Contents 1 Early life and education 2 Life in Washington 3 First Lady of the United States 4 Antisemitism 5 Widowhood, death and longevity record 6 Notes 7 Notes 8 External links

Early life and education[edit] Childhood Portrait of Bess Truman at About Age 4½ (Truman Library) Bess Truman was born Elizabeth Virginia Wallace on February 13, 1885, to David Willock Wallace (1860–1903) and his wife, the former Margaret Elizabeth Gates (1862–1952), in Independence, Missouri, and was known as Bessie during her childhood. She was the eldest of four; three brothers: Frank Gates Wallace, (March 4, 1887 – August 12, 1960), George Porterfield Wallace, (May 1, 1892 – May 24, 1963), David Frederick Wallace, (January 7, 1900 – September 30, 1957). Bess had a reputation as a tomboy as a child.[1] As a young woman, Bess enjoyed expressing herself through her fashion and hats; a friend was quoted "Bess always had more stylish hats than the rest of us did, or she wore them with more style."[2] Harry and Bess Truman, 28 June 1919. Harry Truman met Bess soon after his family moved to Independence, and the two attended school together until graduation.[3] After graduating from William Chrisman High School (then known as Independence High School) she studied at Miss Barstow's Finishing School for Girls in Kansas City, Missouri. In 1903 her father rose very early one morning, climbed into the family bathtub and committed suicide by shooting himself in the head. According to biographer David McCullough, the cause for his suicide is unknown, with speculation ranging from depression to mounting debts.[4][5][6] Bess and Harry Truman married on June 28, 1919, at Trinity Episcopal Church in Independence.[7] Harry courted Bess before he went off to fight during World War I; he proposed in 1911, but she turned him down. Truman later said that he intended to propose again, but when he did he wanted to be earning more money than a farmer did.[8] Their only daughter, Margaret, was born in 1924.[1]

Life in Washington[edit] When Truman was elected as a Senator from Missouri in 1934, the family moved to Washington, DC. Mrs. Truman became a member of the Congressional Club, the PEO Sisterhood, the H Street United Service Organization, and the Red Cross work of the Senate Wives Club. She joined her husband's staff as a clerk, answering personal mail and editing committee reports when he became Chairman of the Senate Special Committee to Investigate the National Defense Program.[1]

First Lady of the United States[edit] Bess found the White House's lack of privacy distasteful. As her husband put it later, she was "not especially interested" in the "formalities and pomp or the artificiality which, as we had learned..., inevitably surround the family of the President Harry Truman." Though she steadfastly fulfilled the social obligations of her position, she did only what she thought was necessary. When the White House was rebuilt during Truman's second term, the family lived in Blair House and kept their social life to a minimum. In most years of her husband's presidency Mrs. Truman was not regularly present in Washington other than during the social season when her presence was expected.[9] The contrast with Bess's activist predecessor Eleanor Roosevelt was considerable. Unlike her, Bess held only one press conference after many requests from the media.[10] The press conference consisted of written questions in advance and the written replies were mostly monosyllabic along with many no comments.[11] When asked why she did not want to give press conferences she replied "I am not the one who is elected. I have nothing to say to the public."[2] Bess's response to whether she wanted her daughter Margaret to become President was "most definitely not." Her reply to what she wanted to do after her husband left office was "return to Independence".[12] As First Lady, Bess served as Honorary President of the Girl Scouts, the Women's National Democratic Club, and the Washington Animal Rescue League. She was Honorary Chairman of the American Red Cross.[1] In 1953 the Trumans went back to Independence and the family home at 219 North Delaware Street, where the former president worked on building his library and writing his memoirs. Bess fully recovered following a 1959 mastectomy in which doctors removed a large, but benign, tumor.[13] When President Lyndon Johnson signed Medicare into law in 1965, the Trumans were the first to be given its benefits.[14] President Johnson handing former President Truman a pen used to sign the medicare bill as Bess, Lady Bird Johnson, and Vice President Humphrey look on.

