Contents 1 Classifications 1.1 Operational 1.2 Legal 1.3 Regulatory 2 List of bio-agents of military importance 2.1 Bacterial bio-agents 2.2 Chlamydial bio-agents 2.3 Rickettsial bio-agents 2.4 Viral bio-agents 2.5 Mycotic bio-agents 2.6 Biological toxins 2.7 Biological vectors 2.8 Simulants 3 In popular culture 4 See also 5 References 6 External links

Classifications[edit] Operational[edit] The former US biological warfare program (1943-1969) categorized its weaponized anti-personnel bio-agents as either Lethal Agents (Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis, Botulinum toxin) or Incapacitating Agents (Brucella suis, Coxiella burnetii, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Staphylococcal enterotoxin B).[3] In the next section ("List of biological and toxin agents of military importance") the military symbols for various weaponized agents are given; this nomenclature system began in the US and UK BW programs of World War II and continued as NATO nomenclature through the Cold War. Legal[edit] Since 1997, United States law has declared a list of bio-agents designated by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services or the U.S. Department of Agriculture that have the "potential to pose a severe threat to public health and safety" to be officially defined as "select agents" and possession or transportation of them are tightly controlled as such.[4] Select agents are divided into "HHS select agents and toxins", "USDA select agents and toxins" and "Overlap select agents and toxins". Regulatory[edit] The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) breaks biological agents into three categories: Category A, Category B, and Category C. Category A agents pose the greatest threat to the U.S. Criteria for being a Category "A" agent include high rates of morbidity and mortality; ease of dissemination and communicability; ability to cause a public panic; and special action required by public health officials to respond. Category A agents include anthrax, botulism, plague, smallpox, tularemia, and viral hemorrhagic fevers.

List of bio-agents of military importance[edit] The following pathogens and toxins were weaponized by one nation or another at some time. NATO abbreviations are included where applicable. Bacterial bio-agents[edit] Disease Causative Agent (Military Symbol) Comments Anthrax Bacillus anthracis (N or TR) Brucellosis (bovine) Brucella abortus Brucellosis (caprine) Brucella melitensis (AM or BX) Brucellosis (porcine) Brucella suis (US, AB or NX) Cholera Vibrio cholerae (HO) Diphtheria Corynebacterium diphtheriae (DK) Dysentery (bacterial) Shigella dysenteriae, some species of Escherichia coli (Y) Glanders Burkholderia mallei (LA) Listeriosis Listeria monocytogenes (TQ) Melioidosis Burkholderia pseudomallei (HI) Plague Yersinia pestis (LE) Tularemia Francisella tularensis (SR or JT) Chlamydial bio-agents[edit] Disease Causative Agent (Military Symbol) Comments Psittacosis Chlamydophila psittaci (SI) Rickettsial bio-agents[edit] Disease Causative Agent (Military Symbol) Comments Q Fever Coxiella burnetii (OU) Rocky Mountain spotted fever Rickettsia rickettsii (RI or UY) Typhus (human) Rickettsia prowazekii (YE) Typhus (murine) Rickettsia typhi (AV) Viral bio-agents[edit] Disease Causative Agent (Military Symbol) Comments Equine Encephalitis (Eastern) Eastern equine encephalitis virus (ZX) Equine Encephalitis (Venezuelan) Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis virus (FX) Equine Encephalitis (Western) Western equine encephalitis virus (EV) Japanese B encephalitis Japanese encephalitis virus (AN) Rift Valley fever Rift Valley fever virus (FA) Smallpox Variola virus (ZL) Yellow fever Yellow fever virus (OJ or LU) Additionally, the Soviet Union is known to have weaponized Marburg virus (MARV) in the 1970s and '80s.[5] Mycotic bio-agents[edit] Disease Causative Agent (Military Symbol) Comments Coccidiomycosis Coccidioides immitis (OC) Biological toxins[edit] Toxin Source of Toxin (Military Symbol) Comments Abrin Rosary pea (Abrus precatorius) Botulinum toxins (A through G) Clostridium botulinum bacteria or spores, and several other Clostridial species. (X or XR) Ricin Castor bean (Ricinus communis) (W or WA) Saxitoxin Various marine and brackish cyanobacteria, such as Anabaena, Aphanizomenon, Lyngbya, and Cylindrospermopsis (TZ) Staphyloccocal enterotoxin B Staphylococcus aureus (UC or PG) Tetrodotoxin Various marine bacteria, including Vibrio alginolyticus, Pseudoalteromonas tetraodonis (PP) Trichothecene mycotoxins Various species of fungi, including Fusarium, Trichoderma, and Stachybotrys Biological vectors[edit] Vector (Military Symbol) Disease Comments Mosquito (Aedes aegypti) (AP) Malaria, Dengue fever, Chikungunya, Yellow fever, other Arboviruses Oriental rat flea (Xenopsylla cheopis) Plague, Murine typhus Simulants[edit] Simulants are organisms or substances which mimic physical or biological properties of real biological agents, without being pathogenic. They are used to study the efficiency of various dissemination techniques or the risks caused by the use of biological agents in bioterrorism.[6] To simulate dispersal, attachment or the penetration depth in human or animal lungs, simulants must have particle sizes, specific weight and surface properties, similar to the simulated biological agent. The typical size of simulants (1-5 µm) enables it to enter buildings with closed windows and doors and penetrate deep into the lungs. This bears a significant health risk, even if the biological agent is normally not pathogenic. Bacillus globigii (historically named Bacillus subtilis in the context of bio-agent simulants) (BG, BS, or U) Serratia marcescens (SM or P) Aspergillus fumigatus mutant C-2 (AF) Escherichia coli (EC) Bacillus thuringiensis (BT) Erwinia herbicola (current accepted name: Pantoea agglomerans) (EH) Fluorescent particles such as Zinc cadmium sulfide, ZnCdS (FP)

