Contents 1 Early life and career 1.1 Education 1.2 Family and personal life 1.2.1 Religious views 1.3 Law career 1.3.1 Community organizer and Harvard Law School 1.3.2 Chicago Law School and civil rights attorney 1.4 Legislative career 1.4.1 Illinois State Senator (1997–2004) 1.4.2 2004 U.S. Senate campaign 1.4.3 U.S. Senator from Illinois (2005–08) Legislation Committees 2 Presidential campaigns 2.1 2008 presidential campaign 2.2 2012 presidential campaign 3 Presidency (2009–2017) 3.1 First 100 days 3.2 Domestic policy 3.2.1 LGBT rights 3.2.2 White House advisory and oversight groups 3.2.3 Economic policy 3.2.4 Environmental policy 3.2.5 Health care reform 3.2.6 Energy policy 3.2.7 Gun control 3.2.8 2010 midterm elections 3.2.9 Cybersecurity and Internet policy 3.3 Foreign policy 3.3.1 War in Iraq 3.3.2 War in Afghanistan 3.3.3 Israel 3.3.4 Libya 3.3.5 Syrian Civil War 3.3.6 Death of Osama bin Laden 3.3.7 Iran nuclear talks 3.3.8 Relations with Cuba 3.3.9 Africa 3.3.10 Hiroshima speech 3.3.11 Russia 3.4 Cultural and political image 4 Post-presidency (2017–present) 5 Legacy 5.1 Presidential library 6 Books written 6.1 Audiobooks 7 See also 7.1 Politics 7.2 Other 7.3 Lists 8 Notes and references 8.1 Notes 8.2 References 9 Further reading 10 External links 10.1 Official 10.2 Other

Early life and career Main article: Early life and career of Barack Obama Obama was born on August 4, 1961,[2] at Kapiolani Medical Center for Women and Children in Honolulu, Hawaii.[3][4][5] He is the only President who was born in Hawaii[6] and the only President who was born outside of the contiguous 48 states.[7] He was born to a white mother and a black father. His mother, Ann Dunham (1942–1995), was born in Wichita, Kansas; she was mostly of English descent,[8] with some German, Irish, Scottish, Swiss, and Welsh ancestry.[9] His father, Barack Obama Sr. (1936–1982), was a married Luo Kenyan man from Nyang'oma Kogelo. Obama's parents met in 1960 in a Russian language class at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, where his father was a foreign student on scholarship.[10][11] The couple married in Wailuku, Hawaii on February 2, 1961, six months before Obama was born.[12][13] In late August 1961 (only a few weeks after he was born), Barack and his mother moved to the University of Washington in Seattle, where they lived for a year. During that time, the elder Obama completed his undergraduate degree in economics in Hawaii, graduating in June 1962. He then left to attend graduate school on a scholarship at Harvard University, where he earned an M.A. in economics. Obama's parents divorced in March 1964.[14] Obama Sr. returned to Kenya in 1964, where he married for a third time. He visited his son in Hawaii only once, at Christmas time in 1971,[15] before he was killed in an automobile accident in 1982, when Obama was 21 years old.[16] Recalling his early childhood, Obama said, "That my father looked nothing like the people around me – that he was black as pitch, my mother white as milk – barely registered in my mind."[11] He described his struggles as a young adult to reconcile social perceptions of his multiracial heritage.[17] In 1963, Dunham met Lolo Soetoro at the University of Hawaii; he was an Indonesian East–West Center graduate student in geography. The couple married on Molokai on March 15, 1965.[18] After two one-year extensions of his J-1 visa, Lolo returned to Indonesia in 1966. His wife and stepson followed sixteen months later in 1967. The family initially lived in a Menteng Dalam neighborhood in the Tebet subdistrict of south Jakarta. From 1970, they lived in a wealthier neighborhood in the Menteng subdistrict of central Jakarta.[19] Education From age six to ten, Obama attended local Indonesian-language schools: Sekolah Katolik Santo Fransiskus Asisi (St. Francis of Assisi Catholic School) for two years and Sekolah Dasar Negeri Menteng 01 (Besuki Public School) for one and a half years, supplemented by English-language Calvert School homeschooling by his mother.[20][21] As a result of those four years in Jakarta, he was able to speak Indonesian fluently as a child.[22][23][24] During his time in Indonesia, Obama's step-father taught him to be resilient and gave him "a pretty hardheaded assessment of how the world works".[25] In 1971, Obama returned to Honolulu to live with his maternal grandparents, Madelyn and Stanley Dunham. He attended Punahou School— a private college preparatory school— with the aid of a scholarship from fifth grade until he graduated from high school in 1979.[26] In his youth, Obama went by the nickname "Barry".[27] Obama lived with his mother and half-sister, Maya Soetoro, in Hawaii for three years from 1972 to 1975 while his mother was a graduate student in anthropology at the University of Hawaii.[28] Obama chose to stay in Hawaii with his grandparents for high school at Punahou when his mother and half-sister returned to Indonesia in 1975 so his mother could begin anthropology field work.[29] His mother spent most of the next two decades in Indonesia, divorcing Lolo in 1980 and earning a PhD degree in 1992, before dying in 1995 in Hawaii following unsuccessful treatment for ovarian and uterine cancer.[30] Obama later reflected on his years in Honolulu and wrote: "The opportunity that Hawaii offered – to experience a variety of cultures in a climate of mutual respect – became an integral part of my world view, and a basis for the values that I hold most dear."[31] Obama has also written and talked about using alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine during his teenage years to "push questions of who I was out of my mind".[32] Obama was also a member of the "choom gang", a self-named group of friends that spent time together and occasionally smoked marijuana.[33][34] After graduating from high school in 1979, Obama moved to Los Angeles to attend Occidental College. In February 1981, Obama made his first public speech, calling for Occidental to participate in the disinvestment from South Africa in response to that nation's policy of apartheid.[35] In mid-1981, Obama traveled to Indonesia to visit his mother and half-sister Maya, and visited the families of college friends in Pakistan and India for three weeks.[35] Later in 1981, he transferred as a junior to Columbia University in New York City, where he majored in political science with a specialty in international relations[36] and in English literature[37] and lived off-campus on West 109th Street.[38] He graduated with a BA degree in 1983 and worked for about a year at the Business International Corporation, where he was a financial researcher and writer,[39][40] then as a project coordinator for the New York Public Interest Research Group on the City College of New York campus for three months in 1985.[41][42][43] Family and personal life Main article: Family of Barack Obama Obama posing in the Green Room of the White House with wife Michelle and daughters Sasha and Malia, 2009 In a 2006 interview, Obama highlighted the diversity of his extended family: "It's like a little mini-United Nations", he said. "I've got relatives who look like Bernie Mac, and I've got relatives who look like Margaret Thatcher."[44] Obama has a half-sister with whom he was raised (Maya Soetoro-Ng, the daughter of his mother and her Indonesian second husband) and seven half-siblings from his Kenyan father's family—six of them living.[45] Obama's mother was survived by her Kansas-born mother, Madelyn Dunham,[46] until her death on November 2, 2008,[47] two days before his election to the Presidency. Obama also has roots in Ireland; he met with his Irish cousins in Moneygall in May 2011.[48] In Dreams from My Father, Obama ties his mother's family history to possible Native American ancestors and distant relatives of Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War.[49] Obama with Jonathan Toews and the Stanley Cup champion Chicago Blackhawks, 2010 Obama taking a left-handed jump shot during a pick-up game on the White House basketball court, 2009 Obama is a supporter of the Chicago White Sox, and he threw out the first pitch at the 2005 ALCS when he was still a senator.[50] In 2009, he threw out the ceremonial first pitch at the All-Star Game while wearing a White Sox jacket.[51] He is also primarily a Chicago Bears football fan in the NFL, but in his childhood and adolescence was a fan of the Pittsburgh Steelers, and rooted for them ahead of their victory in Super Bowl XLIII 12 days after he took office as President.[52] In 2011, Obama invited the 1985 Chicago Bears to the White House; the team had not visited the White House after their Super Bowl win in 1986 due to the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster.[53] He plays basketball, a sport he participated in as a member of his high school's varsity team[54] and he is left-handed.[55] Obama lived with anthropologist Sheila Miyoshi Jager while he was a community organizer in Chicago in the 1980s.[56] He proposed to her twice, but both Jager and her parents turned him down.[56][57] The relationship was only made public in May 2017, several months after Obama's two-term presidency had ended.[57] In June 1989, Obama met Michelle Robinson when he was employed as a summer associate at the Chicago law firm of Sidley Austin.[58] Robinson was assigned for three months as Obama's adviser at the firm, and she joined him at several group social functions but declined his initial requests to date.[59] They began dating later that summer, became engaged in 1991, and were married on October 3, 1992.[60] The couple's first daughter, Malia Ann, was born in 1998,[61] followed by a second daughter, Natasha ("Sasha"), in 2001.[62] The Obama daughters attended the University of Chicago Laboratory Schools. When they moved to Washington, D.C., in January 2009, the girls started at the Sidwell Friends School.[63] The Obamas have two Portuguese Water Dogs; the first, a male named Bo, was a gift from Senator Ted Kennedy.[64] In 2013, Bo was joined by Sunny, a female.[65] In 2005, the family applied the proceeds of a book deal and moved from a Hyde Park, Chicago condominium to a $1.6 million house in neighboring Kenwood, Chicago.[66] The purchase of an adjacent lot—and sale of part of it to Obama by the wife of developer, campaign donor and friend Tony Rezko—attracted media attention because of Rezko's subsequent indictment and conviction on political corruption charges that were unrelated to Obama.[67] In December 2007, Money Magazine estimated Obama's net worth at $1.3 million.[68] Their 2009 tax return showed a household income of $5.5 million—up from about $4.2 million in 2007 and $1.6 million in 2005—mostly from sales of his books.[69][70] On his 2010 income of $1.7 million, he gave 14% to non-profit organizations, including $131,000 to Fisher House Foundation, a charity assisting wounded veterans' families, allowing them to reside near where the veteran is receiving medical treatments.[71][72] Per his 2012 financial disclosure, Obama may be worth as much as $10 million.[73] Obama and his wife Michelle at the Civil Rights Summit at the LBJ Presidential Library, 2014 In early 2010, Michelle spoke about her husband's smoking habit and said that Barack had quit smoking.[74][75] On his 55th birthday, August 4, 2016, Obama penned an essay in Glamour, in which he described how his daughters and the presidency have made him a feminist.[76][77][78] Religious views Obama is a Protestant Christian whose religious views developed in his adult life.[79] He wrote in The Audacity of Hope that he "was not raised in a religious household". He described his mother, raised by non-religious parents, as being detached from religion, yet "in many ways the most spiritually awakened person that I have ever known." He described his father as a "confirmed atheist" by the time his parents met, and his stepfather as "a man who saw religion as not particularly useful." Obama explained how, through working with black churches as a community organizer while in his twenties, he came to understand "the power of the African-American religious tradition to spur social change."[80] The Obamas worship at African Methodist Episcopal Church in Washington, D.C., January 2013 In January 2008, Obama told Christianity Today: "I am a Christian, and I am a devout Christian. I believe in the redemptive death and resurrection of Jesus Christ. I believe that faith gives me a path to be cleansed of sin and have eternal life."[81] On September 27, 2010, Obama released a statement commenting on his religious views saying, "I'm a Christian by choice. My family didn't – frankly, they weren't folks who went to church every week. And my mother was one of the most spiritual people I knew, but she didn't raise me in the church. So I came to my Christian faith later in life, and it was because the precepts of Jesus Christ spoke to me in terms of the kind of life that I would want to lead – being my brothers' and sisters' keeper, treating others as they would treat me."[82][83] Obama met Trinity United Church of Christ pastor Rev. Jeremiah Wright in October 1987 and became a member of Trinity in 1992.[84] During Obama's first presidential campaign in May 2008, he resigned from Trinity after some of Wright's statements were criticized.[85] Since moving to Washington, D.C., in 2009, the Obama family has attended several Protestant churches, including Shiloh Baptist Church and St. John's Episcopal Church, as well as Evergreen Chapel at Camp David, but the members of the family do not attend church on a regular basis.[86][87][88] Law career Community organizer and Harvard Law School Two years after graduating from Columbia, Obama was back in Chicago when he was hired as director of the Developing Communities Project, a church-based community organization originally comprising eight Catholic parishes in Roseland, West Pullman, and Riverdale on Chicago's South Side. He worked there as a community organizer from June 1985 to May 1988.[42][89] He helped set up a job training program, a college preparatory tutoring program, and a tenants' rights organization in Altgeld Gardens.[90] Obama also worked as a consultant and instructor for the Gamaliel Foundation, a community organizing institute.[91] In mid-1988, he traveled for the first time in Europe for three weeks and then for five weeks in Kenya, where he met many of his paternal relatives for the first time.[92][93] External video Derrick Bell threatens to leave Harvard, April 24, 1990, 11:34, Boston TV Digital Archive[94] Student Barack Obama introduces Professor Derrick Bell starting at 6:25. Obama entered Harvard Law School in the fall of 1988, living in nearby Somerville, Massachusetts.[95] He was selected as an editor of the Harvard Law Review at the end of his first year,[96] president of the journal in his second year,[90][97] and research assistant to the constitutional scholar Laurence Tribe while at Harvard for two years.[98] During his summers, he returned to Chicago, where he worked as an associate at the law firms of Sidley Austin in 1989 and Hopkins & Sutter in 1990.[99] After graduating with a JD degree magna cum laude[100] from Harvard in 1991, he returned to Chicago.[96] Obama's election as the first black president of the Harvard Law Review gained national media attention[90][97] and led to a publishing contract and advance for a book about race relations,[101] which evolved into a personal memoir. The manuscript was published in mid-1995 as Dreams from My Father.[101] Chicago Law School and civil rights attorney In 1991, Obama accepted a two-year position as Visiting Law and Government Fellow at the University of Chicago Law School to work on his first book.[101][102] He then taught constitutional law at the University of Chicago Law School for twelve years, first as a Lecturer from 1992 to 1996, and then as a Senior Lecturer from 1996 to 2004.[103] From April to October 1992, Obama directed Illinois's Project Vote, a voter registration campaign with ten staffers and seven hundred volunteer registrars; it achieved its goal of registering 150,000 of 400,000 unregistered African Americans in the state, leading Crain's Chicago Business to name Obama to its 1993 list of "40 under Forty" powers to be.[104] He joined Davis, Miner, Barnhill & Galland, a 13-attorney law firm specializing in civil rights litigation and neighborhood economic development, where he was an associate for three years from 1993 to 1996, then of counsel from 1996 to 2004. In 1994, he was listed as one of the lawyers in Buycks-Roberson v. Citibank Fed. Sav. Bank, 94 C 4094 (N.D. Ill.).[105] This class action lawsuit was filed in 1994 with Selma Buycks-Roberson as lead plaintiff and alleged that Citibank Federal Savings Bank had engaged in practices forbidden under the Equal Credit Opportunity Act and the Fair Housing Act.[106] The case was settled out of court.[107] Final Judgment was issued on May 13, 1998, with Citibank Federal Savings Bank agreeing to pay attorney fees.[108] His law license became inactive in 2007.[109][110] From 1994 to 2002, Obama served on the boards of directors of the Woods Fund of Chicago—which in 1985 had been the first foundation to fund the Developing Communities Project—and of the Joyce Foundation.[42] He served on the board of directors of the Chicago Annenberg Challenge from 1995 to 2002, as founding president and chairman of the board of directors from 1995 to 1999.[42] Legislative career Illinois State Senator (1997–2004) Main article: Illinois Senate career of Barack Obama State Senator Obama and others celebrate the naming of a street in Chicago after ShoreBank co-founder Milton Davis in 1998 Obama was elected to the Illinois Senate in 1996, succeeding Democratic State Senator Alice Palmer from Illinois's 13th District, which, at that time, spanned Chicago South Side neighborhoods from Hyde Park–Kenwood south to South Shore and west to Chicago Lawn.[111] Once elected, Obama gained bipartisan support for legislation that reformed ethics and health care laws.[112] He sponsored a law that increased tax credits for low-income workers, negotiated welfare reform, and promoted increased subsidies for childcare.[113] In 2001, as co-chairman of the bipartisan Joint Committee on Administrative Rules, Obama supported Republican Governor Ryan's payday loan regulations and predatory mortgage lending regulations aimed at averting home foreclosures.[114] He was reelected to the Illinois Senate in 1998, defeating Republican Yesse Yehudah in the general election, and was re-elected again in 2002.[115] In 2000, he lost a Democratic primary race for Illinois's 1st congressional district in the United States House of Representatives to four-term incumbent Bobby Rush by a margin of two to one.[116] In January 2003, Obama became chairman of the Illinois Senate's Health and Human Services Committee when Democrats, after a decade in the minority, regained a majority.[117] He sponsored and led unanimous, bipartisan passage of legislation to monitor racial profiling by requiring police to record the race of drivers they detained, and legislation making Illinois the first state to mandate videotaping of homicide interrogations.[113][118] During his 2004 general election campaign for the U.S. Senate, police representatives credited Obama for his active engagement with police organizations in enacting death penalty reforms.[119] Obama resigned from the Illinois Senate in November 2004 following his election to the U.S. Senate.[120] 2004 U.S. Senate campaign Main article: United States Senate election in Illinois, 2004 County results of the 2004 U.S. Senate race in Illinois. Obama won the counties in blue. In May 2002, Obama commissioned a poll to assess his prospects in a 2004 U.S. Senate race. He created a campaign committee, began raising funds, and lined up political media consultant David Axelrod by August 2002. Obama formally announced his candidacy in January 2003.[121] Obama was an early opponent of the George W. Bush administration's 2003 invasion of Iraq.[122] On October 2, 2002, the day President Bush and Congress agreed on the joint resolution authorizing the Iraq War,[123] Obama addressed the first high-profile Chicago anti-Iraq War rally,[124] and spoke out against the war.[125] He addressed another anti-war rally in March 2003 and told the crowd that "it's not too late" to stop the war.[126] Decisions by Republican incumbent Peter Fitzgerald and his Democratic predecessor Carol Moseley Braun to not participate in the election resulted in wide-open Democratic and Republican primary contests involving fifteen candidates.[127] In the March 2004 primary election, Obama won in an unexpected landslide—which overnight made him a rising star within the national Democratic Party, started speculation about a presidential future, and led to the reissue of his memoir, Dreams from My Father.[128] In July 2004, Obama delivered the keynote address at the 2004 Democratic National Convention,[129] seen by 9.1 million viewers. His speech was well received and elevated his status within the Democratic Party.[130] Obama's expected opponent in the general election, Republican primary winner Jack Ryan, withdrew from the race in June 2004.[131] Six weeks later, Alan Keyes accepted the Republican nomination to replace Ryan.[132] In the November 2004 general election, Obama won with 70% of the vote.[133] U.S. Senator from Illinois (2005–08) Main article: United States Senate career of Barack Obama The official portrait of Obama as a member of the United States Senate Obama was sworn in as a senator on January 3, 2005,[134] becoming the only Senate member of the Congressional Black Caucus.[135] CQ Weekly characterized him as a "loyal Democrat" based on analysis of all Senate votes from 2005 to 2007. Obama announced on November 13, 2008, that he would resign his Senate seat on November 16, 2008, before the start of the lame-duck session, to focus on his transition period for the presidency.[136] Legislation See also: List of bills sponsored by Barack Obama in the United States Senate Obama cosponsored the Secure America and Orderly Immigration Act.[137] He introduced two initiatives that bore his name: Lugar–Obama, which expanded the Nunn–Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction concept to conventional weapons;[138] and the Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act of 2006, which authorized the establishment of, a web search engine on federal spending.[139] On June 3, 2008, Senator Obama—along with Senators Tom Carper, Tom Coburn, and John McCain—introduced follow-up legislation: Strengthening Transparency and Accountability in Federal Spending Act of 2008.[140] Obama sponsored legislation that would have required nuclear plant owners to notify state and local authorities of radioactive leaks, but the bill failed to pass in the full Senate after being heavily modified in committee.[141] Regarding tort reform, Obama voted for the Class Action Fairness Act of 2005 and the FISA Amendments Act of 2008, which grants immunity from civil liability to telecommunications companies complicit with NSA warrantless wiretapping operations.[142] Obama and U.S. Senator Richard Lugar (R-IN) visit a Russian facility for dismantling mobile missiles (August 2005)[143] In December 2006, President Bush signed into law the Democratic Republic of the Congo Relief, Security, and Democracy Promotion Act, marking the first federal legislation to be enacted with Obama as its primary sponsor.[144] In January 2007, Obama and Senator Feingold introduced a corporate jet provision to the Honest Leadership and Open Government Act, which was signed into law in September 2007.[145] Obama also introduced two unsuccessful bills: the Deceptive Practices and Voter Intimidation Prevention Act to criminalize deceptive practices in federal elections,[146] and the Iraq War De-Escalation Act of 2007.[147] Later in 2007, Obama sponsored an amendment to the Defense Authorization Act to add safeguards for personality-disorder military discharges.[148] This amendment passed the full Senate in the spring of 2008.[149] He sponsored the Iran Sanctions Enabling Act supporting divestment of state pension funds from Iran's oil and gas industry, which has not passed committee; and co-sponsored legislation to reduce risks of nuclear terrorism.[150] Obama also sponsored a Senate amendment to the State Children's Health Insurance Program, providing one year of job protection for family members caring for soldiers with combat-related injuries.[151] Committees Obama speaking with a soldier stationed in Iraq, 2006 Obama held assignments on the Senate Committees for Foreign Relations, Environment and Public Works and Veterans' Affairs through December 2006.[152] In January 2007, he left the Environment and Public Works committee and took additional assignments with Health, Education, Labor and Pensions and Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs.[153] He also became Chairman of the Senate's subcommittee on European Affairs.[154] As a member of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Obama made official trips to Eastern Europe, the Middle East, Central Asia and Africa. He met with Mahmoud Abbas before Abbas became President of the Palestinian National Authority, and gave a speech at the University of Nairobi in which he condemned corruption within the Kenyan government.[155]