Antisemitism[edit] In 1961, David Susskind conducted a series of interviews with former President Truman in Independence. After picking Truman up at his home to take him to the Truman Presidential Library for the interviews over a number of days, Susskind asked Truman why he had not been invited into the home. According to presidential historian Michael Beschloss, Truman flatly told Susskind, "This is Bess's house" and that there had never been nor would there ever be a Jewish guest in there.[15]

Widowhood, death and longevity record[edit] At the time of her husband's death in 1972 at age 88, she was 87, making them the oldest couple having occupied the White House at that time. Bess agreed to be the honorary chairman for the reelection campaign of Sen. Thomas Eagleton (D-Missouri).[16] Bess continued to live quietly in Independence for the last decade of her life, being visited by her daughter and grandchildren. She died on October 18, 1982, from congestive heart failure at the age of 97; a private funeral service was held on October 21. Afterwards she was buried beside her husband in the courtyard of the Harry S. Truman Library in Independence, Missouri.[17] Bess Truman remains the longest-lived First Lady and Second Lady in United States history.[16]

Notes[edit] ^ a b c d "Truman: Bess Truman's Biography". Retrieved October 22, 2016.  ^ a b Geselbracht. "Young Bess in Hats" (PDF). Prologue. Spring 2013.  ^ Klapthor, Margaret Brown (October 1, 2002). The First Ladies. Government Printing Office. p. 75. ISBN 978-0-912308-83-8.  ^ American Experience: Truman PBS. 1997. Episode 1 of 2. ^ "24,000 Pages of Bess Truman’s Family Papers Are Released". The New York Times/The Associated Press. February 14, 2009. ^ "Bess Truman". Encyclopædia Britannica's Guide to American Presidents. Retrieved January 15, 2013. ^ Margolies, Daniel S. (July 30, 2012). A Companion to Harry S. Truman. John Wiley & Sons. p. 37. ISBN 978-1-118-30075-6.  ^ McCullough, David (1992). Truman. New York: Simon & Schuster. pp. 78–79. ISBN 978-0-671-86920-5.  ^ Christensen, Lawrence O.; Foley, William E.; Kremer, Gary (October 1999). Dictionary of Missouri Biography. University of Missouri Press. p. 752. ISBN 978-0-8262-6016-1.  ^ Watson, Robert P. (2000). The Presidents' Wives: Reassessing the Office of First Lady. Lynne Rienner Publishers. p. 89. ISBN 978-1-55587-948-8.  ^ Burnes, Brian (November 1, 2003). Harry S. Truman: His Life and Times. Kansas City Star Books. p. 34. ISBN 978-0-9740009-3-0.  ^ Wertheimer, Molly Meijer (January 1, 2004). Inventing a Voice: The Rhetoric of American First Ladies of the Twentieth Century. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 212. ISBN 978-0-7425-2971-7.  ^ Neal, Steve (2004). Eleanor and Harry: The Correspondence of Eleanor Roosevelt and Harry S. Truman. Kensington Publishing Corporation. p. 259. ISBN 978-0-8065-2561-7.  ^ "President Johnson signs Medicare Bill on July 30, 1965". Politico. Retrieved December 15, 2013.  ^ Beschloss, Michael (2007). Presidential Courage: Brave Leaders and How They Changed America 1789–1989. New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 210. ISBN 0-684-85705-7.  ^ a b Algeo, Matthew (May 1, 2009). Harry Truman's Excellent Adventure: The True Story of a Great American Road Trip. Chicago Review Press. p. 226. ISBN 978-1-56976-251-6.  ^ "Bess Truman Buried - October 22, 1982". The Gettysburg Times. Retrieved August 1, 2013. 