In popular culture[edit] Main article: Biological warfare in popular culture

See also[edit] Biological hazard Biological contamination Laboratory Response Network Pulsed ultraviolet light Toxin

References[edit] ^ a b c "Biological Agents". United States Department of Labor: OSHA. Retrieved 2012-05-31.  ^ "Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Retrieved 2013-03-03.  ^ Headquarters, Departments of the Army, the Navy, and the Air Force, and Commandant, Marine Corps (17 July 2000), Field Manual: Treatment of Biological Warfare Casualties (Army FM 8-284/Navy NAVMED P-5042/Air Force AFMAN (I) 44-156/Marine Corps MCRP 4-11.1C), para 1-4 (pg 1-3). ^ Additional Requirements for Facilities Transferring or Receiving Select Agents, Title 42 CFR Part 72 and Appendix A; 15 April 1997 (DHHS). ^ Kenneth Alibek and S. Handelman. Biohazard: The Chilling True Story of the Largest Covert Biological Weapons Program in the World - Told from Inside by the Man Who Ran it. 1999. Delta (2000) ISBN 0-385-33496-6. ^ "Biological Warfare (BW) Simulants – Bacillus globigii (BG)". The Night Ferry. 2010-02-05. Retrieved 2017-04-03. 

External links[edit] Rafał L. Górny, Biological agents, OSHwiki U.S. Department of Labor - Biological Agents U.S. Department of Health and Human Services - Select Agents and Toxins v t e Biological warfare and Bioterrorism Modern incidents 1984 Rajneeshee bioterror attack 1989 California medfly attack 2001 anthrax attacks Wood Green ricin plot 2003 ricin letters 2013 ricin letters Prevention and response Australia Group Center for Health Security Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Council of Europe Convention on the Prevention of Terrorism Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Defense Threat Reduction Agency European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control Global Health Security Initiative Health Threat Unit Laboratory Response Network National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases Biological agents Anthrax Avian influenza Botulinum toxin Brucellosis Burkholderia pseudomallei Chlamydophila psittaci Coxiella burnetii Ebola Equine encephalitis (Eastern Western Venezuelan) Foodborne illness Fungi Glanders Hantavirus Henipavirus Legionnaires' disease Marburg virus Mold Plague Ricin Salmonella enterica Salmonellosis Salmonella typhi Smallpox Staphylococcus Tularemia Typhus Viral hemorrhagic fever Related concepts Agro-terrorism Anthrax hoaxes Psychochemical weapons Bacteria Biocontainment Biological hazard Biological warfare in popular culture Ethnic bioweapon Decontamination Entomological warfare Infectious disease Virus Toxin Terrorism Biological warfare portal Wiktionary definition Wikimedia Commons Wikisource v t e Global catastrophic risks Future of the Earth Ultimate fate of the universe Technological Grey goo Kinetic bombardment Mutual assured destruction Dead Hand Doomsday device Synthetic intelligence / Artificial intelligence Existential risk from artificial intelligence See Template AI takeover Technological singularity Transhumanism Sociological 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Stimson Center Center for Advancing Microbial Risk Assessment Center for Biodefense and Emerging Pathogens (Brown University) Middle-Atlantic Regional Center of Excellence for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases Research Center for Biodefense Immune Modeling (University of Rochester) Johns Hopkins Center for Civilian Biodefense Strategies National