The conflict[edit] Alta California, originally a province of New Spain, had been a territory under Mexican rule since 1822. As the native-born Californio population reached adulthood, many of them became impatient that the government of Mexico continued to choose Mexican-born governors. Following the Californio Juan Bautista Alvarado, the central government in 1842 appointed as governor Manuel Micheltorena, another non-Californio who proved very unpopular. By 1844, a revolt against him arose, culminating in the Battle of Providencia. In spite of an extensive artillery barrage[1] battle casualties were similarly slight as in the first Battle of Cahuenga Pass, being limited to one horse and one mule.[2] In the battle's wake, Micheltorena fled with his forces and ceded the governorship to Pío Pico, a Californio born at Mission San Gabriel Arcángel in San Gabriel. Pico's governorship was subsequently confirmed by the central government.

External links[edit] Wikisource has original text related to this article: Declaration of Independence of California Frank J. Polley (1894). "Americans at the Battle of Cahuenga". Vol. 3, No. 2. Historical Society of Southern California: 47–54. JSTOR 41167583. 

References[edit] ^ "Second Battle of Cahuenga Pass". Wes Clark Blog.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 1999-04-28. Retrieved 2012-05-12.  Coordinates: 34°10′48″N 118°19′41″W / 34.180°N 118.328°W / 34.180; -118.328 Retrieved from "" Categories: Conquest of California1845 in Alta CaliforniaHistory of the San Fernando Valley19th century in Los AngelesHidden categories: Coordinates on Wikidata

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