) Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests (temperate, humid) Temperate coniferous forests (temperate, humid to semihumid) Boreal forests/taiga (subarctic, humid) Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands (tropical and subtropical, semiarid) Temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands (temperate, semiarid) Flooded grasslands and savannas (temperate to tropical, fresh or brackish water inundated) Montane grasslands and shrublands (alpine or montane climate) Tundra (Arctic) Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub or sclerophyll forests (temperate warm, semihumid to semiarid with winter rainfall) Deserts and xeric shrublands (temperate to tropical, arid) Mangrove (subtropical and tropical, salt water inundated)[28] Biomes (freshwater) According to the WWF, the following are classified as freshwater biomes:[31] Large lakes Large river deltas Polar freshwaters Montane freshwaters Temperate coastal rivers Temperate floodplain rivers and wetlands Temperate upland rivers Tropical and subtropical coastal rivers Tropical and subtropical floodplain rivers and wetlands Tropical and subtropical upland rivers Xeric freshwaters and endorheic basins Oceanic islands Biomes (marine) Biomes of the coastal and continental shelf areas (neritic zone): Polar Temperate shelves and sea Temperate upwelling Tropical upwelling Tropical coral[32] Summary of the scheme Biosphere Biogeographic realms (terrestrial) (8) Ecoregions (867), each characterized by a main biome type (14) Ecosystems (biotopes) Biosphere Biogeographic realms (freshwater) (8) Ecoregions (426), each characterized by a main biome type (12) Ecosystems (biotopes) Biosphere Biogeographic realms (marine) (12) (Marine provinces) (62) Ecoregions (232), each characterized by a main biome type (5) Ecosystems (biotopes) Example: Biosphere Biogeographic realm: Palearctic Ecoregion: Dinaric Mountains mixed forests (PA0418); biome type: temperate broadleaf and mixed forests Ecosystem: Orjen, vegetation belt between 1,100–1,450 m, Oromediterranean zone, nemoral zone (temperate zone) Biotope: Oreoherzogio-Abietetum illyricae Fuk. (Plant list) Plant: Silver fir (Abies alba)


Other biomes Marine biomes Further information: Marine habitats Pruvot (1896) zones or "systems":[33] Litoral zone Pelagic zone Abyssal zone Longhurst (1998) biomes:[34] Coastal Polar Trade wind Westerly Other marine habitat types (not covered yet by the Global 200/WWF scheme):[citation needed] Open sea Deep sea Hydrothermal vents Cold seeps Benthic zone Pelagic zone (trades and westerlies) Abyssal Hadal (ocean trench) Littoral/Intertidal zone Kelp forest Pack ice Anthropogenic biomes Humans have altered global patterns of biodiversity and ecosystem processes. As a result, vegetation forms predicted by conventional biome systems can no longer be observed across much of Earth's land surface as they have been replaced by crop and rangelands or cities. Anthropogenic biomes provide an alternative view of the terrestrial biosphere based on global patterns of sustained direct human interaction with ecosystems, including agriculture, human settlements, urbanization, forestry and other uses of land. Anthropogenic biomes offer a new way forward in ecology and conservation by recognizing the irreversible coupling of human and ecological systems at global scales and moving us toward an understanding of how best to live in and manage our biosphere and the anthropogenic biomes we live in. Major anthropogenic biomes: Dense settlements Croplands Rangelands Forested Indoor[35] Microbial biomes Further information: Habitat § Microhabitats Endolithic biomes The endolithic biome, consisting entirely of microscopic life in rock pores and cracks, kilometers beneath the surface, has only recently been discovered, and does not fit well into most classification schemes.[36]