Presidential campaigns 2008 presidential campaign Main articles: United States presidential election, 2008; Barack Obama presidential primary campaign, 2008; and Barack Obama presidential campaign, 2008 Obama standing on stage with his wife and daughters just before announcing his presidential candidacy in Springfield, Illinois, February 10, 2007 On February 10, 2007, Obama announced his candidacy for President of the United States in front of the Old State Capitol building in Springfield, Illinois.[156][157] The choice of the announcement site was viewed as symbolic because it was also where Abraham Lincoln delivered his historic "House Divided" speech in 1858.[156][158] Obama emphasized issues of rapidly ending the Iraq War, increasing energy independence, and reforming the health care system,[159] in a campaign that projected themes of hope and change.[160] Numerous candidates entered the Democratic Party presidential primaries. The field narrowed to a duel between Obama and Senator Hillary Clinton after early contests, with the race remaining close throughout the primary process but with Obama gaining a steady lead in pledged delegates due to better long-range planning, superior fundraising, dominant organizing in caucus states, and better exploitation of delegate allocation rules.[161] On June 7, 2008, Clinton ended her campaign and endorsed Obama.[162] Outgoing President George W. Bush meets with President-elect Obama in the Oval Office on November 10, 2008 On August 23, Obama announced his selection of Delaware Senator Joe Biden as his vice presidential running mate.[163] Obama selected Biden from a field speculated to include former Indiana Governor and Senator Evan Bayh and Virginia Governor Tim Kaine.[164] At the Democratic National Convention in Denver, Colorado, Hillary Clinton called for her supporters to endorse Obama, and she and Bill Clinton gave convention speeches in his support.[165] Obama delivered his acceptance speech, not at the center where the Democratic National Convention was held, but at Invesco Field at Mile High to a crowd of approximately 84,000 people; the speech was viewed by over 38 million people worldwide.[166][167][168] During both the primary process and the general election, Obama's campaign set numerous fundraising records, particularly in the quantity of small donations.[169] On June 19, 2008, Obama became the first major-party presidential candidate to turn down public financing in the general election since the system was created in 1976.[170] 2008 electoral vote results John McCain was nominated as the Republican candidate, and he selected Sarah Palin as his running mate. The two candidates engaged in three presidential debates in September and October 2008.[171] On November 4, Obama won the presidency with 365 electoral votes to 173 received by McCain.[172] Obama won 52.9% of the popular vote to McCain's 45.7%.[173] He became the first African American to be elected president.[174] Obama delivered his victory speech before hundreds of thousands of supporters in Chicago's Grant Park.[175] 2012 presidential campaign Main articles: United States presidential election, 2012 and Barack Obama presidential campaign, 2012 Obama greets former Governor Mitt Romney in the Oval Office on November 29, 2012, in their first meeting since Obama's re-election victory over Romney 2012 electoral vote results On April 4, 2011, Obama announced his reelection campaign for 2012 in a video titled "It Begins with Us" that he posted on his website and filed election papers with the Federal Election Commission.[176][177][178] As the incumbent president he ran virtually unopposed in the Democratic Party presidential primaries,[179] and on April 3, 2012, Obama had secured the 2778 convention delegates needed to win the Democratic nomination.[180] At the Democratic National Convention in Charlotte, North Carolina, Obama and Joe Biden were formally nominated by former President Bill Clinton as the Democratic Party candidates for president and vice president in the general election. Their main opponents were Republicans Mitt Romney, the former governor of Massachusetts, and Representative Paul Ryan of Wisconsin.[181] On November 6, 2012, Obama won 332 electoral votes, exceeding the 270 required for him to be reelected as president.[182][183][184] With 51.1% of the popular vote,[185] Obama became the first Democratic president since Franklin D. Roosevelt to win the majority of the popular vote twice.[186][187] President Obama addressed supporters and volunteers at Chicago's McCormick Place after his reelection and said: "Tonight you voted for action, not politics as usual. You elected us to focus on your jobs, not ours. And in the coming weeks and months, I am looking forward to reaching out and working with leaders of both parties."[188][189]

Presidency (2009–2017) Main article: Presidency of Barack Obama For a chronological guide to this subject, see Timeline of the Presidency of Barack Obama. See also: Confirmations of Barack Obama's Cabinet and List of international presidential trips made by Barack Obama First 100 days Main article: First 100 days of Barack Obama's presidency Barack Obama takes the oath of office administered by Chief Justice John G. Roberts Jr. at the Capitol, January 20, 2009 The inauguration of Barack Obama as the 44th President took place on January 20, 2009. In his first few days in office, Obama issued executive orders and presidential memoranda directing the U.S. military to develop plans to withdraw troops from Iraq.[190] He ordered the closing of the Guantanamo Bay detention camp,[191] but Congress prevented the closure by refusing to appropriate the required funds[192][193][194] and preventing moving any Guantanamo detainee into the U.S. or to other countries.[195] Obama reduced the secrecy given to presidential records.[196] He also revoked President George W. Bush's restoration of President Ronald Reagan's Mexico City Policy prohibiting federal aid to international family planning organizations that perform or provide counseling about abortion.[197] Domestic policy See also: Social policy of the Barack Obama administration The first bill signed into law by Obama was the Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of 2009, relaxing the statute of limitations for equal-pay lawsuits.[198] Five days later, he signed the reauthorization of the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) to cover an additional 4 million uninsured children.[199] In March 2009, Obama reversed a Bush-era policy that had limited funding of embryonic stem cell research and pledged to develop "strict guidelines" on the research.[200] Obama delivering a speech at joint session of Congress with Vice President Joe Biden and House Speaker Nancy Pelosi on February 24, 2009 Obama appointed two women to serve on the Supreme Court in the first two years of his Presidency. He nominated Sonia Sotomayor on May 26, 2009 to replace retiring Associate Justice David Souter; she was confirmed on August 6, 2009,[201] becoming the first Supreme Court Justice of Hispanic descent.[202] Obama nominated Elena Kagan on May 10, 2010 to replace retiring Associate Justice John Paul Stevens. She was confirmed on August 5, 2010, bringing the number of women sitting simultaneously on the Court to three justices for the first time in American history.[203] On March 30, 2010, Obama signed the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act, a reconciliation bill that ended the process of the federal government giving subsidies to private banks to give out federally insured loans, increased the Pell Grant scholarship award, and made changes to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.[204][205] Obama meets with the Cabinet of the United States, November 23, 2009 In a major space policy speech in April 2010, Obama announced a planned change in direction at NASA, the U.S. space agency. He ended plans for a return of human spaceflight to the moon and development of the Ares I rocket, Ares V rocket and Constellation program, in favor of funding Earth science projects, a new rocket type, and research and development for an eventual manned mission to Mars, and ongoing missions to the International Space Station.[206] President Obama's 2011 State of the Union Address focused on themes of education and innovation, stressing the importance of innovation economics to make the United States more competitive globally. He spoke of a five-year freeze in domestic spending, eliminating tax breaks for oil companies and reversing tax cuts for the wealthiest Americans, banning congressional earmarks, and reducing healthcare costs. He promised that the United States would have one million electric vehicles on the road by 2015 and would be 80% reliant on "clean" electricity.[207][208] LGBT rights On October 8, 2009, Obama signed the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act, a measure that expanded the 1969 United States federal hate-crime law to include crimes motivated by a victim's actual or perceived gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, or disability.[209] On October 30, 2009, Obama lifted the ban on travel to the United States by those infected with HIV, which was celebrated by Immigration Equality.[210] On December 22, 2010, Obama signed the Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act of 2010, which fulfilled a key promise made in the 2008 presidential campaign[211][212] to end the Don't ask, don't tell policy of 1993 that had prevented gay and lesbian people from serving openly in the United States Armed Forces.[213] In 2016, the Pentagon ended the policy that also barred transgender people from serving openly in the military.[214] As a candidate for the Illinois state senate in 1996, Obama had said that he favored legalizing same-sex marriage.[215] By the time of his Senate run in 2004, he said that he supported civil unions and domestic partnerships for same-sex partners, but he opposed same-sex marriages for strategic reasons.[216] On May 9, 2012, shortly after the official launch of his campaign for re-election as president, Obama said his views had evolved, and he publicly affirmed his personal support for the legalization of same-sex marriage, becoming the first sitting U.S. president to do so.[217][218] During his second inaugural address on January 21, 2013,[189] Obama became the first U.S. President in office to call for full equality for gay Americans: "Our journey is not complete until our gay brothers and sisters are treated like anyone else under the law – for if we are truly created equal, then surely the love we commit to one another must be equal as well." This was the first time that a president mentioned gay rights or the word "gay" in an inaugural address.[219][220] The White House was illuminated in rainbow colors on the evening of the Supreme Court same-sex marriage ruling, June 26, 2015. In 2013, the Obama Administration filed briefs that urged the Supreme Court to rule in favor of same-sex couples in the cases of Hollingsworth v. Perry (regarding same-sex marriage)[221] and United States v. Windsor (regarding the Defense of Marriage Act).[222] Then, following the Supreme Court's 2015 decision in Obergefell v. Hodges (ruling same-sex marriage to be a fundamental right), Obama asserted that, "This decision affirms what millions of Americans already believe in their hearts: When all Americans are treated as equal we are all more free."[223] On July 30, 2015 the White House Office of National AIDS Policy revised its strategy for addressing the ailment, which included widespread testing and linkage to healthcare, which was celebrated by the Human Rights Campaign.[224] White House advisory and oversight groups On March 11, 2009, Obama created the White House Council on Women and Girls, which forms part of the Office of Intergovernmental Affairs, having been established by Executive Order 13506 with a broad mandate to advise him on issues relating to the welfare of American women and girls.[225] The Council is currently chaired by Senior Advisor to the President Valerie Jarrett.[226] Obama also established the White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual Assault through an official United States government memorandum on January 22, 2014, with a broad mandate to advise him on issues relating to sexual assault on college and university campuses throughout the United States.[226][227][228] The current co-chairs of the Task Force are Vice President Joe Biden and Jarrett.[227] The Task Force has been a development out of the White House Council on Women and Girls and Office of the Vice President of the United States, and prior to that, the 1994 Violence Against Women Act that was first drafted by Biden.[229] Economic policy Main article: Economic policy of the Barack Obama administration Play media Obama presents his first weekly address as President of the United States on January 24, 2009, discussing the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 On February 17, 2009, Obama signed the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, a $787 billion economic stimulus package aimed at helping the economy recover from the deepening worldwide recession.[230] The act includes increased federal spending for health care, infrastructure, education, various tax breaks and incentives, and direct assistance to individuals.[231] Deficit and debt increases, 2001–16 In March, Obama's Treasury Secretary, Timothy Geithner, took further steps to manage the financial crisis, including introducing the Public–Private Investment Program for Legacy Assets, which contains provisions for buying up to two trillion dollars in depreciated real estate assets.[232] Obama intervened in the troubled automotive industry[233] in March 2009, renewing loans for General Motors and Chrysler to continue operations while reorganizing. Over the following months the White House set terms for both firms' bankruptcies, including the sale of Chrysler to Italian automaker Fiat[234] and a reorganization of GM giving the U.S. government a temporary 60% equity stake in the company, with the Canadian government taking a 12% stake.[235] In June 2009, dissatisfied with the pace of economic stimulus, Obama called on his cabinet to accelerate the investment.[236] He signed into law the Car Allowance Rebate System, known colloquially as "Cash for Clunkers", that temporarily boosted the economy.[237][238][239] The Bush and Obama administrations authorized spending and loan guarantees from the Federal Reserve and the Treasury Department. These guarantees totaled about $11.5 trillion, but only $3 trillion was spent by the end of November 2009.[240] Obama and the Congressional Budget Office predicted the 2010 budget deficit would be $1.5 trillion or 10.6% of the nation's gross domestic product (GDP) compared to the 2009 deficit of $1.4 trillion or 9.9% of GDP.[241][242] For 2011, the administration predicted the deficit will shrink to $1.34 trillion, and the 10-year deficit will increase to $8.53 trillion or 90% of GDP.[243] The most recent increase in the U.S. debt ceiling to $17.2 trillion took effect in February 2014.[244] On August 2, 2011, after a lengthy congressional debate over whether to raise the nation's debt limit, Obama signed the bipartisan Budget Control Act of 2011. The legislation enforces limits on discretionary spending until 2021, establishes a procedure to increase the debt limit, creates a Congressional Joint Select Committee on Deficit Reduction to propose further deficit reduction with a stated goal of achieving at least $1.5 trillion in budgetary savings over 10 years, and establishes automatic procedures for reducing spending by as much as $1.2 trillion if legislation originating with the new joint select committee does not achieve such savings.[245] By passing the legislation, Congress was able to prevent a U.S. government default on its obligations.[246] US employment statistics (unemployment rate and monthly changes in net employment) during Obama's tenure as U.S. President[247][248] As it did throughout 2008, the unemployment rate rose in 2009, reaching a peak in October at 10.0% and averaging 10.0% in the fourth quarter. Following a decrease to 9.7% in the first quarter of 2010, the unemployment rate fell to 9.6% in the second quarter, where it remained for the rest of the year.[249] Between February and December 2010, employment rose by 0.8%, which was less than the average of 1.9% experienced during comparable periods in the past four employment recoveries.[250] By November 2012, the unemployment rate fell to 7.7%,[251] decreasing to 6.7% in the last month of 2013.[252] During 2014, the unemployment rate continued to decline, falling to 6.3% in the first quarter.[253] GDP growth returned in the third quarter of 2009, expanding at a rate of 1.6%, followed by a 5.0% increase in the fourth quarter.[254] Growth continued in 2010, posting an increase of 3.7% in the first quarter, with lesser gains throughout the rest of the year.[254] In July 2010, the Federal Reserve noted that economic activity continued to increase, but its pace had slowed, and chairman Ben Bernanke said the economic outlook was "unusually uncertain".[255] Overall, the economy expanded at a rate of 2.9% in 2010.[256] The Congressional Budget Office and a broad range of economists credit Obama's stimulus plan for economic growth.[257][258] The CBO released a report stating that the stimulus bill increased employment by 1–2.1 million,[258][259][260][261] while conceding that "It is impossible to determine how many of the reported jobs would have existed in the absence of the stimulus package."[257] Although an April 2010 survey of members of the National Association for Business Economics showed an increase in job creation (over a similar January survey) for the first time in two years, 73% of 68 respondents believed that the stimulus bill has had no impact on employment.[262] The economy of the United States has grown faster than the other original NATO members by a wider margin under President Obama than it has anytime since the end of World War II.[263] The OECD credits the much faster growth in the United States to the stimulus in the United States and the austerity measures in the European Union.[264] Within a month of the 2010 midterm elections, Obama announced a compromise deal with the Congressional Republican leadership that included a temporary, two-year extension of the 2001 and 2003 income tax rates, a one-year payroll tax reduction, continuation of unemployment benefits, and a new rate and exemption amount for estate taxes.[265] The compromise overcame opposition from some in both parties, and the resulting $858 billion Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010 passed with bipartisan majorities in both houses of Congress before Obama signed it on December 17, 2010.[266] In December 2013, Obama declared that growing income inequality is a "defining challenge of our time" and called on Congress to bolster the safety net and raise wages. This came on the heels of the nationwide strikes of fast-food workers and Pope Francis' criticism of inequality and trickle-down economics.[267] Obama has urged Congress to ratify a 12-nation free trade pact called the Trans-Pacific Partnership.[268] Environmental policy See also: Climate change policy of the United States Obama at a 2010 briefing on the BP oil spill at the Coast Guard Station Venice in Venice, Louisiana On September 30, 2009, the Obama administration proposed new regulations on power plants, factories, and oil refineries in an attempt to limit greenhouse gas emissions and to curb global warming.[269][270] On April 20, 2010, an explosion destroyed an offshore drilling rig at the Macondo Prospect in the Gulf of Mexico, causing a major sustained oil leak. Obama visited the Gulf, announced a federal investigation, and formed a bipartisan commission to recommend new safety standards, after a review by Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar and concurrent Congressional hearings. He then announced a six-month moratorium on new deepwater drilling permits and leases, pending regulatory review.[271] As multiple efforts by BP failed, some in the media and public expressed confusion and criticism over various aspects of the incident, and stated a desire for more involvement by Obama and the federal government.[272] In July 2013, Obama expressed reservations and stated he "would reject the Keystone XL pipeline if it increased carbon pollution" or "greenhouse emissions".[273][274] Obama's advisers called for a halt to petroleum exploration in the Arctic in January 2013.[275] On February 24, 2015, Obama vetoed a bill that would authorize the pipeline.[276] It was the third veto of Obama's presidency and his first major veto.[277] Obama has emphasized the conservation of federal lands during his term in office. He used his power under the Antiquities Act to create 25 new national monuments during his presidency and expand four others, protecting a total of 553,000,000 acres (224,000,000 ha) of federal lands and waters, more than any other U.S. president.[278] Health care reform Main article: Health care reform in the United States Obama signs the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act at the White House, March 23, 2010 Obama called for Congress to pass legislation reforming health care in the United States, a key campaign promise and a top legislative goal.[279] He proposed an expansion of health insurance coverage to cover the uninsured, to cap premium increases, and to allow people to retain their coverage when they leave or change jobs. His proposal was to spend $900 billion over 10 years and include a government insurance plan, also known as the public option, to compete with the corporate insurance sector as a main component to lowering costs and improving quality of health care. It would also make it illegal for insurers to drop sick people or deny them coverage for pre-existing conditions, and require every American to carry health coverage. The plan also includes medical spending cuts and taxes on insurance companies that offer expensive plans.