Center for Biodefense and Infectious Diseases (NCBID; George Mason Univ.) Government contractors Battelle Memorial Institute SRI International Idaho Technology Phoenix Air Programs & projects Threat reduction Nunn–Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction Program, including the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program (DoD) Project Bacchus Project Clear Vision Project Jefferson Biosurveillance National Biosurveillance Strategy Laboratory Response Network (CDC) BioWatch (EPA, CDC) Global Bio-Surveillance Technology Initiative (GBTI), Bio-Surveillance Management Office (BMO) (part of JPEO-CBD) ESSENCE (DoD) RODS (Civilian) Biosecurity/Biosurety Select Agent Program (CDC) Personnel Reliability Program (DoD) Medical intelligence National Intelligence Assessments on Infectious Diseases Disaster response National Response Framework of the National Strategy for Homeland Security (DHS; including NIMS & ICS) National Disaster Medical System (DHHS) Strategic National Stockpile (CDC, DHS) Technology & equipment Protection MOPP NBC suit Respirators Detection Cell CANARY Biological Materials MASINT Autonomous Pathogen Detection System Joint Biological Agent Identification and Diagnostic System (JBAIDS) Biocontainment Biosafety level Biosafety cabinet Positive pressure personnel suit Law Treaties Geneva Protocol (1925, 1975) Statement on Chemical and Biological Defense Policies and Programs (1969) Biological Weapons Convention (1972) Legislation Biological Weapons Anti-Terrorism Act of 1989 Executive Order 13139 (1999) Patriot Act (2001) Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness Response Act (2002) Agricultural Bioterrorism Protection Act of 2002 Project Bioshield Act (2004) Biodefense and Pandemic Vaccine and Drug Development Act of 2005 Public Readiness and Emergency Preparedness Act (2005) Pandemic and All Hazards Preparedness Act (2006) Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness Reauthorization Act of 2013 International representation Global Health Security Initiative Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540 (2004) History Past biological incidents 1984 Rajneeshee bioterror attack 1989 California medfly attack 2001 anthrax attacks Wood Green ricin plot (2002) 2003 ricin letters 2013 ricin letters Defunct organizations & programs United States Army Medical Unit United States biological weapons program Sunshine Project Aeromedical Isolation Team (DoD) Related topics Agro-terrorism Biodefense Biosecurity in the United States Biological agent Biological hazard Biological warfare (BW) Biosurveillance Bioterrorism CBRN defense Decontamination Entomological warfare Isolation (health care) Select agent Smallpox virus retention controversy v t e Weapons History Modern American Civil War World War I Chemical Germany Infantry World War II Germany France Italy Soviet Union United Kingdom United States Korean War Vietnam War Premodern Medieval European Types Aircraft Ancillary Anti-aircraft Anti-ballistic Anti-personnel Anti-tank Area denial Artillery Biological Chemical Ceremonial Combat vehicle Conventional Crew-served Cyber Deadly Directed-energy Explosive Firearm Hunting Improvised Incendiary Martial arts Mass destruction Melee Non-lethal Offensive Personal Pneumatic Practice Ranged Space Tectonic Torpedo Toy Other Arsenal Industry Mount Criminal possession Science fiction Retrieved from "" Categories: Biological weaponsBiological contamination

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