See also Environment portal Ecology portal Earth sciences portal Biology portal Sustainable development portal Biomics Ecosystem Ecotope Climate classification Life zones Natural environment


References ^ The World's Biomes, Retrieved August 19, 2008, from University of California Museum of Paleontology ^ Cain, Michael; Bowman, William; Hacker, Sally (2014). Ecology (Third ed.). Massachusetts: Sinauer. p. 51. ISBN 9780878939084.  ^ "Finally, A Map Of All The Microbes On Your Body". NPR.org.  ^ Clements, F. E. 1917. The development and structure of biotic communities. J. Ecology 5:120–121. Abstract of a talk in 1916, [1]. ^ a b Coutinho, L. M. (2006). O conceito de bioma. Acta Bot. Bras. 20(1): 13-23, [2]. ^ Martins, F. R. & Batalha, M. A. (2011). Formas de vida, espectro biológico de Raunkiaer e fisionomia da vegetação. In: Felfili, J. M., Eisenlohr, P. V.; Fiuza de Melo, M. M. R.; Andrade, L. A.; Meira Neto, J. A. A. (Org.). Fitossociologia no Brasil: métodos e estudos de caso. Vol. 1. Viçosa: Editora UFV. p. 44-85. [3]. Earlier version, 2003, [4]. ^ Cox, C. B., Moore, P.D. & Ladle, R. J. 2016. Biogeography: an ecological and evolutionary approach. 9th edition. John Wiley & Sons: Hoboken, p. 20, [5]. ^ Tansley, A.G. (1935). The use and abuse of vegetational terms and concepts. Ecology 16 (3): 284–307, "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-10-06. Retrieved 2016-09-24. . ^ Box, E.O. & Fujiwara, K. (2005). Vegetation types and their broad-scale distribution. In: van der Maarel, E. (ed.). Vegetation ecology. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford. pp 106–128, [6]. ^ a b Walter, H. & Breckle, S-W. (2002). Walter's Vegetation of the Earth: The Ecological Systems of the Geo-Biosphere. New York: Springer-Verlag, p. 86, [7]. ^ Batalha, M.A. (2011). The Brazilian cerrado is not a biome. Biota Neotrop. 11:21–4, [8]. ^ Fiaschi, P.; Pirani, J.R. 2009. Review of plant biogeographic studies in Brazil. Journal of Systematics and Evolution, v. 47, p. 477-496. Disponível em: <https://www.researchgate.net/publication/249500929_Review_of_plant_biogeographic_studies_in_Brazil>. ^ Schultz, Jürgen (1995). The ecozones of the world. pp. 2–3. ISBN 3540582932.  ^ Sims, Phillip L.; Singh, J.S. (July 1978). "The Structure and Function of Ten Western North American Grasslands: III. Net Primary Production, Turnover and Efficiencies of Energy Capture and Water Use". Journal of Ecology. British Ecological Society. 66 (2): 573–597. doi:10.2307/2259152.  ^ Pomeroy, Lawrence R. and James J. Alberts, editors. Concepts of Ecosystem Ecology. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1988. ^ Allee, W.C. (1949). Principles of animal ecology. Philadelphia, Saunders Co., [9]. ^ Kendeigh, S.C. (1961). Animal ecology. Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall, [Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall,1961.]. ^ Whittaker, Robert H., Botanical Review, Classification of Natural Communities, Vol. 28, No. 1 (Jan–Mar 1962), pp. 1–239. ^ a b Whittaker, Robert H. Communities and Ecosystems. New York: MacMillan Publishing Company, Inc., 1975. ^ Whittaker, R. H. (1970). Communities and Ecosystems. Toronto, p. 51–64, [10]. ^ Goodall, D. W. (editor-in-chief). Ecosystems of the World. Elsevier, Amsterdam. 36 vol., 1974-, [11]. ^ Walter, H. 1976. Die ökologischen Systeme der Kontinente (Biogeosphäre). Prinzipien ihrer Gliederung mit Beispielen. Stuttgart. ^ Walter, H. & Breckle, S-W. (1991). Ökologie der Erde, Band 1, Grundlagen. Stuttgart. ^ Schultz, J. Die Ökozonen der Erde, 1st ed., Ulmer, Stuttgart, Germany, 1988, 488 pp.; 2nd ed., 1995, 535 pp.; 3rd ed., 2002. Transl.: The Ecozones of the World: The Ecological Divisions of the Geosphere. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1995; 2nd ed., 2005, [12]. ^ http://www.fs.fed.us/land/ecosysmgmt/index.html Bailey System, US Forest Service ^ Bailey, R. G. 1989. Explanatory supplement to ecoregions map of the continents. Environmental Conservation 16: 307-309. [With map of land-masses of the world, "Ecoregions of the Continents — Scale 1 : 30,000,000", published as a supplement.] ^ a b Olson, D. M. & E. Dinerstein (1998). The Global 200: A representation approach to conserving the Earth’s most biologically valuable ecoregions. Conservation Biol. 12:502–515, [13]. ^ a b c Olson, D. M., Dinerstein, E., Wikramanayake, E. D., Burgess, N. D., Powell, G. V. N., Underwood, E. C., D'Amico, J. A., Itoua, I., Strand, H. E., Morrison, J. C., Loucks, C. J., Allnutt, T. F., Ricketts, T. H., Kura, Y., Lamoreux, J. F., Wettengel, W. W., Hedao, P., Kassem, K. R. (2001). Terrestrial ecoregions of the world: a new map of life on Earth. Bioscience 51(11):933-938, [14]. ^ Abell, R., M. Thieme, C. Revenga, M. Bryer, M. Kottelat, N. Bogutskaya, B. Coad, N. Mandrak, S. Contreras-Balderas, W. Bussing, M. L. J. Stiassny, P. Skelton, G. R. Allen, P. Unmack, A. Naseka, R. Ng, N. Sindorf, J. Robertson, E. Armijo, J. Higgins, T. J. Heibel, E. Wikramanayake, D. Olson, H. L. Lopez, R. E. d. Reis, J. G. Lundberg, M. H. Sabaj Perez, and P. Petry. (2008). Freshwater ecoregions of the world: A new map of biogeographic units for freshwater biodiversity conservation. BioScience 58:403-414, [15]. ^ Spalding, M. D. et al. (2007). Marine ecoregions of the world: a bioregionalization of coastal and shelf areas. BioScience 57: 573-583, [16]. ^ "Freshwater Ecoregions of the World: Major Habitat Types" "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-10-07. Retrieved 2008-05-13. . Accessed May 12, 2008. ^ WWF: Marine Ecoregions of the World ^ Pruvot, G. Conditions générales de la vie dans les mers et principes de distribution des organismes marins: Année Biologique, vol. 2, pp. 559—587, 1896, [17]. ^ Longhurst, A. 1998. Ecological Geography of the Sea. San Diego: Academic Press, [18]. ^ Zimmer, Carl (March 19, 2015). "The Next Frontier: The Great Indoors". New York Times. Retrieved March 2015.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help) ^ "What is the Endolithic Biome? (with picture)". wiseGEEK. 


External links This section's use of external links may not follow Wikipedia's policies or guidelines. Please improve this article by removing excessive or inappropriate external links, and converting useful links where appropriate into footnote references. (March 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Look up Biome in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. "Biomes". Encyclopedia of Earth.  Biomes of the world (Missouri Botanic Garden) Global Currents and Terrestrial Biomes Map WorldBiomes.com is a site covering the 5 principal world biome types: aquatic, desert, forest, grasslands, and tundra. UWSP's online textbook The Physical Environment: – Earth Biomes Panda.org's Habitats – describes the 14 major terrestrial habitats, 7 major freshwater habitats, and 5 major marine habitats. Panda.org's Habitats Simplified – provides simplified explanations for 10 major terrestrial and aquatic habitat types. UCMP Berkeley's The World's Biomes – provides lists of characteristics for some biomes and measurements of climate statistics. Gale/Cengage has an excellent Biome Overview of terrestrial, aquatic, and man-made biomes with a particular focus on trees native to each, and has detailed descriptions of desert, rain forest, and wetland biomes. Islands Of Wildness, The Natural Lands Of North America by Jim Bones, a video about continental biomes and climate change. Dreams Of The Earth, Love Songs For A Troubled Planet by Jim