[280][281] Maximum Out-of-Pocket Premium as Percentage of Family Income and federal poverty level, under Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, starting in 2014 (Source: CRS)[282] On July 14, 2009, House Democratic leaders introduced a 1,017-page plan for overhauling the U.S. health care system, which Obama wanted Congress to approve by the end of 2009.[279] After much public debate during the Congressional summer recess of 2009, Obama delivered a speech to a joint session of Congress on September 9 where he addressed concerns over the proposals.[283] In March 2009, Obama lifted a ban on using federal funds for stem cell research.[284] On November 7, 2009, a health care bill featuring the public option was passed in the House.[285][286] On December 24, 2009, the Senate passed its own bill—without a public option—on a party-line vote of 60–39.[287] On March 21, 2010, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) passed by the Senate in December was passed in the House by a vote of 219 to 212.[288] Obama signed the bill into law on March 23, 2010.[289] The ACA includes health-related provisions, most of which took effect in 2014, including expanding Medicaid eligibility for people making up to 133% of the federal poverty level (FPL) starting in 2014,[290] subsidizing insurance premiums for people making up to 400% of the FPL ($88,000 for family of four in 2010) so their maximum "out-of-pocket" payment for annual premiums will be from 2% to 9.5% of income,[291][292] providing incentives for businesses to provide health care benefits, prohibiting denial of coverage and denial of claims based on pre-existing conditions, establishing health insurance exchanges, prohibiting annual coverage caps, and support for medical research. According to White House and Congressional Budget Office figures, the maximum share of income that enrollees would have to pay would vary depending on their income relative to the federal poverty level.[291][293] Percentage of Individuals in the United States without Health Insurance, 1963–2015 (Source: JAMA)[294] The costs of these provisions are offset by taxes, fees, and cost-saving measures, such as new Medicare taxes for those in high-income brackets, taxes on indoor tanning, cuts to the Medicare Advantage program in favor of traditional Medicare, and fees on medical devices and pharmaceutical companies;[295] there is also a tax penalty for those who do not obtain health insurance, unless they are exempt due to low income or other reasons.[296] In March 2010, the Congressional Budget Office estimated that the net effect of both laws will be a reduction in the federal deficit by $143 billion over the first decade.[297] The law faced several legal challenges, primarily based on the argument that an individual mandate requiring Americans to buy health insurance was unconstitutional. On June 28, 2012, the Supreme Court ruled by a 5–4 vote in National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius that the mandate was constitutional under the U.S. Congress's taxing authority.[298] In Burwell v. Hobby Lobby the Court ruled that "closely-held" for-profit corporations could be exempt on religious grounds under the Religious Freedom Restoration Act from regulations adopted under the ACA that would have required them to pay for insurance that covered certain contraceptives. In June 2015, the Court ruled 6–3 in King v. Burwell that subsidies to help individuals and families purchase health insurance were authorized for those doing so on both the federal exchange and state exchanges, not only those purchasing plans "established by the State", as the statute reads.[299] Energy policy Main article: Energy policy of the Obama administration Prior to June 2014, Obama offered substantial support for a broadly-based "All of the above" approach to domestic energy policy, which Obama has maintained since his first term and which he last confirmed at his State of the Union speech in January 2014 to a mixed reception by both parties. In June 2014, Obama made indications that his administration would consider a shift towards an energy policy more closely tuned to the manufacturing industry and its impact on the domestic economy.[300] Obama's approach of selectively combining regulation and incentive to various issues in the domestic energy policy such as coal mining and oil fracking has received mixed commentary for not being as responsive to the needs of the domestic manufacturing sector as needed, following claims that the domestic manufacturing sector utilizes as much as a third of the nation's available energy resources.[301][302] Gun control Main article: Social policy of the Barack Obama administration § Gun policy Obama visits an Aurora shooting victim at University of Colorado Hospital, 2012 On January 16, 2013, one month after the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting, Obama signed 23 executive orders and outlined a series of sweeping proposals regarding gun control.[303] He urged Congress to reintroduce an expired ban on military-style assault weapons, such as those used in several recent mass shootings, impose limits on ammunition magazines to 10 rounds, introduce background checks on all gun sales, pass a ban on possession and sale of armor-piercing bullets, introduce harsher penalties for gun-traffickers, especially unlicensed dealers who buy arms for criminals and approving the appointment of the head of the federal Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives for the first time since 2006.[304] On January 5, 2016, Obama announced new executive actions extending background check requirements to more gun sellers.[305] In a 2016 editorial in the New York Times, Obama compared the struggle for what he termed "common-sense gun reform" to women's suffrage and other civil rights movements in American history.[306] 2010 midterm elections Main articles: United States House of Representatives elections, 2010 and United States Senate elections, 2010 Obama called the November 2, 2010 election, where the Democratic Party lost 63 seats in, and control of, the House of Representatives,[307] "humbling" and a "shellacking".[308] He said that the results came because not enough Americans had felt the effects of the economic recovery.[309] Cybersecurity and Internet policy On November 10, 2014, President Obama recommended the Federal Communications Commission reclassify broadband Internet service as a telecommunications service in order to preserve net neutrality.[310][311] On February 12, 2013, President Obama signed Executive Order 13636, "Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity."[312] Foreign policy Main article: Foreign policy of the Barack Obama administration Obama speaking on "A New Beginning" at Cairo University on June 4, 2009 International trips made by President Barack Obama during his terms in office Obama German Chancellor Angela Merkel in 2011 In February and March 2009, Vice President Joe Biden and Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton made separate overseas trips to announce a "new era" in U.S. foreign relations with Russia and Europe, using the terms "break" and "reset" to signal major changes from the policies of the preceding administration.[313] Obama attempted to reach out to Arab leaders by granting his first interview to an Arab satellite TV network, Al Arabiya.[314] On March 19, Obama continued his outreach to the Muslim world, releasing a New Year's video message to the people and government of Iran.[315][316] In April, Obama gave a speech in Ankara, Turkey, which was well received by many Arab governments.[317] On June 4, 2009, Obama delivered a speech at Cairo University in Egypt calling for "A New Beginning" in relations between the Islamic world and the United States and promoting Middle East peace.[318] On June 26, 2009, Obama responded to the Iranian government's actions towards protesters following Iran's 2009 presidential election by saying: "The violence perpetrated against them is outrageous. We see it and we condemn it."[319] While in Moscow on July 7, he responded Vice President Biden's comment on a possible Israeli military strike on Iran by saying: "We have said directly to the Israelis that it is important to try and resolve this in an international setting in a way that does not create major conflict in the Middle East."[320] On September 24, 2009, Obama became the first sitting U.S. President to preside over a meeting of the United Nations Security Council.[321] In March 2010, Obama took a public stance against plans by the government of Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu to continue building Jewish housing projects in predominantly Arab neighborhoods of East Jerusalem.[322][323] During the same month, an agreement was reached with the administration of Russian President Dmitry Medvedev to replace the 1991 Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty with a new pact reducing the number of long-range nuclear weapons in the arsenals of both countries by about one-third.[324] Obama and Medvedev signed the New START treaty in April 2010, and the U.S. Senate ratified it in December 2010.[325] In December 2011, Obama instructed agencies to consider LGBT rights when issuing financial aid to foreign countries.[326] In August 2013, he criticized Russia's law that discriminated against gays,[327] but he stopped short of advocating a boycott of the upcoming 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi, Russia.[328] Obama meets with Italian Prime Minister Matteo Renzi at the White House, October 2016 In December 2014, Obama announced that he intended to normalize relationships between Cuba and the United States.[329] The countries' respective "interests sections" in one another's capitals were upgraded to embassies on July 20, 2015. In March 2015, Obama declared that he had authorized U.S. forces to provide logistical and intelligence support to the Saudis in their military intervention in Yemen, establishing a "Joint Planning Cell" with Saudi Arabia.[330] Before leaving office, Obama said German Chancellor Angela Merkel had been his "closest international partner" throughout his tenure as President.[331] War in Iraq Main articles: Iraq War and American-led intervention in Iraq (2014–present) On February 27, 2009, Obama announced that combat operations in Iraq would end within 18 months. His remarks were made to a group of Marines preparing for deployment to Afghanistan. Obama said, "Let me say this as plainly as I can: by August 31, 2010, our combat mission in Iraq will end."[332] The Obama administration scheduled the withdrawal of combat troops to be completed by August 2010, decreasing troop's levels from 142,000 while leaving a transitional force of about 50,000 in Iraq until the end of 2011. On August 19, 2010, the last U.S. combat brigade exited Iraq. Remaining troops transitioned from combat operations to counter-terrorism and the training, equipping, and advising of Iraqi security forces.[333][334] On August 31, 2010, Obama announced that the United States combat mission in Iraq was over.[335] On October 21, 2011 President Obama announced that all U.S. troops would leave Iraq in time to be "home for the holidays".[336] Meeting with UK Prime Minister David Cameron during the 2010 G20 Toronto summit In June 2014, following the capture of Mosul by ISIS, Obama sent 275 troops to provide support and security for U.S. personnel and the U.S. Embassy in Baghdad. ISIS continued to gain ground and to commit widespread massacres and ethnic cleansing.[337][338] In August 2014, during the Sinjar massacre, Obama ordered a campaign of U.S. airstrikes against ISIS.[339] By the end of 2014, 3,100 American ground troops were committed to the conflict[340] and 16,000 sorties were flown over the battlefield, primarily by U.S. Air Force and Navy pilots.[341] In the spring of 2015, with the addition of the "Panther Brigade" of the 82nd Airborne Division the number of U.S. ground troops in Iraq surged to 4,400,[342] and by July American-led coalition air forces counted 44,000 sorties over the battlefield.[343] War in Afghanistan Main article: War in Afghanistan (2001–14) Early in his presidency, Obama moved to bolster U.S. troop strength in Afghanistan.[344] He announced an increase in U.S. troop levels to 17,000 military personnel in February 2009 to "stabilize a deteriorating situation in Afghanistan", an area he said had not received the "strategic attention, direction and resources it urgently requires".[345] He replaced the military commander in Afghanistan, General David D. McKiernan, with former Special Forces commander Lt. Gen. Stanley A. McChrystal in May 2009, indicating that McChrystal's Special Forces experience would facilitate the use of counterinsurgency tactics in the war.[346] On December 1, 2009, Obama announced the deployment of an additional 30,000 military personnel to Afghanistan and proposed to begin troop withdrawals 18 months from that date;[347] this took place in July 2011. David Petraeus replaced McChrystal in June 2010, after McChrystal's staff criticized White House personnel in a magazine article.[348] In February 2013, Obama said the U.S. military would reduce the troop level in Afghanistan from 68,000 to 34,000 U.S. troops by February 2014.[349] In October 2015, the White House announced a plan to keep U.S. Forces in Afghanistan indefinitely in light of the deteriorating security situation.[350] Israel Obama meeting with Israeli President Shimon Peres in the Oval Office, May 2009 In 2011, the United States vetoed a Security Council resolution condemning Israeli settlements, with the United States being the only nation to do so.[351] Obama supports the two-state solution to the Arab–Israeli conflict based on the 1967 borders with land swaps.[352] In June 2011, Obama said that the bond between the United States and Israel is "unbreakable".[353] During the initial years of the Obama administration, the U.S. increased military cooperation with Israel, including increased military aid, re-establishment of the U.S.-Israeli Joint Political Military Group and the Defense Policy Advisory Group, and an increase in visits among high-level military officials of both countries.[354] The Obama administration asked Congress to allocate money toward funding the Iron Dome program in response to the waves of Palestinian rocket attacks on Israel.[355] In 2013, Jeffrey Goldberg reported that, in Obama's view, "with each new settlement announcement, Netanyahu is moving his country down a path toward near-total isolation."[356] In 2014, Obama likened the Zionist movement to the Civil Rights Movement in the United States. He said that both movements seek to bring justice and equal rights to historically persecuted peoples. He explained, "To me, being pro-Israel and pro-Jewish is part and parcel with the values that I've been fighting for since I was politically conscious and started getting involved in politics."[357] Obama expressed support for Israel's right to defend itself during the 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict.[358] In 2015, Obama was harshly criticized by Israel for advocating and signing the Iran Nuclear Deal; Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, who had advocated the U.S. congress to oppose it, said the deal was "dangerous" and "bad".[359] On December 23, 2016 under the Obama Administration, the United States abstained from United Nations Security Council Resolution 2334, effectively allowing it to pass.[360] Netanyahu strongly criticized the Administration's actions,[361][362] and the Israeli government withdrew its annual dues from the organization, which totaled $6 million, on January 6, 2017.[363] On January 5, 2017, the United States House of Representatives voted 342–80 to condemn the UN Resolution.[364][365] Libya Main article: 2011 military intervention in Libya President Obama meets with Russian President Vladimir Putin to discuss Syria and ISIS, September 29, 2015 In February 2011, protests in Libya began against long-time dictator Muammar Gaddafi as part of the Arab Spring. They soon turned violent. In March, as forces loyal to Gaddafi advanced on rebels across Libya, calls for a no-fly zone came from around the world, including Europe, the Arab League, and a resolution[366] passed unanimously by the U.S. Senate.[367] In response to the unanimous passage of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973 on March 17, Gaddafi—who had previously vowed to "show no mercy" to the rebels of Benghazi[368]—announced an immediate cessation of military activities,[369] yet reports came in that his forces continued shelling Misrata. The next day, on Obama's orders, the U.S. military took part in air strikes to destroy the Libyan government's air defense capabilities to protect civilians and enforce a no-fly-zone,[370] including the use of Tomahawk missiles, B-2 Spirits, and fighter jets.[371][372][373] Six days later, on March 25, by unanimous vote of all of its 28 members, NATO took over leadership of the effort, dubbed Operation Unified Protector.[374] Some Representatives[375] questioned whether Obama had the constitutional authority to order military action in addition to questioning its cost, structure and aftermath.[376][377] Syrian Civil War See also: Foreign involvement in the Syrian Civil War § United States On August 18, 2011, several months after the start of the Syrian Civil War, Obama issued a written statement that said: "The time has come for President Assad to step aside."[378][379] This stance was reaffirmed in November 2015.[380] In 2012, Obama authorized multiple programs run by the CIA and the Pentagon to train anti-Assad rebels.[381] The Pentagon-run program was later found to have failed and was formally abandoned in October 2015.[382][383] In the wake of a chemical weapons attack in Syria, formally blamed by the Obama administration on the Assad government, Obama chose not to enforce the "red line" he had pledged[384] and, rather than authorise the promised military action against Assad, went along with the Russia-brokered deal that led to Assad giving up chemical weapons; however attacks with chlorine gas continued.[385][386] In 2014, Obama authorized an air campaign aimed primarily at ISIL, but repeatedly promised that the U.S. would not deploy ground troops in Syria.[387][388] Death of Osama bin Laden Main article: Death of Osama bin Laden Play media President Obama's address (9:28) Also available: Audio only; Full text  Obama and members of the national security team receive an update on Operation Neptune's Spear in the White House Situation Room, May 1, 2011. See also: Situation Room Starting with information received from Central Intelligence Agency operatives in July 2010, the CIA developed intelligence over the next several months that determined what they believed to be the hideout of Osama bin Laden. He was living in seclusion in a large compound in Abbottabad, Pakistan, a suburban area 35 miles (56 km) from Islamabad.[389] CIA head Leon Panetta reported this intelligence to President Obama in March 2011.[389] Meeting with his national security advisers over the course of the next six weeks, Obama rejected a plan to bomb the compound, and authorized a "surgical raid" to be conducted by United States Navy SEALs.[389] The operation took place on May 1, 2011, and resulted in the shooting death of bin Laden and the seizure of papers, computer drives and disks from the compound.[390][391] DNA testing was one of five methods used to positively identify bin Laden's corpse,[392] which was buried at sea several hours later.[393] Within minutes of the President's announcement from Washington, DC, late in the evening on May 1, there were spontaneous celebrations around the country as crowds gathered outside the White House, and at New York City's Ground Zero and Times Square.[390][394] Reaction to the announcement was positive across party lines, including from former presidents Bill Clinton and George W. Bush,[395] and from many countries around the world.[396] Iran nuclear talks Obama talks with Benjamin Netanyahu, March 2013 Main article: Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action In November 2013, the Obama administration opened negotiations with Iran to prevent it from acquiring nuclear weapons, which included an interim agreement. Negotiations took two years with numerous delays, with a deal being announced July 14, 2015. The deal, titled the "Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action", saw the removal of sanctions in exchange for measures that would prevent Iran from producing nuclear weapons. While Obama hailed the agreement as being a step towards a more hopeful world, the deal drew strong criticism from Republican and conservative quarters, and from Israeli prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu.[397][398][399] In order to advance the deal, the Obama administration shielded Hezbollah from the Drug Enforcement Administration's project cassandra investigation regarding drug smuggling and from the Central Intelligence Agency.[400][401] Relations with Cuba Main article: United States–Cuban Thaw President Obama meeting with Cuban President Raúl Castro in Panama, April 2015 Since the spring of 2013, secret meetings were conducted between the United States and Cuba in the neutral locations of Canada and Vatican City.[402] The Vatican first became involved in 2013 when Pope Francis advised the U.S. and Cuba to exchange prisoners as a gesture of goodwill.[403] On December 10, 2013, Cuban President Raúl Castro, in a significant public moment, greeted and shook hands with Obama at the Nelson Mandela memorial service in Johannesburg.[404] In December 2014, after the secret meetings, it was announced that Obama, with Pope Francis as an intermediary, had negotiated a restoration of relations with Cuba, after nearly sixty years of détente.[405] Popularly dubbed the Cuban Thaw, The New Republic deemed the Cuban Thaw to be "Obama's finest foreign policy achievement."[406] On July 1, 2015, President Barack Obama announced that formal diplomatic relations between Cuba and the United States would resume, and embassies would be opened in Washington and Havana.[407] The countries' respective "interests sections" in one another's capitals were upgraded to embassies on July 20 and August 13, 2015, respectively.[408] Obama visited Havana, Cuba for two days in March 2016, becoming the first sitting U.S. President to arrive since Calvin Coolidge in 1928.[409] Africa Obama spoke in front of the African Union in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, on July 29, 2015, the first sitting U.S. president to do so. He gave a speech encouraging the world to increase economic ties via investments and trade with the continent, and lauded the progresses made in education, infrastructure, and economy. He also criticized the lack of democracy and leaders who refuse to step aside, discrimination against minorities (LGBT people, religious groups and ethnicities), and corruption. He suggested an intensified democratization and free trade, to significantly improve the quality of life for Africans.[410][411] During his July 2015 trip, Obama also was the first U.S. president ever to visit Kenya, which is the homeland of his father.[412] Hiroshima speech On May 27, 2016, 2½ months before the 71st anniversary of the U.S. atomic bombing of Hiroshima that ended World War II, Obama became the first sitting American president to visit Hiroshima, Japan. Accompanied by Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, Obama paid tribute to the victims of the bombing at the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum.[413] Russia Obama meets Russian President Vladimir Putin in September 2015. See also: Russia–United States relations § Obama's tenure (2009–2017) After Russia's invasion of Crimea in 2014, military intervention in Syria in 2015, and the interference in the 2016 U.S. presidential election,[414] Obama's Russia policy was widely seen as a failure.[415] George Robertson, a former UK defense secretary and NATO secretary-general, said that Obama had "allowed Putin to jump back on the world stage and test the resolve of the West", adding that the legacy of this disaster would last.[416] Cultural and political image Main article: Public image of Barack Obama See also: International reaction to the United States presidential election, 2008 and International reactions to the United States presidential election, 2012 Obama's family history, upbringing, and Ivy League education differ markedly from those of African-American politicians who launched their careers in the 1960s through participation in the civil rights movement.[417] Expressing puzzlement over questions about whether he is "black enough", Obama told an August 2007 meeting of the National Association of Black Journalists that "we're still locked in this notion that if you appeal to white folks then there must be something wrong."[418] Obama acknowledged his youthful image in an October 2007 campaign speech, saying: "I wouldn't be here if, time and again, the torch had not been passed to a new generation."[419] Obama is frequently referred to as an exceptional orator.[420] During his pre-inauguration transition period and continuing into his presidency, Obama delivered a series of weekly Internet video addresses.[421] Former presidential campaign surrogate and Georgetown professor, Michael Eric Dyson, is both critical and sympathetic of President Obama's leadership in race relations, indicating that Obama's speeches and action on racial disparity and justice have been somewhat reactive and reluctant when, especially in the later part of his second term, racial violence demanded immediate presidential action and conversation.[422] Presidential approval ratings According to the Gallup Organization, Obama began his presidency with a 68% approval rating[423] before gradually declining for the rest of the year, and eventually bottoming out at 41% in August 2010,[424] a trend similar to Ronald Reagan's and Bill Clinton's first years in office.[425] He experienced a small poll bounce shortly after the death of Osama bin Laden on May 2, 2011. This bounce lasted until around June 2011, when his approval numbers dropped back to where they were previously.[426][427] His approval ratings rebounded around the same time as his reelection in 2012, with polls showing an average job approval of 52% shortly after his second inauguration.[428] Despite approval ratings dropping to 39% in late-2013 due to the ACA roll-out, they climbed to 50% in January 2015 according to Gallup.[429] Polls showed strong support for Obama in other countries both before and during his presidency.[430][431] In a February 2009 poll conducted in Western Europe and the U.S. by Harris Interactive for France 24 and the International Herald Tribune, Obama was rated as the most respected world leader, as well as the most powerful.[432] In a similar poll conducted by Harris in May 2009, Obama was rated as the most popular world leader, as well as the one figure most people would pin their hopes on for pulling the world out of the economic downturn.[433][434] G8 leaders watching the 2012 UEFA Champions League Final Obama won Best Spoken Word Album Grammy Awards for abridged audiobook versions of Dreams from My Father in February 2006 and for The Audacity of Hope in February 2008.[435] His concession speech after the New Hampshire primary was set to music by independent artists as the music video "Yes We Can", which was viewed 10 million times on YouTube in its first month[436] and received a Daytime Emmy Award.[437] In December 2008 and in 2012, Time magazine named Obama as its Person of the Year.[438] The 2008 awarding was for his historic candidacy and election, which Time described as "the steady march of seemingly impossible accomplishments".[439] On May 25, 2011, Obama became the first President of the United States to address both houses of the UK Parliament in Westminster Hall, London. This was only the fifth occurrence since the start of the 20th century of a head of state being extended this invitation, following Charles de Gaulle in 1960, Nelson Mandela in 1996, Queen Elizabeth II in 2002 and Pope Benedict XVI in 2010.[440][441] On October 9, 2009, the Norwegian Nobel Committee announced that Obama had won the 2009 Nobel Peace Prize "for his extraordinary efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and cooperation between peoples".[442] Obama accepted this award in Oslo, Norway on December 10, 2009, with "deep gratitude and great humility."[443] The award drew a mixture of praise and criticism from world leaders and media figures.[444][445][446][447][448][449][450][excessive citations] Obama's peace prize was called a "stunning surprise" by The New York Times.[451] Obama is the fourth U.S. president to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize and the third to become a Nobel laureate while in office.[452] Obama's Nobel Prize has been viewed skeptically in subsequent years, especially after the director of the Nobel Institute, Geir Lundestad, said Obama's Peace Prize did not have the desired effect.[453]

Post-presidency (2017–present) Obama, with Joe Biden and Donald Trump at the latter's inauguration on January 20, 2017 Barack Obama's presidency ended at noon on January 20, 2017, immediately following the inauguration of his Republican successor, Donald Trump. After the inauguration, Obama lifted off on Executive One, circled the White House, and flew to Joint Base Andrews.[454] The family currently rents a house in Kalorama, Washington, D.C.[455] During the 2017 Democratic National Committee chairmanship election, the Obama administration pushed Tom Perez to run against Keith Ellison.[456] President Barack Obama personally called DNC members to vote for Perez.[457] On March 2, 2017, the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum awarded the annual Profile in Courage Award to Obama "for his enduring commitment to democratic ideals and elevating the standard of political courage."[458] On April 24, 2017, in his first public appearance out of office, Obama appeared at a seminar at the University of Chicago aimed at the engagement with a new generation as well as an appeal for their participation in politics.[459] On May 4, 2017, three days ahead of the French presidential election, Obama publicly endorsed Emmanuel Macron: "He appeals to people's hopes and not their fears, and I enjoyed speaking to Emmanuel recently to hear about his independent movement and his vision for the future of France."[460] Macron went on to win the election. On May 9, 2017, Obama delivered a speech urging civic engagement during a food innovation summit in Milan, Italy, saying in part, "if you don't vote and you don't pay attention, you'll get policies that don't reflect your interest."[461] While in Berlin on May 25, 2017, Obama made a joint public appearance with Chancellor Angela Merkel where he stressed inclusion and for leaders to question themselves, Obama having been formally invited to Berlin while still in office as part of an effort to boost Merkel's re-election campaign.[462] Obama traveled to Kensington Palace in England and met with Prince Harry on May 27, 2017; Obama tweeted afterward that the two discussed their foundations and offering condolences in the wake of the Manchester Arena bombing that occurred five days prior.[463] On June 1, 2017, after President Trump announced his withdrawal of the United States from the Paris Agreement, Obama released a statement disagreeing with the choice: "But even in the absence of American leadership; even as this administration joins a small handful of nations that reject the future; I'm confident that our states, cities, and businesses will step up and do even more to lead the way, and help protect for future generations the one planet we've got."[464] On July 1, when Obama was visiting Indonesia, the first Asian country that he visited after his presidency as well as the country of his childhood, he urged the world to stand against "aggressive nationalism" while making a speech in Jakarta, notably standing for Basuki Tjahaja Purnama, a jailed former Jakarta Governor and an ally of the current Indonesian president Joko Widodo.[465] During an appearance at the Seoul conference on July 3, Obama said the Paris Agreement "will still be a critical factor in helping our children solve the enormous challenge in civilization."[466] After the Congressional baseball shooting, Obama telephoned Senator Jeff Flake to express condolences for the victims and to request Flake inform House Majority Whip Steve Scalise, injured during the shooting, of his sentiments for him.[467] Obama playing golf with the President of Argentina Mauricio Macri, October 2017 On June 22, 2017, after Senate Republicans revealed the Better Care Reconciliation Act of 2017, their discussion draft of a health care bill to replace the Affordable Care Act, Obama released a Facebook post calling the bill "a massive transfer of wealth from middle-class and poor families to the richest people in America."[468] On September 19, while delivering the keynote address at Goalkeepers, Obama admitted his frustration with Republicans backing "a bill that will raise costs, reduce coverage, and roll back protections for older Americans and people with pre-existing conditions".[469] On September 5, 2017, after Attorney General Jeff Sessions announced the termination of the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program, Obama released a Facebook post rebuking the decision.[470] On September 7, 2017, Obama partnered with former presidents Jimmy Carter, George H. W. Bush, Bill Clinton, and George W. Bush to work with One America Appeal to help the victims of Hurricane Harvey and Hurricane Irma in the Gulf Coast and Texas communities.[471] On October 31, 2017, Obama hosted the inaugural summit of the Obama Foundation in Chicago. Obama intends for the foundation to be the central focus of his post-presidency and part of his ambitions for his subsequent activities following his presidency to be more consequential than his time in office.[472] Obama went on an international trip from November 28 to December 2, 2017 and visited China, India and France. In China, he delivered remarks at the Global Alliance of SMEs Summit in Shanghai and met with Chinese President Xi Jinping in Beijing.[473][474] He then went to India where he spoke at the Hindustan Times Leadership Summit, before meeting with Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi over lunch. In addition, he held a town hall for young leaders, organized by the Obama Foundation.[475][476] He also met with Dalai Lama while in New Delhi.[477] He ended his five-day trip in France where he met with French President Emmanuel Macron, former President Francois Hollande and Paris Mayor Anne Hidalgo and then spoke at an invitation-only event, touching on climate issues.[478]

Legacy Job growth during the presidency of Obama compared to predecessors, as measured as cumulative percentage change from month after inauguration to end of his term Obama's most significant legacy is generally considered to be the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, provisions of which went into effect from 2010 to 2020.[479] Together with the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act amendment, it represents the U.S. healthcare system's most significant regulatory overhaul and expansion of coverage since the passage of Medicare and Medicaid in 1965.[480][481][482][483] Many commentators credit Obama with averting a threatened depression and pulling the economy back from the Great Recession.[479] According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the Obama administration created 11.3 million jobs from the month after the first inauguration of Barack Obama to the end of his term.[484] In 2009, President Obama signed into law the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010, which contained in it the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act, the first addition to existing federal hate crime law in the United States since Democratic President Bill Clinton signed into law the Church Arson Prevention Act of 1996. The Matthew Shepard and James Byrd Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act expanded existing federal hate crime laws in the United States to apply to crimes motivated by a victim's actual or perceived gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, or disability, and dropped the prerequisite that the victim be engaging in a federally protected activity. In 2010, President Obama signed into effect the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act. Passed as a response to the financial crisis of 2007–08, it brought the most significant changes to financial regulation in the United States since the regulatory reform that followed the Great Depression under Democratic President Franklin D. Roosevelt.[485] As president, Obama advanced LGBT rights.[486] In 2010, Obama signed the Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act, which brought an end to "don't ask, don't tell" policy in the U.S. armed forces that banned open service from LGB people; the law went into effect the following year.[487] In 2016, the Obama administration brought an end to the ban on transgender people serving openly in the US armed forces.[488][214] A Gallup poll, taken in the final days of Obama's term, showed that 68% of Americans believed that the U.S. had made progress in the situation for gays and lesbians during Obama's eight years in office.[489] President Obama continued the drone strikes that President George W. Bush started during his presidency in Afghanistan, Iraq, Pakistan, Somalia, and Yemen. Obama also ordered drone strikes in Libya in 2011, the Philippines in 2012, and Syria in 2014.[490] In 2016, the last year of his presidency, the US dropped 26,171 bombs on seven different countries.[491][492] Obama left about 9,800 US troops in Afghanistan, 5,262 US troops in Iraq, 503 US troops in Syria, 133 US troops in Pakistan, 106 US troops in Somalia, 7 US troops in Yemen, and 2 US troops in Libya at the end of his presidency.[493][494] According to Pew Research Center and United States Bureau of Justice Statistics, from December 31, 2009 to December 31, 2015, that inmates sentenced in US federal custody declined by 5% under US President Obama. This is the largest decline in sentenced inmates in US federal custody since Democrat US President Jimmy Carter. By contrast, the federal prison population increased significantly under US presidents Ronald Reagan, George H. W. Bush, Bill Clinton, and George W. Bush.[495] Obama left office in January 2017 with a 60% approval rating.[496][497] A 2017 C-SPAN Presidential Historians Survey ranked Obama as the 12th best US president.[498][499] Presidential library Main article: Barack Obama Presidential Center The Obama Presidential Center is the planned presidential library of Barack Obama. The center will be hosted by the University of Chicago, and will be located in Jackson Park on the South Side of Chicago, Illinois.[500]

Books written Dreams from My Father, 1995 The Audacity of Hope, 2006 Of Thee I Sing, 2010 Audiobooks 2006: The Audacity of Hope: Thoughts on Reclaiming the American Dream (read by the author), Random House Audio, ISBN 978-0-7393-6641-7

See also Barack Obama portal Government of the United States portal 2010s portal Book: Barack Obama Politics Social policy of Barack Obama DREAM Act Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 List of international presidential trips made by Barack Obama Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation Act of 2012 Fraud Enforcement and Recovery Act of 2009 National Broadband Plan (United States) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy SPEECH Act Stay with It White House Office of Energy and Climate Change Policy Other Speeches of Barack Obama Roberts Court Lists Assassination threats against Barack Obama List of people pardoned by Barack Obama Federal political scandals, 2009–17 List of Barack Obama presidential campaign endorsements, 2008 List of Barack Obama presidential campaign endorsements, 2012 List of African-American United States Senators List of things named after Barack Obama

Notes and references Notes ^ "Barack Hussein Obama Takes The Oath Of Office" on YouTube ^ "President Barack Obama". The White House. 2008. Archived from the original on October 26, 2009. Retrieved December 12, 2008.  ^ "Certificate of Live Birth: Barack Hussein Obama II, August 4, 1961, 7:24 pm, Honolulu" (PDF). Department of Health, State of Hawaii. The White House. April 27, 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 3, 2017. Retrieved March 11, 2017.  ^ Maraniss, David (August 24, 2008). "Though Obama had to leave to find himself, it is Hawaii that made his rise possible". The Washington Post. p. A22. Retrieved October 28, 2008.  ^ Nakaso, Dan (December 22, 2008). "Twin sisters, Obama on parallel paths for years". The Honolulu Advertiser. p. B1. Retrieved January 22, 2011.  ^ Rudin, Ken (December 23, 2009). "Today's Junkie segment on TOTN: a political review Of 2009". Talk of the Nation (Political Junkie blog). NPR. Retrieved April 18, 2010. We began with the historic inauguration on January 20 – yes, the first president ever born in Hawaii  ^ Barreto, Amílcar Antonio; O'Bryant, Richard L. (November 12, 2013). "Introduction". American Identity in the Age of Obama. Taylor & Francis. pp. 18–19. ISBN 9781317937159. Retrieved May 8, 2017.  ^ Obama (1995, 2004), p. 12. ^ Smolenyak, Megan Smolenyak (November–December 2008). "The quest for Obama's Irish roots". Ancestry. 26 (6): 46–47, 49. ISSN 1075-475X. Retrieved December 20, 2011.  Smolenyak, Megan (May 9, 2011). "Tracing Barack Obama's Roots to Moneygall". HuffPost. Retrieved May 19, 2011.  Rising, David; Noelting, Christoph (June 4, 2009). "Researchers: Obama has German roots". USA Today. Associated Press. Retrieved May 13, 2010.  Hutton, Brian; Nickerson, Matthew (May 3, 2007). "For sure, Obama's South Side Irish; One of his roots traces back to small village" (paid archive). Chicago Sun-Times. Press Association of Ireland. p. 3. Retrieved November 24, 2008.  Jordon, Mary (May 13, 2007). "Tiny Irish village is latest place to claim Obama as its own". The Washington Post. p. A14. Retrieved May 13, 2007.  David Williamson (July 5, 2008). "Wales link in US presidential candidate's past". Archived from the original on May 21, 2011. Retrieved April 30, 2011.  ^ Jones, Tim (March 27, 2007). "Barack Obama: Mother not just a girl from Kansas; Stanley Ann Dunham shaped a future senator". Chicago Tribune. p. 1 (Tempo). Archived from the original on February 7, 2017.  ^ a b Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 9–10. Scott (2011), pp. 80–86. Jacobs (2011), pp. 115–118. Maraniss (2012), pp. 154–160. ^ Ripley, Amanda (April 9, 2008). "The story of Barack Obama's mother". Time. Retrieved April 9, 2007.  ^ Scott (2011), p. 86. Jacobs (2011), pp. 125–127. Maraniss (2012), pp. 160–163. ^ Scott (2011), pp. 87–93. Jacobs (2011), pp. 115–118, 125–127, 133–161. Maraniss (2012), pp. 170–183, 188–189. ^ Scott (2011), pp. 142–144. Jacobs (2011), pp. 161–177, 227–230. Maraniss (2012), pp. 190–194, 201–209, 227–230. ^ Ochieng, Philip (November 1, 2004). "From home squared to the US Senate: how Barack Obama was lost and found". The EastAfrican. Nairobi. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007.  Merida, Kevin (December 14, 2007). "The ghost of a father". The Washington Post. p. A12. Retrieved June 25, 2008.  Jacobs (2011), pp. 251–255. Maraniss (2012), pp. 411–417. ^ Serrano, Richard A. (March 11, 2007). "Obama's peers didn't see his angst". Los Angeles Times. p. A20. Archived from the original on November 8, 2008. Retrieved March 13, 2007.  Obama (1995, 2004), Chapters 4 and 5. ^ Scott (2011), pp. 97–103. Maraniss (2012), pp. 195–201, 225–230. ^ Maraniss (2012), pp. 195–201, 209–223, 230–244. ^ Maraniss (2012), pp. 216, 221, 230, 234–244. ^ "Barack Obama: Calvert Homeschooler? – Calvert Education Blog". Retrieved November 25, 2015.  ^ "Wawancara Eksklusif RCTI dengan Barack Obama (Part 2)". YouTube. March 2010. Retrieved February 12, 2018.  ^ Zimmer, Benjamin (2009). "Obama's Indonesian Redux". Language Log. Archived from the original on March 3, 2009. Retrieved March 12, 2009.  "Obama: Saya Kangen Nasi Goreng, Bakso, dan Rambutan". Kompas (in Indonesian). November 26, 2008. Archived from the original on December 3, 2008.  ^ Zimmer, Benjamin (January 23, 2009). "Obama's Indonesian pleasantries: the video". Language Log. University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved October 7, 2012.  ^ Meacham, Jon (August 22, 2008). "What Barack Obama Learned from His Father". Newsweek. Archived from the original on January 9, 2017. Retrieved January 9, 2017.  ^ Serafin, Peter (March 21, 2004). "Punahou grad stirs up Illinois politics". Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Retrieved March 20, 2008.  Scott, Janny (March 14, 2008). "A free-spirited wanderer who set Obama's path". The New York Times. p. A1. Retrieved November 18, 2011.  Obama (1995, 2004), Chapters 3 and 4. Scott (2012), pp. 131–134. Maraniss (2012), pp. 264–269. ^ Wolffe, Richard (March 22, 2008). "When Barry Became Barack". Newsweek. Retrieved March 21, 2016.  ^ Scott (2011), pp. 139–157. Maraniss (2012), pp. 279–281. ^ Scott (2011), pp. 157–194. Maraniss (2012), pp. 279–281, 324–326. ^ Scott (2011), pp. 214, 294, 317–346. ^ Reyes, B.J. (February 8, 2007). "Punahou left lasting impression on Obama". Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Retrieved February 10, 2007. As a teenager, Obama went to parties and sometimes sought out gatherings on military bases or at the University of Hawaii that were mostly attended by blacks.  ^ Elliott, Philip (November 21, 2007). "Obama gets blunt with N.H. students". Boston Globe. Associated Press. p. 8A. Archived from the original on April 7, 2012. Retrieved May 18, 2012.  ^ Karl, Jonathan (May 25, 2012). "Obama and his pot-smoking "choom gang"". ABC News. Retrieved May 25, 2012.  Obama, Barack (2004) [1995]. Dreams from My Father: A Story of Race and Inheritance. pp. 93–94. Retrieved June 3, 2016.  Maraniss, David (2012). Barack Obama: The Story. pages with "choom gang". Retrieved June 3, 2016.  for analysis of the political impact of the quote and Obama's more recent admission that he smoked marijuana as a teenager ("When I was a kid, I inhaled"), see: Seelye, Katharine Q. (October 24, 2006). "Obama offers more variations from the norm". The New York Times. p. A21. Retrieved October 29, 2006.  Romano, Lois (January 3, 2007). "Effect of Obama's candor remains to be seen". The Washington Post. p. A1. Retrieved January 14, 2007.  ^ "FRONTLINE The Choice 2012". PBS. October 9, 2012. Retrieved October 29, 2012.  ^ a b Gordon, Larry (January 29, 2007). "Occidental recalls 'Barry' Obama". Los Angeles Times. p. B1. Archived from the original on May 24, 2010. Retrieved May 12, 2010.  Possley, Maurice (March 30, 2007). "Activism blossomed in college". Chicago Tribune. p. 20. Archived from the original on October 9, 2010. Retrieved May 12, 2010.  