Notes[edit] Original text based on the White House biography

External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bess Truman. D C McJonathan-Swarm (Jan 21, 2001). "Bess Truman". First Lady. Find a Grave. Retrieved August 18, 2011.  Bess Truman at C-SPAN's First Ladies: Influence & Image Young Bess in Hats Biography Honorary titles Preceded by Ilo Wallace Second Lady of the United States 1945 Vacant Title next held by Jane Barkley Preceded by Eleanor Roosevelt First Lady of the United States 1945–1953 Succeeded by Mamie Eisenhower v t e First Ladies of the United States Martha Washington Abigail Adams Martha Jefferson Randolph Dolley Madison Elizabeth Monroe Louisa Adams Emily Donelson Sarah Jackson Angelica Van Buren Anna Harrison Jane Harrison Letitia Tyler Priscilla Tyler Julia Tyler Sarah Polk Margaret Taylor Abigail Fillmore Jane Pierce Harriet Lane Mary Todd Lincoln Eliza Johnson Julia Grant Lucy Hayes Lucretia Garfield Mary McElroy Rose Cleveland Frances Cleveland Caroline Harrison Mary Harrison Frances Cleveland Ida McKinley Edith Roosevelt Helen Taft Ellen Wilson Margaret Wilson Edith Wilson Florence Harding Grace Coolidge Lou Hoover Eleanor Roosevelt Bess Truman Mamie Eisenhower Jacqueline Kennedy Lady Bird Johnson Pat Nixon Betty Ford Rosalynn Carter Nancy Reagan Barbara Bush Hillary Clinton Laura Bush Michelle Obama Melania Trump First Lady of the United States National Historic Site First Ladies: Influence & Image v t e Second Ladies of the United States Abigail Adams (1789–1797) Ann Gerry (1813–1814) Hannah Tompkins (1817–1825) Floride Calhoun (1825–1832) Letitia Tyler (1841) Sophia Dallas (1845–1849) Abigail Fillmore (1849–1850) Mary Cyrene Burch Breckinridge (1857–1861) Ellen Vesta Emery Hamlin (1861–1865) Eliza Johnson (1865) Ellen Maria Colfax (1869–1873) Eliza Hendricks (1885) Anna Morton (1889–1893) Letitia Stevenson (1893–1897) Jennie Tuttle Hobart (1897–1899) Edith Roosevelt (1901) Cornelia Cole Fairbanks (1905–1909) Carrie Babcock Sherman (1909–1912) Lois Irene Marshall (1913–1921) Grace Coolidge (1921–1923) Caro Dawes (1925–1929) Mariette Rheiner Garner (1933–1941) Ilo Wallace (1941–1945) Bess Truman (1945) Jane Hadley Barkley (1949–1953) Pat Nixon (1953–1961) Lady Bird Johnson (1961–1963) Muriel Humphrey (1965–1969) Judy Agnew (1969–1973) Betty Ford (1973–1974) Happy Rockefeller (1974–1977) Joan Mondale (1977–1981) Barbara Bush (1981–1989) Marilyn Quayle (1989–1993) Tipper Gore (1993–2001) Lynne Cheney (2001–2009) Jill Biden (2009–2017) Karen Pence (2017–present) v t e Harry S. Truman 33rd President of the United States (1945–1953) 34th Vice President of the United States (1945) U.S. Senator from Missouri (1935–1945) Presidency 1945 inauguration 1949 inauguration Potsdam Conference Agreement on Europe Declaration to Japan Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki Fair Deal Mental Health Act National Institute of Mental Health National School Lunch Act Employment Act of 1946 Council of Economic Advisers Truman Doctrine Marshall Plan Loyalty Order National Security Act of 1947 Joint Chiefs of Staff National Security Council Department of the Air Force Central Intelligence Agency Key West Agreement Joint Long Range Proving Grounds Revolt of the Admirals Committee on Civil Rights Integration of the Armed Forces Housing Act of 1949 North Atlantic Treaty NATO Assassination attempt Korean War U.N. Security Council Resolutions 82, 83 Relief of General MacArthur Office of Defense Mobilization Science Advisory Committee 1952 steel strike Puerto Rican constitutional referendum, 1952 National Security Agency State of the Union Address (1946 1950 1952) Judicial appointments Supreme Court Cabinet Truman Balcony "The buck stops here" Life Early life and career Presidential Library, Museum, and gravesite Missouri Office and Courtroom Truman Committee Democratic vice presidential nomination of 1944 Books Bibliography Homes Birthplace Harry S. Truman Farm Home Harry S. Truman home and National Historic Site Historic District Blair House Truman Little White House Elections United States Senate election in Missouri, 1934 1940 Democratic National Convention 1944 1948 United States presidential election, 1944 1948 "Dewey Defeats Truman" campaign song Democratic Party presidential primaries, 1952 Legacy Truman Day Harry S Truman Building Truman Dam and Reservoir Harry S. Truman Scholarship Truman Sports Complex U.S. Postage stamps Related Give 'em Hell, Harry (1975 play and film) Truman (1995 film) Family Bess Wallace Truman (wife) Margaret Truman (daughter) John Anderson Truman (father) Martha Ellen Young Truman (mother) Clifton Truman Daniel (grandson) ← Franklin D. Roosevelt Dwight D. Eisenhower→ Category Authority control WorldCat Identities VIAF: 40550345 LCCN: n80029911 ISNI: 0000 0000 6687 2013 GND: 132932717 SELIBR: 278402 SUDOC: 157063437 BNF: cb16563317c (data) SNAC: w6b09tvg Retrieved from "" Categories: 1885 births1982 deaths19th-century American women20th-century American women20th-century American EpiscopaliansAmerican EpiscopaliansConverts to AnglicanismFirst Ladies of the United StatesHarry S. 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