Bones, a poetic video about the North American Biomes and climate change. NASA's Earth Observatory Mission: Biomes gives an exemplar of each biome that is described in detail and provides scientific measurements of the climate statistics that define each biome. v t e Biogeographic regionalisations Biomes Terrestrial biomes Polar/montane Tundra Taiga Montane grasslands and shrublands Temperate Coniferous forests Broadleaf and mixed forests Deciduous forests Grasslands, savannas, and shrublands Tropical and subtropical Coniferous forests Moist broadleaf forests Dry broadleaf forests Grasslands, savannas, and shrublands Dry Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub Deserts and xeric shrublands Wet Flooded grasslands and savannas Riparian Wetland Aquatic biomes Pond Littoral Intertidal Mangroves Kelp forests Coral reefs Neritic zone Pelagic zone Benthic zone Hydrothermal vents Cold seeps Demersal zone Other biomes Endolithic zone Biogeographic realms Terrestrial Afrotropical Antarctic Australasian Nearctic Palearctic Indomalayan Neotropical Oceanian Marine Arctic Temperate Northern Pacific Tropical Atlantic Western Indo-Pacific Central Indo-Pacific Tropical Eastern Pacific Subdivisions Biogeographic provinces Bioregions Ecoregions List of ecoregions Global 200 ecoregions See also Ecological land classification Floristic kingdoms Vegetation classifications Zoogeographic regions Authority control GND: 4132387-7 Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Biome&oldid=821673039" Categories: BiomesHabitatsHidden categories: CS1 errors: datesWikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalismArticles needing additional references from August 2012All articles needing additional referencesAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from September 2016Pages using div col without cols and colwidth parametersWikipedia external links cleanup from March 2017Wikipedia spam cleanup from March 2017Wikipedia articles with GND identifiers


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This Article Is Semi-protected Until September 19, 2020, Due To VandalismVegetation TypeWikipedia:VerifiabilityHelp:Introduction To Referencing With Wiki Markup/1Help:Maintenance Template RemovalEnlargeHelp:IPA/EnglishHabitatHuman MicrobiomeBiosphereFrederic ClementsBiotic CommunityKarl MöbiusPhysiognomyFormation (vegetation)VegetationFloraArthur TansleyEcosystemInternational Biological ProgramHeinrich WalterBiotopeBiogeographic ProvinceFloristic ProvinceAziz Ab'SáberLogistic RegressionEvapotranspirationSunlightHoldridge Life ZonesRainfallVegetationAbioticTundraTaigaDesertTemperatePinophytaWoodlandChaparralTundraGrasslandDesertSavannaTropicalNektonThallophytePelecypodCoralEnlargeRobert Harding WhittakerPhysiognomyFormation (vegetation)Plant CommunitiesEcoclineDavid W. GoodallHeinrich WalterVegetation TypeEquatorial RegionTropical RainforestTropicalTropical Seasonal ForestTropical And Subtropical Dry Broadleaf ForestsSubtropicalAridMediterraneanSclerophyllNemoralDeciduousContinental ClimateBoreal ClimateTaigaPolar ClimateEcozoneRobert Bailey (geographer)BiogeographyEcoregionTundraIce Cap ClimateTundraHumid Continental ClimateHumid Continental ClimateHumid Subtropical ClimateOceanic ClimateHumid Subtropical ClimateHumid Continental ClimateHumid Continental ClimateMediterranean ClimateGlobal 200World Wide Fund For NatureBiogeographic RealmEcoregionsGlobal 200EcoregionTerrestrial EcoregionsBiogeographic RealmNearcticPalearcticAfrotropicIndomalayaAustralasia EcozoneNeotropicOceania EcozoneAntarctic EcozoneArcticTemperate Northern PacificTropical AtlanticWestern Indo-PacificCentral Indo-PacificTropical Eastern PacificSouthern OceanTropical And Subtropical Moist Broadleaf ForestsTropical And Subtropical Dry Broadleaf ForestsTropical And Subtropical Coniferous ForestsTemperate Broadleaf And Mixed ForestsTemperate Coniferous ForestsTaigaTropical And Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, And ShrublandsTemperate Grasslands, Savannas, And ShrublandsFlooded Grasslands And SavannasMontane Grasslands And ShrublandsTundraMediterranean Forests, Woodlands, And ScrubSclerophyll ForestDeserts And Xeric ShrublandsMangroveFreshwaterLakeRiver DeltasFreshwaterFreshwaterUpland And Lowland (freshwater Ecology)WetlandUpland And Lowland (freshwater Ecology)Upland And Lowland (freshwater Ecology)WetlandUpland And Lowland (freshwater Ecology)Endorheic BasinOceanic IslandsContinental ShelfNeritic ZoneUpwellingUpwellingCoral ReefBiosphereBiogeographic RealmEcoregionsEcosystemsBiotopeBiosphereBiogeographic RealmEcoregionsEcosystemsBiosphereEcoregionEcoregionsEcosystemsBiosphereBiogeographic RealmPalearcticEcoregionDinaric Mountains Mixed ForestsTemperate Broadleaf And Mixed ForestsEcosystemOrjenBiotopeDinaric Calcareous Block Fir ForestAbies AlbaMarine HabitatsLitoralPelagic ZoneAbyssal ZoneLonghurst CodeWikipedia:Citation NeededOpen SeaDeep SeaHydrothermal VentCold SeepBenthic ZonePelagic ZoneAbyssalHadalLittoral ZoneIntertidal ZoneKelp ForestPack IceBiodiversityAnthropogenic BiomesAgricultureHuman SettlementUrbanizationForestryLand UseCroplandRangelandHabitatEndolithPorosityPortal:EnvironmentPortal:EcologyPortal:Earth SciencesPortal:BiologyPortal:Sustainable DevelopmentBiomicsEcosystemEcotopeClimate ClassificationLife ZonesNatural EnvironmentInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9780878939084International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/3540582932Digital Object IdentifierWorld Wide Fund For NatureNew York TimesHelp:CS1 ErrorsWikipedia:External LinksWikipedia:What Wikipedia Is NotWikipedia:External LinksWikipedia:Citing SourcesHelp:Maintenance Template RemovalEncyclopedia Of EarthClimateTemplate:BiomesTemplate Talk:BiomesBiogeographyTundraTaigaMontane Grasslands And ShrublandsTemperate Coniferous ForestTemperate Broadleaf And Mixed ForestTemperate Deciduous ForestTemperate Grasslands, Savannas, And ShrublandsTropical And Subtropical Coniferous ForestsTropical And Subtropical Moist Broadleaf ForestsTropical And Subtropical Dry Broadleaf ForestsTropical And Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, And ShrublandsMediterranean Forests, Woodlands, And ScrubDeserts And Xeric ShrublandsFlooded Grasslands And SavannasRiparian ZoneWetlandPondLittoral ZoneIntertidal ZoneMangroveKelp ForestCoral ReefNeritic ZonePelagic ZoneBenthic ZoneHydrothermal VentCold SeepDemersal ZoneEndolithBiogeographic RealmAfrotropic EcozoneAntarctic EcozoneAustralasian EcozoneNearctic EcozonePalearctic EcozoneIndomalaya EcozoneNeotropic EcozoneOceania EcozoneArctic RealmTemperate Northern PacificTropical AtlanticWestern Indo-PacificCentral Indo-PacificTropical Eastern PacificBiogeographic ProvincesBioregionEcoregionsList Of EcoregionsGlobal 200Ecological Land ClassificationFloristic KingdomVegetationZoogeographic RegionHelp:Authority ControlIntegrated Authority FileHelp:CategoryCategory:BiomesCategory:HabitatsCategory:CS1 Errors: DatesCategory:Wikipedia Pages Semi-protected Against VandalismCategory:Articles Needing Additional References From August 2012Category:All Articles Needing Additional ReferencesCategory:All Articles With Unsourced StatementsCategory:Articles With Unsourced Statements From September 2016Category:Pages Using Div Col Without Cols And Colwidth ParametersCategory:Wikipedia External Links Cleanup From March 2017Category:Wikipedia Spam Cleanup From March 2017Category:Wikipedia Articles With GND IdentifiersDiscussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]This Page Is Protected. 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