Kovaleski, Serge F. (February 9, 2008). "Old friends say drugs played bit part in Obama's young life". The New York Times. p. A1. Retrieved May 12, 2010.  Rohter, Larry (April 10, 2008). "Obama says real-life experience trumps rivals' foreign policy credits". The New York Times. p. A18. Retrieved May 12, 2010.  Adam Goldman; Robert Tanner (May 15, 2008). "Old friends recall Obama's years in LA, NYC". USA Today. Associated Press. Retrieved May 12, 2010.  Helman, Scott (August 25, 2008). "Small college awakened future senator to service (subscription archive)". Boston Globe. p. 1A. Retrieved May 12, 2010.  Jackson, Brooks (June 5, 2009). "More 'birther' nonsense: Obama's 1981 Pakistan trip". Retrieved May 12, 2010.  Remnick, David (2010). The Bridge: The Life and Rise of Barack Obama. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. pp. 98–112. ISBN 978-1-4000-4360-6.  Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 92–112. Mendell (2007), pp. 55–62. ^ Boss-Bicak, Shira (January 2005). "Barack Obama '83". Columbia College Today. ISSN 0572-7820. Retrieved October 1, 2006.  ^ "Remarks by the President in Town Hall". White House. June 26, 2014. Retrieved October 15, 2016.  ^ "The Approval Matrix". New York. August 27, 2012.  ^ Horsley, Scott (July 9, 2008). "Obama's Early Brush With Financial Markets". NPR. Retrieved 17 July 2017.  ^ Obama, Barack (1998). "Curriculum vitae". The University of Chicago Law School. Archived from the original on May 9, 2001. Retrieved October 1, 2006.  Issenberg, Sasha (August 6, 2008). "Obama shows hints of his year in global finance; Tied markets to social aid". Boston Globe. p. 1A. Archived from the original on August 9, 2008. Retrieved August 6, 2008.  ^ Scott, Janny (July 30, 2007). "Obama's account of New York often differs from what others say". The New York Times. p. B1. Retrieved July 31, 2007.  Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 133–140. Mendell (2007), pp. 62–63. ^ a b c d Chassie, Karen, ed. (2007). Who's Who in America, 2008. New Providence, NJ: Marquis Who's Who. p. 3468. ISBN 978-0-8379-7011-0.  ^ Fink, Jason (November 9, 2008). "Obama stood out, even during brief 1985 NYPIRG job". Newsday.  ^ "Keeping Hope Alive: Barack Obama Puts Family First". The Oprah Winfrey Show. October 18, 2006. Retrieved June 24, 2008.  ^ Fornek, Scott (September 9, 2007). "Half Siblings: 'A Complicated Family'". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on January 18, 2010. Retrieved June 24, 2008.  See also:"Interactive Family Tree". Chicago Sun-Times. September 9, 2007. Archived from the original on July 3, 2008. Retrieved June 24, 2008.  ^ Fornek, Scott (September 9, 2007). "Madelyn Payne Dunham: 'A Trailblazer'". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on May 14, 2009. Retrieved June 24, 2008.  ^ "Obama's grandmother dies after battle with cancer". CNN. November 3, 2008. Archived from the original on November 3, 2008. Retrieved November 4, 2008.  ^ Smolenyak, Megan (May 9, 2011). "Tracing Barack Obama's Roots to Moneygall". HuffPost.  ^ Obama (1995, 2004), p. 13. For reports on Obama's maternal genealogy, including slave owners, Irish connections, and common ancestors with George W. Bush, Dick Cheney, and Harry S. Truman, see: Nitkin, David; Harry Merritt (March 2, 2007). "A New Twist to an Intriguing Family History". The Baltimore Sun. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved June 24, 2008. Jordan, Mary (May 13, 2007). "Tiny Irish Village Is Latest Place to Claim Obama as Its Own". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 24, 2008. "Obama's Family Tree Has a Few Surprises". CBS 2 (Chicago). Associated Press. September 8, 2007. Archived from the original on June 2, 2008. Retrieved June 24, 2008.  ^ Silva, Mark (August 25, 2008). "Barack Obama: White Sox 'serious' ball". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on August 29, 2008.  ^ "Barack Obama Explains White Sox Jacket, Talks Nats in All-Star Booth Visit". MLB Fanhouse. July 14, 2009. Retrieved December 6, 2009.  ^ Branigin, William (January 30, 2009). "Steelers Win Obama's Approval". The Washington Post. But other than the Bears, the Steelers are probably the team that's closest to my heart.  ^ Mayer, Larry (October 7, 2011). "1985 Bears honored by President Obama". Chicago Bears. Retrieved November 4, 2012.  ^ Kantor, Jodi (June 1, 2007). "One Place Where Obama Goes Elbow to Elbow". The New York Times. Archived from the original on April 1, 2009. Retrieved April 28, 2008.  See also: "The Love of the Game" (video). Real Sports with Bryant Gumbel. HBO. April 15, 2008. Retrieved October 12, 2011.  ^ Stolberg, Sheryl Gay; Kirkpatrick, David D.; Shane, Scott (January 22, 2009). "On First Day, Obama Quickly Sets a New Tone". The New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved September 7, 2012.  ^ a b Hosie, Rachel (May 3, 2017). "BEFORE MICHELLE: THE STORY OF BARACK OBAMA'S PROPOSAL TO SHEILA MIYOSHI JAGER". The Independent. Retrieved May 11, 2017.  ^ a b Tobias, Andrew J. (May 3, 2017). "Oberlin College professor received unsuccessful marriage proposal from Barack Obama in 1980s, new biography reveals". The Plain Dealer. Retrieved May 11, 2017.  ^ Obama (2006), pp. 327–332. See also:Brown, Sarah (December 7, 2005). "Obama '85 masters balancing act". The Daily Princetonian. Archived from the original on February 20, 2009. Retrieved February 9, 2009.  ^ Obama (2006), p. 329. ^ Fornek, Scott (October 3, 2007). "Michelle Obama: 'He Swept Me Off My Feet'". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on January 18, 2010. Retrieved April 28, 2008.  ^ Martin, Jonathan (July 4, 2008). "Born on the 4th of July". Politico. Archived from the original on July 10, 2008. Retrieved July 10, 2008.  ^ Obama (1995, 2004), p. 440, and Obama (2006), pp. 339–340. See also:"Election 2008 Information Center: Barack Obama". Gannett News Service. Retrieved April 28, 2008.  ^ "Obamas choose private Sidwell Friends School". International Herald Tribune. November 22, 2008. Archived from the original on January 29, 2009. Retrieved July 2, 2015.  ^ Cooper, Helene (April 13, 2009). "One Obama Search Ends With a Puppy Named Bo". The New York Times. Retrieved December 22, 2010.  ^ Feldmann, Linda (August 20, 2013). "New little girl arrives at White House. Meet Sunny Obama. (+video)". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved August 20, 2013.  ^ Zeleny, Jeff (December 24, 2005). "The first time around: Sen. Obama's freshman year". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on May 13, 2011. Retrieved April 28, 2008.  ^ Slevin, Peter (December 17, 2006). "Obama says he regrets land deal with fundraiser". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 10, 2008.  Robinson, Mike (June 4, 2008). "Rezko found guilty in corruption case". MSNBC. Associated Press. Archived from the original on June 7, 2008. Retrieved June 24, 2008.  ^ Harris, Marlys (December 7, 2007). "Obama's Money". Archived from the original on April 24, 2008. Retrieved April 28, 2008.  See also:Goldfarb, Zachary A (March 24, 2007). "Measuring Wealth of the '08 Candidates". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 28, 2008.  ^ Zeleny, Jeff (April 17, 2008). "Book Sales Lifted Obamas' Income in 2007 to a Total of $4.2 Million". The New York Times. Archived from the original on April 16, 2009. Retrieved April 28, 2008.  ^ Shear, Michael D.; Hilzenrath, David S. (April 16, 2010). "Obamas report $5.5 million in income on 2009 tax return". The Washington Post. Retrieved December 22, 2010.  ^ Solman, Paul (April 18, 2011). "How Much Did President Obama Make in 2010?". PBS NewsHour. Archived from the original on May 2, 2011. Retrieved January 27, 2012.  ^ Solman, Paul (April 27, 2011). "The Obamas Gave $131,000 to Fisher House Foundation in 2010; What Is It?". PBS NewsHour. Archived from the original on January 29, 2014. Retrieved January 27, 2012.  ^ Wolf, Richard (May 16, 2012). "Obama worth as much as $10 million". USA Today. Retrieved June 16, 2012.  ^ Elsner, Alan (December 7, 2008). Obama says he won't be smoking in White House". Reuters. Retrieved February 28, 2010. ^ Zengerle, Patricia (February 8, 2011). "Yes, he did: first lady says Obama quit smoking". Reuters. Retrieved May 9, 2011. ^ Obama, Barack (August 4, 2016). "Glamour Exclusive: President Barack Obama Says, "This Is What a Feminist Looks Like"". Glamour. Retrieved August 5, 2016.  ^ Victor, Daniel (August 4, 2016). "Obama Writes Feminist Essay in Glamour". The New York Times. Retrieved August 5, 2016.  ^ Kelly, Cara (August 4, 2016). "President Obama in 'Glamour': It's important Sasha and Malia's dad is a feminist". USA Today. Retrieved August 5, 2016.  ^ * "American President: Barack Obama". Miller Center of Public Affairs, University of Virginia. 2009. Archived from the original on January 23, 2009. Retrieved January 23, 2009. Religion: Christian  "The Truth about Barack's Faith" (PDF). Obama for America. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 5, 2011. Retrieved July 1, 2012.  Miller, Lisa (July 18, 2008). "Finding his faith". Newsweek. Archived from the original on February 6, 2010. Retrieved February 4, 2010. He is now a Christian, having been baptized in the early 1990s at Trinity United Church of Christ in Chicago.  Barakat, Matthew (November 17, 2008). "Obama's church choice likely to be scrutinized; D.C. churches have started extending invitations to Obama and his family". MSNBC. Associated Press. Archived from the original on January 24, 2009. Retrieved January 20, 2009. The United Church of Christ, the denomination from which Obama resigned when he left Wright's church, issued a written invitation to join a UCC denomination in Washington and resume his connections to the church.  "Barack Obama, long time UCC member, inaugurated forty-fourth U.S. President". United Church of Christ. January 20, 2009. Archived from the original on January 25, 2009. Retrieved January 21, 2009. Barack Obama, who spent more than 20 years as a UCC member, is the forty-fourth President of the United States.  Sullivan, Amy (June 29, 2009). "The Obama's find a church home – away from home". Time. Retrieved February 5, 2010. instead of joining a congregation in Washington, D.C., he will follow in George W. Bush's footsteps and make his primary place of worship Evergreen Chapel, the nondenominational church at Camp David.  Kornblut, Anne E. (February 4, 2010). "Obama's spirituality is largely private, but it's influential, advisers say". The Washington Post. p. A6. Retrieved February 5, 2010. Obama prays privately ... And when he takes his family to Camp David on the weekends, a Navy chaplain ministers to them, with the daughters attending a form of Sunday school there.  ^ Obama (2006), pp. 202–208. Portions excerpted in: Obama, Barack (October 16, 2006). "My Spiritual Journey". Time. Archived from the original on April 30, 2008. Retrieved April 28, 2008.  Obama, Barack (June 28, 2006). "'Call to Renewal' Keynote Address". Barack Obama: U.S. Senator for Illinois. Archived from the original on January 4, 2009. Retrieved June 16, 2008.  ^ Pulliam, Sarah; Olsen, Ted (January 23, 2008). "Q&A: Barack Obama". Christianity Today. Retrieved January 4, 2013.  ^ Charles Babington; Darlene Superville (September 28, 2010). "Obama 'Christian By Choice': President Responds To Questioner". HuffPost. Associated Press. Archived from the original on May 11, 2011.  ^ "President Obama: 'I am a Christian By Choice...The Precepts of Jesus Spoke to Me'". ABC News. September 29, 2010. Retrieved December 27, 2016.  ^ Garrett, Major; Obama, Barack (March 14, 2008). "Obama talks to Major Garrett on 'Hannity & Colmes'". RealClearPolitics. Retrieved November 10, 2012. Major Garrett, Fox News correspondent: So the first question, how long have you been a member in good standing of that church? Sen. Barack Obama (D-IL), presidential candidate: You know, I've been a member since 1991 or '92. And – but I have known Trinity even before then when I was a community organizer on the South Side, helping steel workers find jobs ... Garrett: As a member in good standing, were you a regular attendee of Sunday services? Obama: You know, I won't say that I was a perfect attendee. I was regular in spurts, because there was times when, for example, our child had just been born, our first child. And so we didn't go as regularly then.  "Obama strongly denounces former pastor". MSNBC. Associated Press. April 29, 2008. Retrieved November 10, 2012. I have been a member of Trinity United Church of Christ since 1992, and have known Reverend Wright for 20 years," Obama said. "The person I saw yesterday was not the person that I met 20 years ago.  Miller, Lisa (July 11, 2008). "Finding his faith". Newsweek. Archived from the original on July 20, 2013. Retrieved November 10, 2012. He is now a Christian, having been baptized in the early 1990s at Trinity United Church of Christ in Chicago.  Remnick, David (2010). The Bridge: The Life and Rise of Barack Obama. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. p. 177. ISBN 978-1-4000-4360-6. In late October 1987, his third year as an organizer, Obama went with Kellman to a conference on the black church and social justice at the Harvard Divinity School.  Maraniss (2012), p. 557: It would take time for Obama to join and become fully engaged in Wright's church, a place where he would be baptized and married; that would not happen until later, during his second time around in Chicago, but the process started then, in October 1987 ... Jerry Kellman: "He wasn't a member of the church during those first three years, but he was drawn to Jeremiah." Peter, Baker (2017). Obama: The Call of History. New York: The New York Times/Callaway. ISBN 9780935112900. OCLC 1002264033.  ^ "Obama's church choice likely to be scrutinized". MSNBC. Associated Press. November 17, 2008. Retrieved January 20, 2009.  ^ Parker, Ashley. "As the Obamas Celebrate Christmas, Rituals of Faith Become Less Visible," The New York Times, December 28, 2013. Retrieved January 15, 2017. ^ Gilgoff, Dan. "TIME Report, White House Reaction Raise More Questions About Obama's Church Hunt," U.S. News & World Report, June 30, 2009. Retrieved January 15, 2017. ^ ""First Lady: We Use Sundays For Naps If We're Not Going To Church", CBS DC, April 22, 2014. Retrieved January 15, 2017. ^ Lizza, Ryan (March 19, 2007). "The agitator: Barack Obama's unlikely political education". The New Republic. Vol. 236 no. 12. pp. 22–26, 28–29. ISSN 0028-6583. Retrieved August 21, 2007.  Bob Secter; John McCormick (March 30, 2007). "Portrait of a pragmatist". Chicago Tribune. p. 1. Archived from the original on December 14, 2009. Retrieved May 18, 2012.  Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 140–295. Mendell (2007), pp. 63–83. ^ a b c Matchan, Linda (February 15, 1990). "A Law Review breakthrough". Boston Globe. p. 29. Retrieved June 15, 2008.  Corr, John (February 27, 1990). "From mean streets to hallowed halls" (paid archive). The Philadelphia Inquirer. p. C01. Retrieved June 6, 2008.  ^ Obama, Barack (August–September 1988). "Why organize? Problems and promise in the inner city". Illinois Issues. Vol. 14 no. 8–9. pp. 40–42. ISSN 0738-9663.  reprinted in: Knoepfle, Peg, ed. (1990). After Alinsky: community organizing in Illinois. Springfield, IL: Sangamon State University. pp. 35–40. ISBN 0-9620873-3-5. He has also been a consultant and instructor for the Gamaliel Foundation, an organizing institute working throughout the Midwest.  ^ Obama, Auma (2012). And then life happens: a memoir. New York: St. Martin's Press. pp. 189–208, 212–216. ISBN 978-1-250-01005-6.  ^ Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 299–437. Maraniss (2012), pp. 564–570. ^ "Ten O'Clock News; Derrick Bell threatens to leave Harvard", April 24, 1990, 11:34, WGBH, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (WGBH and the Library of Congress), Boston and Washington, D.C.. Retrieved September 23, 2016. ^ Joey Del Ponte; Somerville Scout Staff. "Something in the Water". Somerville Scout (January/February 2014). p. 26.  "Barack Obama lived in the big, ivy-covered brick building at 365 Broadway ... From 1988 to 1991, the future president resided in a basement apartment while attending Harvard Law School." ^ a b Michael Levenson; Jonathan Saltzman (January 28, 2007). "At Harvard Law, a unifying voice". Boston Globe. p. 1A. Retrieved June 15, 2008.  Kantor, Jodi (January 28, 2007). "In law school, Obama found political voice". The New York Times. p. A1. Retrieved June 15, 2008.  Mundy, Liza (August 12, 2007). "A series of fortunate events". The Washington Post. p. W10. Retrieved June 15, 2008.  Mendell (2007), pp. 80–92. ^ a b Butterfield, Fox (February 6, 1990). "First black elected to head Harvard's Law Review". The New York Times. p. A20. Retrieved June 15, 2008.  Ybarra, Michael J (February 7, 1990). "Activist in Chicago now heads Harvard Law Review". Chicago Tribune. p. 3. Retrieved October 29, 2011.  Drummond, Tammerlin (March 12, 1990). "Barack Obama's law; Harvard Law Review's first black president plans a life of public service" (paid archive). Los Angeles Times. p. E1. Retrieved June 15, 2008.  Evans, Gaynelle (March 15, 1990). "Opening another door: The saga of Harvard's Barack H. Obama". Black Issues in Higher Education. Vol. 7 no. 1. p. 5. ISSN 0742-0277. Retrieved May 18, 2012.  Pugh, Allison J. (April 18, 1990). "Law Review's first black president aims to help poor". The Miami Herald. Associated Press. p. C01. Retrieved June 15, 2008.  ^ Video on YouTube ^ Aguilar, Louis (July 11, 1990). "Survey: Law firms slow to add minority partners". Chicago Tribune. p. 1 (Business). Retrieved June 15, 2008.  ^ "Obama joins list of seven presidents with Harvard degrees". November 6, 2008. Retrieved October 23, 2017.  Adams, Richard (May 9, 2007). "Barack Obama". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on October 13, 2008. Retrieved October 26, 2008.  ^ a b c Scott, Janny (May 18, 2008). "The story of Obama, written by Obama". The New York Times. p. A1. Retrieved June 15, 2008.  Obama (1995, 2004), pp. xiii–xvii. ^ Merriner, James L. (June 2008). "The friends of O". Chicago. Vol. 57 no. 6. pp. 74–79, 97–99. ISSN 0362-4595. Retrieved January 30, 2010.  Zengerle, Jason (July 30, 2008). "Con law; What the University of Chicago right thinks of Obama". The New Republic. 239 (1). pp. 7–8. Retrieved January 30, 2010.  Kantor, Jodi (July 30, 2008). "Teaching law, testing ideas, Obama stood slightly apart". The New York Times. p. A1. Retrieved January 30, 2010.  Gray, Steven (September 10, 2008). "Taking professor Obama's class". Time. Retrieved January 30, 2010.  Starr, Alexandra (September 21, 2008). "Case study". The New York Times Magazine. p. 76. Retrieved January 30, 2010.  Hundley, Tom (March 22, 2009). "Ivory tower of power". Chicago Tribune Magazine. p. 6. Retrieved January 30, 2010.  ^ "Statement regarding Barack Obama". University of Chicago Law School. March 27, 2008. Archived from the original on June 8, 2008. Retrieved June 5, 2008.  Miller, Joe (March 28, 2008). "Was Barack Obama really a constitutional law professor?". Retrieved May 18, 2012.  Holan, Angie Drobnic (March 7, 2008). "Obama's 20 years of experience". Retrieved June 10, 2008.  ^ White, Jesse, ed. (2000). Illinois Blue Book, 2000, Millennium ed (PDF). Springfield, IL: Illinois Secretary of State. p. 83. OCLC 43923973. Archived from the original on April 16, 2004. Retrieved June 6, 2008.  Jarrett, Vernon (August 11, 1992). "'Project Vote' brings power to the people" (paid archive). Chicago Sun-Times. p. 23. Retrieved June 6, 2008.  Reynolds, Gretchen (January 1993). "Vote of confidence". Chicago Magazine. 42 (1). pp. 53–54. ISSN 0362-4595. Archived from the original on May 14, 2008. Retrieved June 6, 2008.  Anderson, Veronica (October 3, 1993). "40 under Forty: Barack Obama, Director, Illinois Project Vote". Crain's Chicago Business. 16 (39). p. 43. ISSN 0149-6956.  ^ United States District Court: Northern District of Illinois – CM/ECF LIVE, Ver 3.0 (Chicago) (July 6, 1994). "CIVIL DOCKET FOR CASE #: 1:94-cv-04094" (PDF). Retrieved June 3, 2016. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ "Buycks-Roberson v. Citibank Fed. Sav. Bank – Civil Rights Litigation Clearinghouse". Retrieved November 25, 2015.  ^ UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT~·':lj FOR THE NORTHERN DISTRICT OF ILLINOIS EASTERN DIVISION (January 16, 1988). "Settlement Agreement" (PDF). Retrieved June 3, 2016.  ^ United States District Cuurt For the Northern District of Illinois Eastern Division (May 13, 1998). "Final Judgment and Order of Dismissal" (PDF). Retrieved June 3, 2016.  ^ Gore, D'Angelo (June 14, 2012). "The Obamas' Law Licenses". Retrieved July 16, 2012.  ^ Robinson, Mike (February 20, 2007). "Obama got start in civil rights practice". Boston Globe. Associated Press. Retrieved June 15, 2008.  Pallasch, Abdon M. (December 17, 2007). "As lawyer, Obama was strong, silent type; He was 'smart, innovative, relentless,' and he mostly let other lawyers do the talking". Chicago Sun-Times. p. 4. Retrieved June 15, 2008. (subscription required) Morain, Dan (April 6, 2008). "Obama's law days effective but brief". Los Angeles Times. p. A14. Retrieved February 14, 2010.  "Document". Chicago Tribune. June 27, 1993. p. 9 (Business). Archived from the original on December 4, 2013. Retrieved June 15, 2008. (subscription required) "Business appointments". Chicago-Sun-Times. July 5, 1993. p. 40. Retrieved June 15, 2008. (subscription required) Ripley, Amanda (November 3, 2004). "Obama's ascent". Time. Retrieved February 13, 2010.  "About us". Miner, Barnhill & Galland – Chicago, Illinois. 2008. Archived from the original on July 20, 2008. Retrieved June 15, 2008.  Reardon, Patrick T. (June 25, 2008). "Obama's Chicago". Chicago Tribune. p. 1 (Tempo). Retrieved February 13, 2010.  Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 438–439. Mendell (2007), pp. 104–106. ^ Jackson, David; Ray Long (April 3, 2007). "Obama Knows His Way Around a Ballot". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on October 11, 2008. Retrieved May 18, 2012.  White, Jesse (2001). "Legislative Districts of Cook County, 1991 Reapportionment" (PDF). Illinois Blue Book 2001–2002 (PDF). Springfield: Illinois Secretary of State. p. 65. Archived from the original on February 26, 2008. Retrieved July 16, 2011. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) State Sen. District 13 = State Rep. Districts 25 & 26. ^ Slevin, Peter (February 9, 2007). "Obama Forged Political Mettle in Illinois Capitol". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 20, 2008. Helman, Scott (September 23, 2007). "In Illinois, Obama dealt with Lobbyists". Boston Globe. Archived from the original on April 16, 2008. Retrieved April 20, 2008.  See also:"Obama Record May Be Gold Mine for Critics". CBS News. Associated Press. January 17, 2007. Archived from the original on April 12, 2008. Retrieved April 20, 2008.  ^ a b Scott, Janny (July 30, 2007). "In Illinois, Obama Proved Pragmatic and Shrewd". The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 10, 2008. Retrieved April 20, 2008.  ^ Allison, Melissa (December 15, 2000). "State takes on predatory lending; Rules would halt single-premium life insurance financing" (paid archive). Chicago Tribune. p. 1 (Business). Archived from the original on June 17, 2008. Retrieved June 1, 2008. Ray Long; Melissa Allison (April 18, 2001). "Illinois OKs predatory loan curbs; State aims to avert home foreclosures" (paid archive). Chicago Tribune. p. 1. Retrieved June 1, 2008.  ^ "13th District: Barack Obama". Illinois State Senate Democrats. August 24, 2000. Archived from the original on April 12, 2000. Retrieved April 20, 2008. "13th District: Barack Obama". Illinois State Senate Democrats. October 9, 2004. Archived from the original on August 2, 2004. Retrieved April 20, 2008.  ^ "Federal Elections 2000: U.S. House Results – Illinois". Federal Election Commission. Archived from the original on March 28, 2008. Retrieved April 24, 2008.  Gonyea, Dan (September 19, 2007). "Obama's Loss May Have Aided White House Bid". NPR. Archived from the original on February 18, 2011.  Scott, Janny (September 9, 2007). "A Streetwise Veteran Schooled Young Obama". The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 21, 2008. Retrieved April 20, 2008.  McClelland, Edward (February 12, 2007). "How Obama Learned to Be a Natural". Salon. Archived from the original on March 8, 2008. Retrieved April 20, 2008.  Wolffe, Richard; Daren Briscoe (July 16, 2007). "Across the Divide". Newsweek. Archived from the original on April 18, 2008. Retrieved April 20, 2008.  Helman, Scott (October 12, 2007). "Early Defeat Launched a Rapid Political Climb". Boston Globe. Retrieved April 20, 2008.  Wills, Christopher (October 24, 2007). "Obama learned from failed Congress run". USA Today. Retrieved November 15, 2010.  ^ Calmes, Jackie (February 23, 2007). "Statehouse Yields Clues to Obama". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on September 18, 2008. Retrieved April 20, 2008.  ^ Tavella, Anne Marie (April 14, 2003). "Profiling, taping plans pass Senate" (paid archive). Daily Herald. p. 17. Retrieved June 1, 2008. Haynes, V. Dion (June 29, 2003). "Fight racial profiling at local level, lawmaker says; U.S. guidelines get mixed review" (paid archive). Chicago Tribune. p. 8. Archived from the original on June 17, 2008. Retrieved June 1, 2008. Pearson, Rick (July 17, 2003). "Taped confessions to be law; State will be 1st to pass legislation" (paid archive). Chicago Tribune. p. 1 (Metro). Retrieved June 1, 2008.  ^ Youngman, Sam; Aaron Blake (March 14, 2007). "Obama's Crime Votes Are Fodder for Rivals". The Hill. Retrieved May 18, 2012.  See also:"US Presidential Candidate Obama Cites Work on State Death Penalty Reforms". International Herald Tribune. Associated Press. November 12, 2007. Archived from the original on June 7, 2008. Retrieved May 18, 2012.  ^ Coffee, Melanie (November 6, 2004). "Attorney Chosen to Fill Obama's State Senate Seat". HPKCC. Associated Press. Archived from the original on May 16, 2008. Retrieved April 20, 2008.  ^ Helman, Scott (October 12, 2007). "Early defeat launched a rapid political climb". Boston Globe. p. 1A. Retrieved April 13, 2008.  ^ Strausberg, Chinta (September 26, 2002). "Opposition to war mounts" (paid archive). Chicago Defender. p. 1. Retrieved February 3, 2008.  ^ Office of the Press Secretary (October 2, 2002). "President, House leadership agree on Iraq resolution". The White House. Retrieved February 18, 2008.  Tackett, Michael (October 3, 2002). "Bush, House OK Iraq deal; Congress marches with Bush". Chicago Tribune. p. 1. Retrieved February 3, 2008. (subscription required) ^ Glauber, Bill (October 3, 2003). "War protesters gentler, but passion still burns". Chicago Tribune. p. 1. Retrieved February 3, 2008. (subscription required) Strausberg, Chinta (October 3, 2002). "War with Iraq undermines U.N". Chicago Defender. p. 1. Retrieved October 28, 2008. Photo caption: Left Photo: Sen. Barack Obama along with Rev. Jesse Jackson spoke to nearly 3,000 anti-war protestors (below) during a rally at Federal Plaza Wednesday.  Katz, Marilyn (October 2, 2007). "Five years since our first action". Chicagoans Against War & Injustice. Archived from the original on July 21, 2011. Retrieved February 18, 2008.  Greg Bryant; Jane B. Vaughn (October 3, 2002). "300 attend rally against Iraq war". Daily Herald. p. 8. Retrieved October 28, 2008. (subscription required) Mendell (2007), pp. 172–177. ^ Obama, Barack (October 2, 2002). "Remarks of Illinois State Sen. Barack Obama against going to war with Iraq". Barack Obama. Archived from the original on January 30, 2008. Retrieved February 3, 2008.  McCormick, John (October 3, 2007). "Obama marks '02 war speech; Contender highlights his early opposition in effort to distinguish him from his rivals". Chicago Tribune. p. 7. Retrieved October 28, 2008. The top strategist for Sen. Barack Obama has just 14 seconds of video of what is one of the most pivotal moments of the presidential candidate's political career. The video, obtained from a Chicago TV station, is of Obama's 2002 speech in opposition to the impending Iraq invasion. (subscription required) Pallasch, Abdon M. (October 3, 2007). "Obama touts anti-war cred; Kicks off tour 5 years after speech critical of going to Iraq". Chicago Sun-Times. p. 26. Retrieved October 28, 2008. (subscription required) ^ Ritter, Jim (March 17, 2003). "Anti-war rally here draws thousands". Chicago Sun-Times. p. 3. Retrieved February 3, 2008.  (subscription required) Office of the Press Secretary (March 16, 2003). "President Bush: Monday 'moment of truth' for world on Iraq" (Press release). The White House. Retrieved February 18, 2008.  ^ Davey, Monica (March 7, 2004). "Closely watched Illinois Senate race attracts 7 candidates in millionaire range". The New York Times. p. 19. Archived from the original on April 16, 2009. Retrieved April 13, 2008.  ^ Mendell, David (March 17, 2004). "Obama routs Democratic foes; Ryan tops crowded GOP field; Hynes, Hull fall far short across state". Chicago Tribune. p. 1. Retrieved March 1, 2009.  Davey, Monica (March 18, 2004). "As quickly as overnight, a Democratic star is born". The New York Times. p. A20. Retrieved March 1, 2009.  Howlett, Debbie (March 19, 2004). "Dems see a rising star in Illinois Senate candidate". USA Today. p. A04. Retrieved March 1, 2009.  Scheiber, Noam (May 31, 2004). "Race against history. Barack Obama's miraculous campaign". The New Republic. 230 (20). pp. 21–22, 24–26 (cover story). Retrieved March 24, 2009.  Finnegan, William (May 31, 2004). "The Candidate. How far can Barack Obama go?". The New Yorker. 20 (14). pp. 32–38. Retrieved March 24, 2009.  Dionne Jr., E.J. (June 25, 2004). "In Illinois, a star prepares". The Washington Post. p. A29. Retrieved March 24, 2009.  Scott, Janny (May 18, 2008). "The story of Obama, written by Obama". The New York Times. p. A1. Retrieved January 9, 2010.  Mendell (2007), pp. 235–259. ^ Bernstein, David (June 2007). "The Speech". Chicago Magazine. Retrieved April 13, 2008.  ^ "Star Power. Showtime: Some are on the rise; others have long been fixtures in the firmament. A galaxy of bright Democratic lights". Newsweek. August 2, 2004. pp. 48–51. Archived from the original on December 18, 2008. Retrieved November 15, 2008.  Samuel, Terence (August 2, 2004). "A shining star named Obama. How a most unlikely politician became a darling of the Democrats". U.S. News & World Report. p. 25. Archived from the original on December 6, 2008. Retrieved November 15, 2008.  Lizza, Ryan (September 2004). "Why is Barack Obama generating more excitement among Democrats than John Kerry?". The Atlantic Monthly. pp. 30, 33. Retrieved November 15, 2008.  Davey, Monica (July 26, 2004). "A surprise Senate contender reaches his biggest stage yet". The New York Times. p. A1. Retrieved November 25, 2010.  Leibovich, Mark (July 27, 2004). "The other man of the hour". The Washington Post. p. C1. Retrieved November 15, 2008.  Milligan, Susan (July 27, 2004). "In Obama, Democrats see their future". Boston Globe. p. B8. Archived from the original on December 18, 2008. Retrieved November 15, 2008.  Seelye, Katharine Q. (July 28, 2004). "Illinois Senate nominee speaks of encompassing unity". The New York Times. p. A1. Archived from the original on June 24, 2006.  Broder, David S. (July 28, 2004). "Democrats focus on healing divisions; Addressing convention, newcomers set themes". The Washington Post. p. A1. Retrieved November 15, 2008.  Jonathan Bing; Pamela McClintock (July 29, 2004). "Auds resist charms of Dem stars". Variety. p. 1. Retrieved November 15, 2008.  Mendell (2007), pp. 272–285. ^ "Ryan drops out of Senate race in Illinois". CNN. June 25, 2004. Retrieved May 18, 2012.  Mendell (2007), pp. 260–271. ^ Lannan, Maura Kelly (August 9, 2004). "Alan Keyes enters U.S. Senate race in Illinois against rising Democratic star". Union-Tribune. Associated Press. Retrieved April 13, 2008.  ^ "America Votes 2004: U.S. Senate / Illinois". CNN. 2005. Archived from the original on April 16, 2008. Retrieved April 13, 2008.  Slevin, Peter (November 13, 2007). "For Obama, a handsome payoff in political gambles". The Washington Post. p. A3. Retrieved April 13, 2008.  John Chase; David Mendell (November 3, 2004). "Obama scores a record landslide" (PDF). Chicago Tribune. p. 1. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 13, 2011. Retrieved April 3, 2009.  Fornek, Scott (November 3, 2004). "Obama takes Senate seat in a landslide". Chicago Sun-Times. p. 6. Retrieved April 3, 2009.  ^ United States Congress. "Barack Obama (id: o000167)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved October 12, 2011.  ^ "Member Info". Congressional Black Caucus. Archived from the original on July 9, 2008. Retrieved June 25, 2008.  ^ Mason, Jeff (November 16, 2008). "Obama resigns Senate seat, thanks Illinois". Reuters. Retrieved March 10, 2009.  ^ U.S. Senate, 109th Congress, 1st Session (May 12, 2005). "S. 1033, Secure America and Orderly Immigration Act". Library of Congress. Retrieved February 25, 2017.  ^ "Lugar–Obama Nonproliferation Legislation Signed into Law by the President". Richard Lugar U.S. Senate Office. January 11, 2007. Archived from the original on December 18, 2008. Retrieved April 27, 2008.  See also:Lugar, Richard G.; Barack Obama (December 3, 2005). "Junkyard Dogs of War". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 27, 2008.  ^ McCormack, John (December 21, 2007). "Google Government Gone Viral". Weekly Standard. Archived from the original on April 23, 2008. Retrieved April 27, 2008.  See also:"President Bush Signs Coburn–Obama Transparency Act". Tom Coburn U.S. Senate Office. September 26, 2006. Archived from the original on May 1, 2008. Retrieved April 27, 2008.  ^ "S. 3077: Strengthening Transparency and Accountability in Federal Spending Act of 2008: 2007–2008 (110th Congress)". June 3, 2008. Retrieved May 18, 2012.  ^ McIntire, Mike (February 3, 2008). "Nuclear Leaks and Response Tested Obama in Senate". The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 9, 2008. Retrieved April 27, 2008.  ^ Fisher, Daniel (August 11, 2008). "November Election A Lawyer's Delight". Forbes. Retrieved January 11, 2009.  ^ "Nunn–Lugar Report" (PDF). Richard Lugar U.S. Senate Office. August 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 1, 2008. Retrieved April 30, 2008.  ^ "Democratic Republic of the Congo". United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. April 2006. Archived from the original on January 8, 2011. Retrieved January 26, 2012. "The IRC Welcomes New U.S. Law on Congo". International Rescue Committee. January 5, 2007. Archived from the original on August 7, 2011. Retrieved April 27, 2008.  ^ Weixel, Nathaniel (November 15, 2007). "Feingold, Obama Go After Corporate Jet Travel". The Hill. Archived from the original on May 15, 2008. Retrieved April 27, 2008. Weixel, Nathaniel (December 5, 2007). "Lawmakers Press FEC on Bundling Regulation". The Hill. Archived from the original on April 16, 2008. Retrieved April 27, 2008.  See also:"Federal Election Commission Announces Plans to Issue New Regulations to Implement the Honest Leadership and Open Government Act of 2007". Federal Election Commission. September 24, 2007. Archived from the original on April 11, 2008. Retrieved April 27, 2008.  ^ Stern, Seth (January 31, 2007). "Obama–Schumer Bill Proposal Would Criminalize Voter Intimidation". Archived from the original on May 16, 2008. Retrieved April 27, 2008. U.S. Senate, 110th Congress, 1st Session (January 31, 2007). "S. 453, Deceptive Practices and Voter Intimidation Prevention Act of 2007". Library of Congress. Retrieved February 25, 2017.  See also:"Honesty in Elections" (editorial). The New York Times. January 31, 2007. Retrieved April 27, 2008.  ^ Krystin, E. Kasak (February 7, 2007). "Obama Introduces Measure to Bring Troops Home". Medill News Service. Retrieved April 27, 2008.  ^ "Obama, Bond Hail New Safeguards on Military Personality Disorder Discharges, Urge Further Action". Kit Bond U.S. Senate Office. October 1, 2007. Archived from the original on December 5, 2010. Retrieved April 27, 2008.  ^ "Obama, Bond Applaud Senate Passage of Amendment to Expedite the Review of Personality Disorder Discharge Cases". March 14, 2008. Archived from the original on December 18, 2008.  ^ "Obama, Schiff Provision to Create Nuclear Threat Reduction Plan Approved" (Press release). Barack Obama U.S. Senate Office. December 20, 2007. Archived from the original on December 18, 2008.  ^ "Senate Passes Obama, McCaskill Legislation to Provide Safety Net for Families of Wounded Service Members". Barack Obama U.S. Senate Office. August 2, 2007. Archived from the original on December 18, 2008. Retrieved April 27, 2008.  ^ "Committee Assignments". Barack Obama U.S. Senate Office. December 9, 2006. Archived from the original on December 9, 2006. Retrieved April 27, 2008.  ^ "Obama Gets New Committee Assignments". Barack Obama U.S. Senate Office. Associated Press. November 15, 2006. Archived from the original on December 18, 2008. Retrieved April 27, 2008.  ^ Baldwin, Tom (December 21, 2007). "Stay-At-Home Barack Obama Comes Under Fire for a Lack of Foreign Experience". Sunday Times (UK). Retrieved April 27, 2008.  ^ Larson, Christina (September 2006). "Hoosier Daddy: What Rising Democratic Star Barack Obama Can Learn from an Old Lion of the GOP". Washington Monthly. Archived from the original on April 30, 2008. Retrieved April 27, 2008.  Goudie, Chuck (January 12, 2006). "Obama Meets with Arafat's Successor". Chicago: WLS-TV. Retrieved April 27, 2008.  "Obama Slates Kenya for Fraud". Cape Town: News24. August 28, 2006. Archived from the original on June 5, 2008. Retrieved April 27, 2008.  Wamalwa, Chris (September 2, 2006). "Envoy Hits at Obama Over Graft Remark". The Standard (Nairobi). Archived from the original on October 10, 2007. Retrieved April 27, 2008.  Moracha, Vincent; Mangoa Mosota (September 4, 2006). "Leaders Support Obama on Graft Claims". The Standard. Nairobi. Archived from the original on October 7, 2007.  ^ a b Pearson, Rick; Long, Ray (February 10, 2007). "Obama: I'm running for president". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on August 13, 2007. Retrieved September 20, 2008.  ^ "Obama Launches Presidential Bid". BBC News. February 10, 2007. Archived from the original on February 2, 2008. Retrieved January 14, 2008.  ^ Parsons, Christi (February 10, 2007). "Obama's launch site: Symbolic Springfield: Announcement venue evokes Lincoln legacy". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved June 12, 2009.  ^ "Barack Obama on the Issues: What Would Be Your Top Three Overall Priorities If Elected?". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on May 9, 2008. Retrieved April 14, 2008.  See also: Thomas, Evan (2009). A Long Time Coming. New York: PublicAffairs. p. 74. ISBN 978-1-58648-607-5.  Falcone, Michael (December 21, 2007). "Obama's 'One Thing'". The New York Times. Retrieved April 14, 2008.  ^ "The Obama promise of hope and change". The Independent. London. November 1, 2008. Archived from the original on May 15, 2011.  ^ Tumulty, Karen (May 8, 2008). "The Five Mistakes Clinton Made". Time. Archived from the original on December 11, 2008. Retrieved November 11, 2008.  Peter Baker; Jim Rutenberg (June 8, 2008). "The Long Road to a Clinton Exit". The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 9, 2008. Retrieved November 29, 2008.  ^ Nagourney, Adam; Zeleny, Jeff (June 5, 2008). "Clinton to End Bid and Endorse Obama". The New York Times. Retrieved November 20, 2010.  ^ Nagourney, Adam; Zeleny, Jeff (August 23, 2008). "Obama Chooses Biden as Running Mate". The New York Times. Archived from the original on April 1, 2009. Retrieved September 20, 2008.  ^ "Sources: High court selection process down to finalists". CNN. May 13, 2009. Archived from the original on May 11, 2011.  ^ Baldwin, Tom (August 27, 2008). "Hillary Clinton: 'Barack is my candidate'". The Times. London. Retrieved August 27, 2008. (subscription required) Nagourney, Adam (August 27, 2008). "Obama Wins Nomination as Biden and Bill Clinton Rally the Party". The New York Times. Retrieved August 27, 2008.  ^ Mara Liasson; Michele Norris (July 7, 2008). "Obama To Accept Nomination at Mile High Stadium". NPR. Retrieved December 22, 2010.  ^ "Obama accepts Democrat nomination". BBC News. August 29, 2008. Archived from the original on August 28, 2008. Retrieved August 29, 2008.  Marks, Alexandra (August 29, 2008). "Soaring speech from Obama, plus some specifics". The Christian Science Monitor. Archived from the original on March 14, 2010.  ^ Lloyd, Robert (August 29, 2008). "Barack Obama, Al Gore Raise the Roof at Invesco Field". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 29, 2008.  ^ Malone, Jim (July 2, 2007). "Obama Fundraising Suggests Close Race for Party Nomination". Voice of America. Archived from the original on September 14, 2007.  Cummings, Jeanne (September 26, 2007). "Small Donors Rewrite Fundraising Handbook". Politico. Archived from the original on February 1, 2008. Retrieved January 14, 2008.  Cadei, Emily (February 21, 2008). "Obama Outshines Other Candidates in January Fundraising". CQ Politics. Archived from the original on June 13, 2008.  ^ Salant, Jonathan D. (June 19, 2008). "Obama Won't Accept Public Money in Election Campaign". Bloomberg. Retrieved June 19, 2008.  ^ "Commission on Presidential Debates Announces Sites, Dates, Formats and Candidate Selection Criteria for 2008 General Election" (Press release). Commission on Presidential Debates. November 19, 2007. Archived from the original on July 6, 2008.  "Gun Ruling Reverberates". Hartford Courant. June 27, 2008. Archived from the original on July 5, 2008. Retrieved July 6, 2008.  ^ Johnson, Alex (November 4, 2008). "Barack Obama elected 44th president". MSNBC. Archived from the original on February 20, 2009. Retrieved February 20, 2009.  "CNN Electoral Map Calculator – Election Center 2008". CNN. 2008. Archived from the original on December 12, 2008. Retrieved December 14, 2008.  ^ "General Election: McCain vs. Obama". Real Clear Politics. Archived from the original on February 17, 2009. Retrieved February 20, 2009.  ^ "Obama wins historic US election". BBC News. November 5, 2008. Archived from the original on December 18, 2008. Retrieved November 5, 2008.  Nagourney, Adam (November 4, 2008). "Obama Elected President as Racial Barrier Falls". The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 9, 2008. Retrieved November 5, 2008.  "Obama: 'This is your victory'". CNN. November 5, 2008. Archived from the original on November 4, 2008. Retrieved November 5, 2008.  ^ Johnson, Wesley (November 5, 2008). "Change has come, says President-elect Obama". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on December 9, 2008. Retrieved November 5, 2008.  ^ Shear, Michael D. (April 4, 2011). "Obama Begins Re-Election Facing New Political Challenges". The New York Times (blog). Archived from the original on April 5, 2011.  ^ "Obama announces re-election bid". United Press International. April 4, 2011. Archived from the original on May 10, 2011.  ^ Zeleny, Jeff & Calmes, Jackie (April 4, 2011). "Obama Opens 2012 Campaign, With Eye on Money and Independent Voters". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 15, 2012. Retrieved April 5, 2011.  ^ Yoon, Robert (April 3, 2012). "Leading presidential candidate to clinch nomination Tuesday". CNN (blog). Retrieved May 2, 2012.  ^ "Obama clinches Democratic nomination". CNN (blog). April 3, 2012. Retrieved April 3, 2012.  ^ Cohen, Tom (September 6, 2012). "Clinton says Obama offers a better path forward for America". CNN. Retrieved July 5, 2015.  ^ Lauter, David (November 8, 2012). "Romney campaign gives up in Florida". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on November 9, 2012. Retrieved July 5, 2015.  ^ Barnes, Robert (November 6, 2012). "Obama wins a second term as U.S. president". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 5, 2015.  ^ Welch, William M.; Strauss, Gary (November 7, 2012). "With win in critical battleground states, Obama wins second term". USA Today. Retrieved July 5, 2015.  ^ FEC (July 2013). "Election Results for the U.S. President, the U.S. Senate and the U.S. House of Representatives" (PDF). Federal Elections Commission. p. 5. Retrieved August 20, 2013.  ^ Brownstein, Ronald (November 9, 2012). "The U.S. has reached a demographic milestone – and it's not turning back". National Journal. Archived from the original on November 11, 2012. Retrieved July 5, 2015.  ^ Nichols, John (November 9, 2012). "Obama's 3 Million Vote, Electoral College Landslide, Majority of States Mandate". The Nation. Retrieved November 18, 2012.  ^ Lee, Kristen A. (November 7, 2012). "Election 2012: President Obama gives victory speech in front of thousands in Chicago, 'I have never been more hopeful about America'". Daily News. New York. Retrieved November 8, 2012.  ^ a b Shear, Michael (January 21, 2013). "Obama Offers Liberal Vision: 'We Must Act'". The New York Times. Retrieved July 10, 2013.  ^ "Obama asks Pentagon for responsible Iraq drawdown". China Daily. January 23, 2009. Retrieved September 4, 2009.  ^ Glaberson, William (January 21, 2009). "Obama Orders Halt to Prosecutions at Guantánamo". The New York Times. Archived from the original on April 16, 2009. Retrieved February 3, 2009.  ^ "Senate blocks transfer of Gitmo detainees", MSNBC, Associated Press, May 20, 2009, retrieved March 22, 2011  ^ Obama, Barack (December 15, 2009), "Presidential Memorandum – Closure of Detention Facilities at the Guantanamo Bay Naval Base", White House, archived from the original on March 15, 2011, retrieved March 22, 2011  ^ Serbu, Jared (January 7, 2011), "Obama signs Defense authorization bill", Federal News Radio, retrieved March 22, 2011  ^ Northam, Jackie (January 23, 2013). "Obama's Promise To Close Guantanamo Prison Falls Short". NPR. Retrieved April 22, 2013.  ^ "Executive Order – Presidential Records". Archived from the original on January 22, 2009. Retrieved January 22, 2009.  ^ Obama, Barack (January 23, 2009). "Mexico City Policy and assistance for voluntary population planning (Presidential memorandum)" (PDF). The White House. Retrieved September 21, 2012.  Meckler, Laura (January 24, 2009). "Obama lifts 'gag rule' on family-planning groups". The Wall Street Journal. p. A3. Retrieved September 21, 2012.  Stein, Rob; Shear, Michael (January 24, 2009). "Funding restored to groups that perform abortions, other care". The Washington Post. p. A3. Retrieved September 21, 2012. Lifting the Mexico City Policy would not permit U.S. tax dollars to be used for abortions, but it would allow funding to resume to groups that provide other services, including counseling about abortions.  ^ "Obama Signs Equal-Pay Legislation". The New York Times. January 30, 2009. Retrieved June 15, 2009.  ^ Levey, Noam N. "Obama signs into law expansion of SCHIP health care program for children". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on April 30, 2009. Retrieved June 15, 2009.  ^ "Obama overturns Bush policy on stem cells". CNN. March 9, 2009. Archived from the original on March 30, 2010. Retrieved April 18, 2010.  ^ "Senate confirms Sotomayor for Supreme Court". CNN. August 6, 2009. Retrieved August 6, 2009.  ^ "Obama nominates Sotomayor to Supreme Court". Retrieved September 13, 2014.  ^ Sherman, Mark (October 4, 2010). "New Era Begins on High Court: Kagan Takes Place as Third Woman". Associated Press. Retrieved November 13, 2010.  ^ Parsons, Christi (March 30, 2010). "Obama signs student loan reforms into law". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on April 19, 2010. Retrieved April 18, 2010.  ^ Branigin, William. "Obama signs higher-education measure into law". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 12, 2010.  ^ Robert Block, Robert; Mark K. Matthews (January 27, 2010). "White House won't fund NASA moon program". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved January 30, 2011. President Obama's budget proposal includes no money for the Ares I and Ares V rocket or Constellation program. Instead, NASA would be asked to monitor climate change and develop a new rocket  ^ Albanesius, Chloe (January 25, 2011). "Obama Pushes Innovation in Tech-Heavy State of the Union". PC Magazine. Retrieved May 17, 2011.  ^ Kornblut, Anne E.; Wilson, Scott (January 26, 2011). "State of the Union 2011: 'Win the future,' Obama says". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 18, 2011.  ^ "Obama signs hate crimes bill into law". CNN. October 28, 2009. Archived from the original on September 14, 2011. Retrieved October 12, 2011.  ^ "Obama Lifts a Ban on Entry Into U.S. by H.I.V.-Positive People", Julia Preston. The New York Times. October 30, 2009. Retrieved February 8, 2017 ^ "'Don't ask, don't tell' repealed as Obama signs landmark law". The Guardian. London. December 22, 2010. Archived from the original on December 23, 2010. Retrieved December 22, 2010.  ^ "Obama to delay 'don't ask, don't tell' repeal". The Washington Times. November 21, 2008. Archived from the original on January 25, 2011. Retrieved December 22, 2010.  ^ Lee, Jesse. "The President Signs Repeal of "Don't Ask Don't Tell": "Out of Many, We Are One"". The White House. Archived from the original on December 25, 2010. Retrieved December 22, 2010.  ^ a b "US military ends ban on transgender service members". The Guardian. June 30, 2016.  ^ Baim, Tracy (January 14, 2009). "Windy City Times exclusive: Obama's Marriage Views Changed. WCT Examines His Step Back". Windy City Times. Retrieved May 10, 2012.  ^ Baim, Tracy (February 4, 2004). "Obama Seeks U.S. Senate seat". Windy City Times. Retrieved May 10, 2012.  ^ "Obama backs same-sex marriage". CBS News. May 9, 2012. Retrieved May 9, 2012.  ^ Stein, Sam (May 9, 2012). "Obama Backs Gay Marriage". HuffPost. AOL Inc. Retrieved July 5, 2015.  ^ Robillard, Kevin (January 21, 2013). "First inaugural use of the word 'gay'". Politico. Retrieved January 21, 2013.  ^ Michelson, Noah (January 21, 2013). "Obama Inauguration Speech Makes History With Mention of Gay Rights Struggle, Stonewall Uprising". HuffPost. Retrieved January 21, 2013.  ^ Reilly, Ryan J. (February 28, 2013). "Obama Administration: Gay Marriage Ban Unconstitutional In Prop. 8 Supreme Court Case". HuffPost. Retrieved April 21, 2013.  ^ Mears, Bill (February 27, 2013). "Obama administration weighs in on defense of marriage law". CNN. Retrieved April 21, 2013.  ^ "Remarks by the President on the Supreme Court Decision on Marriage Equality". The White House. Retrieved October 25, 2015.  ^ "Obama Administration Releases Revised National HIV and AIDS Strategy", Human Rights Campaign. July 30, 2015. Retrieved February 8, 2017 ^ Executive Order 13506, Washington, DC: President Barack Obama, The White House, March 11, 2009, Obama, B.. Retrieved January 27, 2014. ^ a b "A renewed call to action to end rape and sexual assault". Retrieved September 13, 2014.  ^ a b "Memorandum: Establishing White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual Assault". Retrieved September 13, 2014.  ^ "Obama admin: Freedom from sexual assault a basic human right". MSNBC. Retrieved September 13, 2014.  ^ "Rape and sexual assault: A renewed call to action", White House Council on Women and Girls, Washington, D.C.: White House Council on Women and Girls & Office of the Vice President, January 2014. Retrieved June 10, 2014. ^ "Stimulus package en route to Obama's desk". CNN. February 14, 2009. Archived from the original on March 30, 2009. Retrieved March 29, 2009.  ^ "Committee for a Responsible Federal Budget, Stimulus Watch". Retrieved April 9, 2011.  "Obama's remarks on signing the stimulus plan". CNN. February 17, 2009. Archived from the original on February 20, 2009. Retrieved February 17, 2009.  ^ Andrews, Edmund L.; Dash, Eric (March 23, 2009). "U.S. Expands Plan to Buy Banks' Troubled Assets". The New York Times. Retrieved April 12, 2010.  "Wall Street soars 7% on bank plan debut". Reuters. March 23, 2009.  ^ "White House questions viability of GM, Chrysler". HuffPost. March 30, 2009. Archived from the original on April 7, 2009.  ^ Bunkley, Nick; Vlasic, Bill (April 27, 2009). "Chrysler and Union Agree to Deal Before Federal Deadline". The New York Times. Retrieved April 12, 2010.  ^ Hughes, John; Salas, Caroline; Green, Jeff; Van Voris, Bob (June 1, 2009). "GM Begins Bankruptcy Process With Filing for Affiliate". Bloomberg News. Archived from the original on June 13, 2010. Retrieved July 5, 2015.  ^ Conkey, Christopher; Radnofsky, Louise (June 9, 2009). "Obama Presses Cabinet to Speed Stimulus Spending". The Wall Street Journal. News Corp. Retrieved July 5, 2015.  ^ Dana Hedgpeth (August 21, 2009). "U.S. Says 'Cash for Clunkers' Program Will End on Monday". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 26, 2010.  ^ Joseph R. Szczesny (August 26, 2009). "Was Cash for Clunkers a Success?". Time. Retrieved March 26, 2010.  ^ Mian, Atif R.; Sufi, Amir (September 1, 2010). "The Effects of Fiscal Stimulus: Evidence from the 2009 'Cash for Clunkers' Program". Social Science Research Network. doi:10.2139/ssrn.1670759. SSRN 1670759 .  ^ Goldman, David (April 6, 2009). "'s bailout tracker". 06. CNNMoney. p. 20. Retrieved March 26, 2010.  ^ Montgomery, Lori (July 24, 2010). "Federal budget deficit to exceed $1.4 trillion in 2010 and 2011". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 29, 2010.  ^ Bull, Alister; Mason, Jeff (February 1, 2010). "Obama's 2010 budget: deficit soars amid job spending". Reuters. Retrieved July 29, 2010.  ^ Dickson, David M. (March 26, 2010). "CBO report: Debt will rise to 90% of GDP". The Washington Times. Associated Press. Retrieved July 29, 2010.  ^ Sahadi, Jeanne (February 12, 2014). "Where's the debt ceiling now?". CNN. Retrieved March 21, 2014.  ^ NBC's Sylvie Stein. "First Read – A breakdown of the debt-limit legislation". MSNBC. Archived from the original on January 14, 2012. Retrieved August 3, 2011.  ^ "House passes debt ceiling bill". MSNBC. March 8, 2011. Retrieved August 3, 2011.  ^ "Unemployment Rate". Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved 17 January 2017.  ^ "1-month net change in employment". Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved 17 January 2017.  ^ Theodossiou, Eleni; Hipple, Steven F. (2011). "Unemployment Remains High in 2010" (PDF). Monthly Labor Review. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 134 (3): 3–22. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 8, 2011. Retrieved April 7, 2011.  ^ Eddlemon, John P. (2011). "Payroll Employment Turns the Corner in 2010" (PDF). Monthly Labor Review. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 134 (3): 23–32. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 6, 2011. Retrieved April 7, 2011.  ^ "Unemployment Rate". Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved December 11, 2012.  ^ "Unemployment Rate". Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved January 10, 2014.  ^ "Unemployment Rate". Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved June 6, 2014.  ^ a b "Percent Change in Real Gross Domestic Product (Quarterly)". National Income and Product Accounts Table. Bureau of Economic Analysis. Archived from the original on May 12, 2011. Retrieved April 7, 2011.  ^ Harding, Robin (July 28, 2010). "Beige Book survey reports signs of slowdown". Financial Times. Archived from the original on July 29, 2010. Retrieved July 29, 2010.  ^ "Percent Change in Real Gross Domestic Product (Annual)". National Income and Product Accounts Table. Bureau of Economic Analysis. Archived from the original on May 12, 2011. Retrieved April 7, 2011.  ^ a b "Estimated Impact of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act on Employment and Economic Output". Congressional Budget Office. Retrieved February 21, 2012.  ^ a b Calmes, Jackie; Cooper, Michael (November 20, 2009). "New Consensus Sees Stimulus Package as Worthy Step". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 11, 2011. Retrieved December 21, 2010.  ^ "CBO: Stimulus created as many as 2.1 million jobs". February 23, 2010. Retrieved April 25, 2010.  ^ Krugman, Paul (November 2, 2009). "Too Little of a Good Thing". The New York Times. Retrieved December 22, 2010.  ^ Isidore, Chris (January 29, 2010). "Best economic growth in six years". CNN. Retrieved April 18, 2010.  ^ "New NABE Survey Shows Business Recovery Gaining Momentum, with More Jobs Ahead". Archived from the original on May 2, 2010. Retrieved April 26, 2010.  ^ Politics that Work, "U.S. GDP Growth Relative to Original NATO Members", Politics that Work, March 9, 2015 ^ Irene Chapple, "OECD: U.S. will recover faster, Europe faces unemployment crisis", CNN, May 29, 2013 ^ Herszenhorn, David M.; Stolberg, Sheryl Gay (December 7, 2010). "Democrats Skeptical of Obama on New Tax Plan". The New York Times.  ^ "Obama signs tax deal into law". CNN. December 17, 2010. Retrieved December 17, 2010.  ^ Kuhnhenn, Jim (December 5, 2013). "Obama: Income Inequality a Defining Challenge". Associated Press. Retrieved January 9, 2014.  ^ "President Obama uses his final months to bring congressional approval of a 12-nation free trade pact called the Trans-Pacific Partnership". CBS News. September 5, 2016. Retrieved September 5, 2016.  ^ Broder, John M. (October 1, 2009). "E.P.A. Moves to Curtail Greenhouse Gas Emissions". The New York Times.  ^ "US moves to limit industrial greenhouse gas emissions". Google News. Agence France-Presse. October 1, 2009. Archived from the original on May 23, 2012. Retrieved April 18, 2010.  ^ "Obama Halts Drilling Projects, Defends Actions". NPR. May 27, 2010.  ^ Jonsson, Patrik (May 29, 2010). "Gulf oil spill: Obama's big political test". The Christian Science Monitor. Archived from the original on June 1, 2010. Retrieved June 6, 2010.  ^ Goldenberg, Suzanne (July 28, 2013). "Barack Obama expresses reservations about Keystone XL pipeline project". The Guardian (London). ^ Stein, Sam (June 25, 2013). Obama: Keystone XL Should Not Be Approved If It Will Increase Greenhouse Gas Emissions. HuffPost (US). ^ Goldenberg, Suzanne (January 18, 2013)."Shell's plans in Arctic at risk as Obama advisers call for halt to oil exploration". The Guardian (London). ^ "Obama Vetoes Keystone XL Pipeline Bill". NPR. February 24, 2015. Retrieved February 24, 2015.  ^ Barron-Lopez, Laura (March 4, 2015). "Keystone veto override fails". The Hill. Capitol Hill Publishing. Retrieved July 2, 2015.  ^ Juliet Eilperin & Brady Dennis, With new monuments in Nevada, Utah, Obama adds to his environmental legacy, The Washington Post (December 28, 2016). Monuments Man, The New York Times (December 31, 2016). Obama's Newly Designated National Monuments Upset Some Lawmakers, NPR, All Things Considered (December 29, 2016) Amy R. Connolly, Obama expands public lands more than any U.S. president, United Press International (February 13, 2016). ^ a b Sweet, Lynn (July 22, 2009). "Obama July 22, 2009 press conference. Transcript". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on April 16, 2015. Retrieved July 5, 2015.  ^ Stolberg, Sheryl Gay; Zeleny, Jeff (September 9, 2009). "Obama, Armed With Details, Says Health Plan Is Necessary". The New York Times. Retrieved July 5, 2015.  ^ Allen, Mike (September 9, 2009). "Barack Obama will hedge on public option". Politico. Retrieved July 5, 2015.  ^ "Health Insurance Premium Credits in the PPACA" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved May 17, 2015.  ^ "Obama calls for Congress to face health care challenge". CNN. September 9, 2009. Archived from the original on September 10, 2009. Retrieved September 9, 2009.  ^ Daniel Nasaw. "Stem cell". The Guardian. Retrieved September 13, 2014.  ^ Hulse, Carl; Robert Pear (November 7, 2009). "Sweeping Health Care Plan Passes House". The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 31, 2011. Retrieved November 8, 2009.  ^ Herszenhorn, David M.; Jackie Calmes (December 7, 2009). "Abortion Was at Heart of Wrangling". The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 31, 2011. Retrieved December 6, 2009.  ^ Hensley, Scott (December 24, 2009). "Senate Says Yes To Landmark Health Bill". NPR. Archived from the original on January 21, 2010. Retrieved December 24, 2009.  ^ "Health Care Reform, at Last". The New York Times. March 21, 2010. Archived from the original on March 26, 2010. Retrieved March 22, 2010.  ^ Gay Stolberg, Sheryl (March 23, 2010). "Obama Signs Landmark Health Care Bill". The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 25, 2010. Retrieved March 23, 2010.  ^ Rice, Sabriya (March 25, 2010). "5 key things to remember about health care reform". CNN. Retrieved January 6, 2013.  ^ a b "Policies to Improve Affordability and Accountability". The White House. Retrieved January 6, 2013.  ^ Grier, Peter (March 20, 2010). "Health Care Reform Bill 101". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved July 5, 2015.  ^ Elmendorf, Douglas W. (November 30, 2009). "An Analysis of Health Insurance Premiums Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act" (PDF). Congressional Budget Office. Retrieved April 9, 2012.  ^ Obama, Barack (August 2, 2016). "United States Health Care Reform". JAMA. 316 (5): 525. doi:10.1001/jama.2016.9797. ISSN 0098-7484. Retrieved August 17, 2016.  ^ Grier, Peter (March 21, 2010). "Health care reform bill 101: Who will pay for reform?". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved July 5, 2015.  ^ Grier, Peter (March 19, 2010). "Health care reform bill 101: Who must buy insurance?". The Christian Science Monitor. Archived from the original on April 5, 2010. Retrieved April 7, 2010.  ^ Elmendorf, Douglas W. "H.R. 4872, Reconciliation Act of 2010 (Final Health Care Legislation)". Congressional Budget Office. Retrieved January 6, 2013.  ^ Barnes, Robert (June 28, 2012). "Supreme Court upholds Obama health care overhaul by 5–4 vote, approving insurance requirement". The Washington Post. Associated Press. Retrieved June 29, 2012.  ^ Kimberly Leonard. "Supreme Court Upholds Obamacare Subsidies". US News & World Report. Archived from the original on January 16, 2016. Retrieved November 25, 2015.  ^ James P. O'Toole; Tracie Mauriello; Deborah Todd (June 17, 2014). "Obama speaks in Pittsburgh about tech, jobs". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette.  ^ Obama domestic energy policy. Bloomberg News. June 17, 2014. ^ "Manufacturing Balks at Obama's U.S. Energy Policy: Video". Bloomberg News. June 17, 2014. Archived from the original on August 4, 2014. Retrieved July 17, 2014.  ^ Mardell, Mark (January 16, 2013). "US gun debate: Obama unveils gun control proposals". BBC News. Retrieved January 16, 2013.  ^ "What's in Obama's Gun Control Proposal". The New York Times. January 16, 2013. Retrieved February 12, 2013.  ^ "Obama announces gun control executive action (full transcript)" CNN. January 5, 2016. January 7, 2016. ^ Obama, Barack. "Barack Obama: Guns Are Our Shared Responsibility" The New York Times. January 7, 2016. January 7, 2016. ^ Paul Harris; Ewen MacAskill (November 3, 2010). "US midterm election results herald new political era as Republicans take House". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on December 14, 2010. Retrieved December 22, 2010.  ^ "Obama calls midterm elections a 'shellacking' for Democrats". The Christian Science Monitor. November 4, 2010. Archived from the original on November 24, 2010. Retrieved December 22, 2010.  ^ "See Obama's first paragraph of his transcript". All Things Considered. NPR. November 3, 2010. Retrieved December 22, 2010.  ^ Wyatt, Edward (November 10, 2014). "Obama Asks F.C.C. to Adopt Tough Net Neutrality Rules". The New York Times. Retrieved November 15, 2014.  ^ NYT Editorial Board (November 14, 2014). "Why the F.C.C. Should Heed President Obama on Internet Regulation". The New York Times. Retrieved November 15, 2014.  ^ "Cybersecurity – Executive Order 13636" (Press release). Retrieved April 30, 2015.  ^ Colvin, Ross; Barkin, Noah (February 7, 2009). "Biden vows break with Bush era foreign policy". Toronto: Archived from the original on November 6, 2012. Retrieved January 31, 2013.  Ghattas, Kim (March 8, 2009). "Clinton's gaffes and gains on tour". BBC News. Retrieved June 15, 2009.  ^ "Obama reaches out to Muslim world on TV". MSNBC. January 27, 2009. Retrieved June 15, 2009.  ^ "Barack Obama's address to Iran: Full text of Barack Obama's videotaped message to the people and leaders of Iran as they celebrate their New Year's holiday, Nowruz". The Guardian. London. March 20, 2013. Retrieved July 14, 2013.  ^ DeYoung, Karen (April 9, 2009). "Nation U.S. to Join Talks on Iran's Nuclear Program". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 15, 2009.  ^ "Obama speech draws praise in Mideast". The Guardian. London. January 23, 2008. Retrieved June 15, 2009.  ^ "Obama in Egypt reaches out to Muslim world". CNN. June 4, 2009. Retrieved January 30, 2011.  ^ Weber, Joseph; Dinan, Stephen (June 26, 2009). "Obama dismisses Ahmadinejad apology request". The Washington Times. Retrieved July 2, 2015.  ^ "Obama: No green light for Israel to attack Iran". CNN. July 7, 2009. Retrieved January 4, 2013.  ^ Rajghatta, Chidanand (September 24, 2009). "Barack 'No Bomb' Obama pushes for world without nukes". The Times of India. Retrieved July 2, 2015.  ^ Berger, Robert (March 25, 2010). "Israel Refuses to Halt Construction in East Jerusalem". Voice of America. Retrieved July 2, 2015.  ^ Kershner, Isabel (March 24, 2010). "Israel Confirms New Building in East Jerusalem". The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 29, 2010. Retrieved April 26, 2010.  ^ Baker, Peter (March 26, 2010)."Obama Seals Arms Control Deal With Russia". The New York Times. ^ Baker, Peter (December 22, 2010). "Senate Passes Arms Control Treaty With Russia, 71–26". The New York Times.  ^ McVeigh, Karen (December 6, 2011). "Gay rights must be criterion for US aid allocations, instructs Obama". The Guardian. London. Retrieved January 4, 2013.  ^ Parsons, Christi (August 7, 2013). "Obama criticizes Russia's new anti-gay law in Leno interview". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 27, 2014.  ^ Johnson, Luke (August 9, 2013). "Obama Opposes Olympic Boycott, Criticizes Russian Anti-Gay Law". HuffPost. Retrieved August 27, 2014.  ^ Achenbach, Joel (December 18, 2014). "In Miami, a mixed and muted response to historic change in Cuba policy". The Washington Post. Retrieved December 18, 2014.  ^ "Saudi Arabia launces air attacks in Yemen". The Washington Post. March 25, 2015.  ^ "Obama: Merkel was my closest ally". The Local. November 15, 2016.  ^ Feller, Ben (February 27, 2009). "Obama sets firm withdrawal timetable for Iraq". The Gazette. Associated Press. Retrieved March 3, 2009.  ^ Jones, Athena (February 27, 2009). "Obama announces Iraq plan". MSNBC. Retrieved July 2, 2015.  ^ Sykes, Hugh (August 19, 2010). "Last US combat brigade exits Iraq". BBC News. Retrieved December 25, 2012.  ^ MacAskill, Ewen (September 1, 2010). "Barack Obama ends the war in Iraq. 'Now it's time to turn the page'". The Guardian. London.  ^ "All U.S. troops out of Iraq by end of year". MSNBC. October 21, 2011. Retrieved December 25, 2012.  ^ "Obama Is Sending 275 US Troops To Iraq". Retrieved June 19, 2014.  ^ Nebehay, Stephanie. "New U.N. rights boss warns of 'house of blood' in Iraq, Syria". Retrieved July 11, 2015.  ^ "DoD Authorizes War on Terror Award for Inherent Resolve Ops". October 31, 2014. Retrieved November 22, 2014.  ^ "Islamic State: Coalition 'pledges more troops' for Iraq". BBC News. Retrieved August 23, 2015.  ^ Aaron Mehta (January 19, 2015). "A-10 Performing 11 Percent of Anti-ISIS Sorties". Defense News. Retrieved August 23, 2015.  ^ "1,000 soldiers from the 82nd Airborne headed to Iraq". Stars and Stripes. Retrieved August 23, 2015.  ^ "Stealthy Jet Ensures Other War-Fighting Aircraft Survive". US News & World Report. Archived from the original on August 13, 2015. Retrieved August 23, 2015.  ^ "Obama Calls for U.S. Military to Renew Focus on Afghanistan". NewsHour with Jim Lehrer. PBS. July 15, 2008. Archived from the original on March 27, 2010. Retrieved April 18, 2010.  ^ Hodge, Amanda (February 19, 2009). "Obama launches Afghanistan Surge". The Australian. Sydney.  ^ "Top U.S. Commander in Afghanistan Is Fired". The Washington Post. May 12, 2009.  "New U.S. Commander Brings Counterinsurgency Experience to Afghanistan". Fox News Channel. May 13, 2009.  ^ Associated Press. (December 1, 2009). "Obama details Afghan war plan, troop increases" MSNBC. ^ "Gates says he agrees with Obama decision on McChrystal". CNN. June 24, 2010. Retrieved September 18, 2010.  ^ Chandrasekaran, Rajiv (February 12, 2013). "Obama wants to cut troop level in Afghanistan in half over next year". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 14, 2013.  ^ Marcus, Jonathan (October 15, 2015). "US troops in Afghanistan: Taliban resurgence sees rethink". BBC News. Retrieved October 15, 2015.  ^ "United States vetoes Security Council resolution on Israeli settlements". UN News Service Section. February 18, 2011. Retrieved September 13, 2014.  ^ Levy, Elior (May 22, 2011). "PA challenges Netanyahu to accept 1967 lines." Ynetnews. Retrieved May 22, 2011. ^ Johnston, Nicholas (June 20, 2011). "Obama Says U.S. Connection With Israel Is 'Unbreakable'". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on June 23, 2013. Retrieved October 26, 2012.  ^ Levinson, Charles (August 14, 2010)."U.S., Israel Build Military Cooperation". The Wall Street Journal (New York). Retrieved March 1, 2011. ^ Kampeas, Ron (October 26, 2012). "For Obama campaign, trying to put to rest persistent questions about 'kishkes'". Jewish Journal.  ^ Goldberg, Jeffrey (January 14, 2013). "Obama: 'Israel Doesn't Know What Its Best Interests Are'". Bloomberg. Retrieved January 23, 2013.  ^ Goldberg, Jeffrey. "After the Iran Deal: Obama, Netanyahu, and the Future of the Jewish State." The Atlantic. September 13, 2015. September 13, 2015. ^ "Obama reaffirms Israel's right to defend itself". The Times of Israel. July 19, 2014.  ^ "Netanyahu: Iran nuclear deal makes world much more dangerous, Israel not bound by it". July 14, 2015. Retrieved January 3, 2018.  ^ Collinson, Stephen; Wright, David; Labott, Elise (December 24, 2016). "US Abstains as UN Demands End to Israeli Settlements". CNN. Retrieved January 7, 2017.  ^ Barak, Ravid (December 26, 2016). "Netanyahu on UN Settlement Vote: Israel Will Not Turn the Other Cheek". Haaretz. Retrieved January 7, 2017.  ^ "Israel-Palestinians: Netanyahu Condemns John Kerry Speech". BBC. December 29, 2016. Retrieved January 7, 2017.  ^ "Israel Halts $6 million to UN to Protest UN Settlements Vote". Fox News (from the Associated Press). January 6, 2017. Retrieved January 7, 2017.  ^ "House Overwhelmingly Votes to Condemn UN Resolution on Israel Settlements". Fox News Channel. January 5, 2017. Retrieved January 7, 2017.  ^ Cortellessa, Eric (January 6, 2017). "US House Passes Motion Repudiating UN Resolution on Israel". The Times of Israel. Retrieved January 17, 2017.  ^ "Floor Statement by Senator McCain Introducing the Senate Resolution Calling for a No-Fly Zone in Libya". March 14, 2011. Retrieved March 28, 2011.  ^ "Senate Passes Resolution Calling for No-Fly Zone Over Libya". National Journal. March 1, 2011. Archived from the original on May 11, 2011.  ^ Winnett, Robert (March 17, 2011). "Libya: UN approves no-fly zone as British troops prepare for action". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on April 28, 2011.  ^ Shackle, Samira (March 18, 2011). "Libya declares ceasefire". New Statesman blog. London. Retrieved July 16, 2011.  ^ "Obama: US to Transfer Lead Role in Libya". RTT Newswire. Retrieved March 22, 2011.  ^ "Obama says US efforts in Libya have saved lives, control of operation can be turned over soon". Ventura County Star. Associated Press. Archived from the original on August 28, 2011. Retrieved March 22, 2011.  ^ Pannell, Ian (March 21, 2011). "Gaddafi 'not targeted' by allied strikes". BBC News. Archived from the original on June 23, 2011. Retrieved July 3, 2011.  ^ Jones, Sam (March 22, 2011). "F-15 fighter jet crashes in Libya". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on March 22, 2011. Retrieved March 23, 2011.  ^ "NATO No-Fly Zone over Libya Operation UNIFIED PROTECTOR" (PDF). NATO. March 25, 2011.  ^ Montopoli, Brian (March 22, 2011). "Is Obama's Libya offensive constitutional?". CBS News. Retrieved March 22, 2011.  ^ Stein, Sam (March 21, 2011). "Obama's Libya Policy Makes Strange Bedfellows of Congressional Critics". HuffPost. Archived from the original on March 23, 2011. Retrieved March 26, 2011.  ^ "Obama juggles Libya promises, realities". CNN. March 25, 2011. Retrieved March 26, 2011.  ^ "Assad must go, Obama says". The Washington Post. August 18, 2011. Retrieved November 23, 2015.  ^ "President Obama: 'The future of Syria must be determined by its people, but President Bashar al-Assad is standing in their way.'" White House website, August 18, 2011. ^ Nelson, Colleen. "Obama Says Syrian Leader Bashar al-Assad Must Go".  ^ Hosenball, Mark. "Obama authorizes secret support for Syrian rebels". Retrieved February 19, 2016.  ^ Michael D. Shear; Helene Cooper; Eric Schmitt. "Obama Administration Ends Effort to Train Syrians to Combat ISIS". Retrieved February 20, 2016.  ^ Phil Stewart; Kate Holton. "U.S. pulls plug on Syria rebel training effort; will focus on weapons supply". Retrieved February 20, 2016.  ^ "Obama 'red line' erased as Bashar Assad's chemical weapons use goes unchecked by U.S. military". The Washington Times. May 17, 2015. Retrieved November 23, 2015.  ^ Gordon, Michael. "U.S. and Russia Reach Deal to Destroy Syria's Chemical Arms". Retrieved February 19, 2016.  ^ Boghani, Priyanka. "Syria Got Rid of Its Chemical Weapons – But Reports of Attacks Continue". Retrieved February 19, 2016.  ^ "Obama outlines plan to target IS fighters". Al Jazeera. September 11, 2014. Retrieved September 24, 2014.  ^ Gregory Korte (October 31, 2015). "16 times Obama said there would be no boots on the ground in Syria".  ^ a b c Mazzetti, Mark; Helene Cooper; Peter Baker (May 3, 2011). "Clues Gradually Led to the Location of Osama bin Laden". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 3, 2011. Retrieved May 4, 2011.  ^ a b Rucker, Philip; Wilson, Scott; Kornblut, Anne E. (May 2, 2011). "Osama bin Laden is killed by U.S. forces in Pakistan". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 13, 2014.  ^ "Official offers details of bin Laden raid". Newsday. May 2, 2011. Retrieved September 13, 2014.  ^ Schabner, Dean; Karen Travers (May 1, 2011). "Osama bin Laden Killed by U.S. Forces in Pakistan". ABC News. Archived from the original on May 4, 2011. Retrieved May 3, 2011.  ^ Baker, Peter; Helene Cooper; Mark Mazzetti (May 2, 2011). "Bin Laden Is Dead, Obama Says". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 5, 2011. Retrieved May 3, 2011.  ^ Walsh, Declan; Richard Adams; Ewen MacAskill (May 2, 2011). "Osama bin Laden is dead, Obama announces". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on May 3, 2011. Retrieved May 3, 2011.  ^ Dorning, Mike (May 2, 2011). "Death of Bin Laden May Strengthen Obama's Hand in Domestic, Foreign Policy". Bloomberg News. Archived from the original on May 3, 2011. Retrieved May 4, 2011.  ^ "World Reaction To Osama Bin Laden's Death". NPR. May 2, 2011. Archived from the original on May 3, 2011. Retrieved May 4, 2011.  ^ "Iran deal reached, Obama hails step toward 'more hopeful world'". July 14, 2015. Retrieved July 14, 2015.  ^ "Iran, World Powers Prepare to Sign Nuclear Accord". July 14, 2015. Retrieved July 14, 2015.  ^ "Landmark deal reached on Iran nuclear program". July 14, 2015. Retrieved July 14, 2015.  ^ Obama Administration Reportedly Shielded Hezbollah From DEA and CIA to Save Iran Nuclear Deal, Haaretz, 18 December 2017 ^ A GLOBAL THREAT EMERGES, Politico, 18 December 2017 ^ Warren, Strobel. "Secret talks in Canada, Vatican City led to Cuba breakthrough". Reuters. Retrieved December 21, 2014.  ^ Morello, Carol; DeYoung, Karen. "Secret U.S.-Cuba diplomacy ended in landmark deal on prisoners, future ties". The Washington Post. Retrieved December 21, 2014.  ^ Roberts, Dan; Luscombe, Richard (December 10, 2013). "Obama shakes hands with Raúl Castro for first time at Mandela memorial". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 February 2017.  ^ Nadeau, Barbie Latza (December 17, 2014). "The Pope's Diplomatic Miracle: Ending the U.S.–Cuba Cold War". The Daily Beast. Retrieved December 18, 2014.  ^ The New Republic, The Cuban Thaw Is Obama's Finest Foreign Policy Achievement to Date, by Joel Gillin, April 13, 2015. ^ "Obama announces re-establishment of U.S.-Cuba diplomatic ties". CNN. Retrieved July 1, 2015.  ^ Whitefield, Mimi (July 20, 2015). "United States and Cuba reestablish diplomatic relations". The Miami Herald. Retrieved July 19, 2015.  ^ Julie Hirschfeld Davis; Damien Cave (March 21, 2016). "Obama Arrives in Cuba, Heralding New Era After Decades of Hostility". The New York Times. p. A1.  ^ Lee, Carol E. "Obama Becomes First U.S. President to Address African Union". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved July 29, 2015.  ^ "Remarks by President Obama to the People of Africa". The White House. Retrieved July 29, 2015.  ^ Ferris, Sarah. "Obama: Proud to be first U.S. president to visit Kenya". The Hill. Retrieved July 30, 2015.  ^ "President Obama visits Hiroshima". BBC News. Retrieved June 19, 2016.  ^ "US election: The Russia factor: Officials say Moscow's interference is unprecedented. Has the Kremlin achieved its goal?". Financial Times. November 4, 2016.  ^ "Let's Get Putin's Attention". The New York Times. October 5, 2016.  ^ "Europeans View Obama's Exit With a Mix of Admiration and Regret". The New York Times. November 6, 2016.  ^ Wallace-Wells, Benjamin (November 2004). "The Great Black Hope: What's Riding on Barack Obama?". Washington Monthly. Archived from the original on May 13, 2008. Retrieved April 7, 2008.  See also:Scott, Janny (December 28, 2007). "A Member of a New Generation, Obama Walks a Fine Line". International Herald Tribune. Archived from the original on January 17, 2008. Retrieved April 7, 2008.  ^ Payne, Les (August 19, 2007). "In One Country, a Dual Audience" (paid archive). Newsday. New York. Retrieved April 7, 2008.  ^ Dorning, Mike (October 4, 2007). "Obama Reaches Across Decades to JFK" (paid archive). Chicago Tribune. Retrieved April 7, 2008.  See also:Harnden, Toby (October 15, 2007). "Barack Obama is JFK Heir, Says Kennedy Aide". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on May 15, 2008. Retrieved April 7, 2008.  ^ Holmes, Stephanie (November 30, 2008). "Obama: Oratory and originality". The Age. Melbourne. Archived from the original on December 18, 2008. Retrieved December 11, 2008.  Gallo, Carmine (March 3, 2008). "How to Inspire People Like Obama Does". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. Archived from the original on February 26, 2009. Retrieved February 21, 2009.  Zlomislic, Diana (December 11, 2008). "New emotion dubbed 'elevation'". Toronto Star. Archived from the original on December 12, 2008. Retrieved December 11, 2008.  Greene, Richard (January 25, 2011). "Obama Is America's Third Greatest Presidential Orator in Modern Era". HuffPost. Retrieved July 2, 2011.  ^ "YouTube – ChangeDotGov's Channel". YouTube. Archived from the original on February 20, 2010. Retrieved April 18, 2010.  ^ Dyson, Michael Eric. (2016). The Black Presidency: Barack Obama and the Politics of Race in America. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 275. ISBN 978-0-544-38766-9. ^ "Obama Starts With 68% Job Approval". January 24, 2009. Archived from the original on June 16, 2011. Retrieved June 19, 2011.  ^ "Obama hits low point in Gallup Poll – 41%". USA Today. April 15, 2011. Retrieved June 19, 2011.  ^ Jon Terbush (December 9, 2010). "Approval By Numbers: How Obama Compares To Past Presidents". Retrieved June 19, 2011.  ^ Oliphant, James (May 11, 2011). "Bin Laden bounce? New poll shows jump in Obama approval". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 7, 2011.  ^ Balz, Dan; Cohen, John (June 6, 2011). "Obama loses bin Laden bounce; Romney on the move among GOP contenders". The Washington Post. Nash Holdings LLC. Retrieved June 7, 2011.  ^ "Presidential Job Approval Center". Retrieved June 23, 2015.  ^ "Gallup Daily: Obama Job Approval". Gallup Polling. January 22, 2015. Retrieved March 23, 2015.  ^ "World wants Obama as president: poll". ABC News. Reuters. September 9, 2008.  ^ Wike, Richard; Poushter, Jacob; Zainulbhai, Hani (June 29, 2016). "As Obama Years Draw to Close, President and U.S. Seen Favorably in Europe and Asia". Global Attitudes & Trends. Pew Research Center. Retrieved February 23, 2017.  ^ Freed, John C. (February 6, 2009). "Poll shows Obama atop list of most respected". The New York Times. Retrieved January 22, 2012.  ^ "Obama Most Popular Leader, Poll Finds". The New York Times. May 29, 2009. Retrieved January 22, 2012.  ^ "Obama remains a popular symbol of hope". France 24. June 2, 2009. Archived from the original on May 13, 2011. Retrieved January 22, 2012.  ^ Goodman, Dean (February 10, 2008). "Obama or Clinton? Grammys go for Obama". Reuters. Archived from the original on December 19, 2008. Retrieved November 24, 2008.  ^ Strange, Hannah (March 5, 2008). "Celebrities join YouTube revolution". The Times. London. Retrieved December 18, 2008.  (subscription required) ^ Wappler, Margaret (June 20, 2008). "Emmys give knuckle bump to; more videos on the way". Los Angeles Times blogs. Archived from the original on May 16, 2011. Retrieved January 26, 2012.  ^ Scherer, Michael (December 19, 2012). "2012 Person of the Year: Barack Obama, the President". Time. Retrieved December 19, 2012.  ^ Von Drehle, David (December 16, 2008). "Why History Can't Wait". Time. Archived from the original on December 17, 2008. Retrieved December 17, 2008.  ^ Barack Obama (May 25, 2011). "Full transcript – Speech to UK Parliament". New Statesman. Retrieved June 14, 2014.  ^ "20th century to the present day". Parliament of the United Kingdom. April 21, 2010. Retrieved June 14, 2014.  ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 2009". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on October 10, 2009. Retrieved October 9, 2009.  ^ "Obama: 'Peace requires responsibility'". CNN. December 10, 2009. Retrieved May 21, 2011.  ^ Philp, Catherine (October 10, 2009). "Barack Obama's peace prize starts a fight". The Times. London. Retrieved October 10, 2009. (subscription required) ^ Samuelsohn, Darren (October 9, 2009). "Obama Wins Nobel Prize in Part for Confronting 'Great Climatic Challenges'". The New York Times. Greenwire. Archived from the original on April 15, 2010. Retrieved April 18, 2010.  ^ Sharon Otterman (October 9, 2009). "World Reaction to a Nobel Surprise". The New York Times. Retrieved October 9, 2009.  ^ "Obama Peace Prize win has Americans asking why?". Reuters. October 9, 2009. Retrieved October 9, 2009.  ^ "Obama: Nobel Peace Prize 'a call to action' – Politics – White House". MSNBC. Retrieved September 13, 2014.  ^ "Obama is surprise winner of Nobel Peace Prize". Reuters. October 9, 2009. Retrieved October 9, 2009.  ^ "Remarks by the President on Winning the Nobel Peace Prize". Retrieved September 13, 2014.  ^ Steven Erlanger (October 10, 2009). "Surprise Nobel for Obama Stirs Praise and Doubts". The New York Times. Retrieved May 20, 2010.  ^ "Obama's win unique among presidents". CNN. October 9, 2009.  ^ Taylor, Adam. "Obama's Nobel peace prize didn't have the desired effect, former Nobel official reveals". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 4, 2016.  ^ Korte, Gregory (January 20, 2017). "Inside Barack Obama's final hours in the White House". USA Today.  ^ Kosinski, Michelle; Daniella Diaz (May 27, 2016). "Peek inside Obama's post-presidential pad". CNN. Retrieved January 22, 2017.  ^ Chang, Clio (February 23, 2017). "The Case for Tom Perez Makes No Sense". New Republic. Retrieved August 7, 2017.  ^ Carter, Zach; Marans, Daniel (December 16, 2016). "Obama All But Endorses Tom Perez Against Keith Ellison For DNC Chair". HuffPost.  ^ "Former President Barack H. Obama Announced as Recipient of 2017 John F. Kennedy Profile in Courage Award". John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum. John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum. March 2, 2017. Archived from the original on April 8, 2017. Retrieved April 8, 2017.  ^ Shear, Michael D. (April 24, 2017). "Obama Steps Back into Public Life, Trying to Avoid One Word: Trump". The New York Times.  ^ "Obama endorses Macron in French election". Politico. May 4, 2017.  ^ "Obama: 'You get the politicians you deserve'". Politico. May 9, 2017.  ^ Dovere, Edward-Isaac (May 25, 2017). "Obama in Berlin: 'We can't hide behind a wall'". Politico.  ^ Seipel, Brooke (May 27, 2017). "Obama visits Prince Harry at Kensington Palace". The Hill.  ^ Lee, MJ (June 1, 2017). "Obama pans Trump withdrawal from climate deal". CNN.  ^ Bevins, Vincent (July 1, 2017). "Barack Obama urges world to stand against 'aggressive nationalism'". the Guardian.  ^ Savransky, Rebecca (July 3, 2017). "Obama praises Paris climate deal despite Trump's withdrawal". The Hill.  ^ Schor, Elana (June 14, 2017). "Obama reaches out to Sen. Flake after shooting". Politico.  ^ Greenwood, Max (June 22, 2017). "Obama slams 'fundamental meanness' of Senate healthcare bill". The Hill.  ^ Abramson, Alana (September 20, 2017). "Barack Obama Criticizes '50th or 60th' Attempt to Repeal the Affordable Care Act". Time.  ^ Liptak, Kevin (September 5, 2017). "Obama slams Trump for rescinding DACA, calls move 'cruel'". CNN.  ^ Shelbourne, Mallory (September 10, 2017). "Former presidents fundraise for Irma disaster relief". The Hill. Retrieved September 11, 2017.  ^ "Obama, opening his foundation's first summit, calls for fixing civic culture". Politico. October 31, 2017.  ^ Haas, Benjamin (1 December 2017). "Obama and Xi: all smiles as 'veteran cadres' reunite in Beijing". The Guardian. Retrieved 3 December 2017.  ^ Zheng, Sarah. "Obama to meet Xi in Beijing during three-day Asia trip". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 3 December 2017.  ^ Nandy, Sumana. "In New Delhi, Barack Obama's Message To Future Leaders: Highlights". Retrieved 3 December 2017.  ^ "Barack Obama to PM Narendra Modi: 'India should not be split on sectarian lines'". The Indian Express. 2 December 2017. Retrieved 3 December 2017.  ^ Carter, Brandon (1 December 2017). "Obama meets with Dalai Lama during trip abroad". TheHill. Retrieved 3 December 2017.  ^ "Obama laments lack of U.S. climate leadership in Paris". Reuters. 2017. Retrieved 3 December 2017.  ^ a b "Obama Legacy Will Be Recovery from Recession, Affordable Care Act". ABC News. January 20, 2017. Retrieved March 15, 2017.  ^ Oberlander, Jonathan (June 1, 2010). "Long Time Coming: Why Health Reform Finally Passed". Health Affairs. 29 (6): 1112–1116. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2010.0447. ISSN 0278-2715. Archived from the original on December 5, 2016.  ^ Blumenthal, David; Abrams, Melinda; Nuzum, Rachel (June 18, 2015). "The Affordable Care Act at 5 Years". New England Journal of Medicine. 372 (25): 2451–2458. doi:10.1056/NEJMhpr1503614. ISSN 0028-4793.  ^ Cohen, Alan B.; Colby, David C.; Wailoo, Keith A.; Zelizer, Julian E. (June 1, 2015). Medicare and Medicaid at 50: America's Entitlement Programs in the Age of Affordable Care. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780190231569.  ^ Stolberg, Sheryl Gay; Pear, Robert (March 23, 2010). "Obama Signs Health Care Overhaul into Law". The New York Times.  ^ Long, Heather (January 6, 2017). "Final tally: Obama created 11.3 million jobs". CNN.  ^ "Barack Obama's Legacy: Dodd-Frank Wall Street reform". CBS News. Retrieved March 15, 2017.  ^ David Crary, LGBT activists view Obama as staunch champion of their cause, Associated Press (January 4, 2017). ^ Elisabeth Bumiller, Obama Ends 'Don't Ask, Don't Tell' Policy, The New York Times (July 22, 2011). ^ Merrit Kennedy (June 30, 2016). "Pentagon Says Transgender Troops Can Now Serve Openly". NPR.  ^ Michael Smith & Frank Newport, Americans Assess Progress Under Obama, The Gallup Organization (January 9, 2017). ^ Reimann, Jakob (January 11, 2017). "False hope, broken promises: Obama's belligerent legacy". ROAR Magazine. Retrieved March 11, 2017. [unreliable source?] ^ Grandin, Greg (January 15, 2017). "Why Did the US Drop 26,171 Bombs on the World Last Year?". The Nation. Retrieved January 11, 2018.  ^ Agerholm, Harriet (January 19, 2017). "Map shows where President Barack Obama dropped his 20,000 bombs". The Independent. Retrieved January 11, 2018.  ^ Parsons, Christi; Hennigan, W. J. (January 13, 2017). "President Obama, who hoped to sow peace, instead led the nation in war". Los Angeles Times.  ^ "DOD Personnel".  ^ Gramlich, John (January 5, 2017). "Federal prison population fell during Obama's term, reversing recent trend". Pew Research Center.  ^ "Obama leaving office at 60% approval rating". United Press International. Retrieved 26 February 2017.  ^ Director, Jennifer Agiesta, CNN. "Obama approval hits 60% as end of term approaches". CNN. Retrieved 26 February 2017.  ^ "Total Scores/Overall Rankings". Presidential Historians Survey. C-SPAN. 2017. Retrieved March 11, 2017.  ^ Von Drehle, David (February 17, 2017). "Barack Obama Ranked 12th Best U.S. President Ever in Major Survey of Historians". Time. Retrieved February 18, 2017.  ^ "Obama Foundation FAQs". Barack Obama Foundation.  References Jacobs, Sally H. (2011). The Other Barack: The Bold and Reckless Life of President Obama's Father. New York: PublicAffairs. ISBN 978-1-58648-793-5.  Maraniss, David (2012). Barack Obama: The Story. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4391-6040-4.  Mendell, David (2007). Obama: From Promise to Power. New York: Amistad/HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-085820-9.  Obama, Barack (2004) [1st. Pub. 1995]. Dreams from My Father: A Story of Race and Inheritance. New York: Three Rivers Press. ISBN 978-1-4000-8277-3.  Obama, Barack (2006). The Audacity of Hope: Thoughts on Reclaiming the American Dream. New York: Crown Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-307-23769-9.  Scott, Janny (2011). A Singular Woman: The Untold Story of Barack Obama's Mother. New York: Riverhead Books. ISBN 978-1-59448-797-2. 

Further reading Graff, Garrett M. (November 1, 2006). "The Legend of Barack Obama". Washingtonian. Archived from the original on February 14, 2008. Retrieved January 14, 2008.  Koltun, Dave (2005). "The 2004 Illinois Senate Race: Obama Wins Open Seat and Becomes National Political "Star"". In Ahuja, Sunil; Dewhirst, Robert. The Road to Congress 2004. Hauppauge, New York: Nova Science Publishers. ISBN 978-1-59454-360-9.  Lizza, Ryan (September 2007). "Above the Fray". GQ. Retrieved October 27, 2010.  MacFarquhar, Larissa (May 7, 2007). "The Conciliator: Where is Barack Obama Coming From?". The New Yorker. Retrieved January 14, 2008.  McClelland, Edward (2010). Young Mr. Obama: Chicago and the Making of a Black President. New York: Bloomsbury Press. ISBN 978-1-60819-060-7.  Zutter, Hank De (December 8, 1995). "What Makes Obama Run?". Chicago Reader. Retrieved April 25, 2015. 

External links Listen to this article (info/dl) This audio file was created from a revision of the article "Barack Obama" dated 2012-04-24, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. (Audio help) More spoken articles Library resources about Barack Obama Online books Resources in your library Resources in other libraries By Barack Obama Online books Resources in your library Resources in other libraries Official Official website of The Office of Barack and Michelle Obama Official website of The Obama Foundation Official website of the Barack Obama Presidential Library Official website of Organizing for Action White House biography Other Barack Obama at Encyclopædia Britannica Obama B. United States Health Care Reform: Progress to Date and Next Steps. JAMA. Published online July 11, 2016. doi:10.1001/jama.2016.9797. Teague Beckwith, Ryan (March 23, 2017). "Read Barack Obama's Statement on the Anniversary of Obamacare". Time magazine. Archived from the original on March 31, 2017. Retrieved March 31, 2017. See also: Taylor, Jessica (March 23, 2017). "Obama: 'America Is Stronger Because Of The Affordable Care Act'". National Public Radio. Archived from the original on March 31, 2017. Retrieved March 31, 2017. Obama B. "The President's Role in Advancing Criminal Justice Reform". Harvard Law Review. Published January 5, 2017. Barack Obama at Curlie (based on DMOZ) United States Congress. "Barack Obama (id: O000167)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.  Appearances on C-SPAN Barack Obama articles in the archive of the Chicago Tribune Collected news and commentary at the Tampa Bay Times's Collected news and commentary at The Washington Post's Fact Checker blog "Barack Obama is officially one of the most consequential presidents in American history" by Vox author Dylan Matthews on March 24, 2017. Archived from the original on March 24, 2017. Retrieved April 2, 2017. The article describes the successes and failures of Barack Obama's domestic and foreign policy as well as provides articles for further reading in this context. Works by Barack Obama at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Barack Obama at Internet Archive Works by Barack Obama at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks) Barack Obama on IMDb v t e Barack Obama 44th President of the United States (2009–2017) U.S. Senator from Illinois (2005–2008) Illinois Senator from the 13th district (1997–2004) Life and politics Early life and career Illinois Senate career 2004 Democratic National Convention U.S. Senate career Political positions Administration foreign policy Economic Energy Mass surveillance Social Space Nobel Peace Prize West Wing Week Presidency Transition 2009 inauguration 2013 inauguration First 100 days Timeline 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 January 2017 Foreign policy War in Afghanistan Iraq withdrawal Death of Osama bin Laden Iran deal Cuban Thaw Obama Doctrine Health Care reform Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act New START Pardons Presidential trips international 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Judicial appointments Supreme Court controversies Cabinet Presidential Library and Center Books Dreams from My Father (1995) The Audacity of Hope (2006) Of Thee I Sing (2010) Speeches "The Audacity of Hope" (2004) "Yes We Can" (2008) "A More Perfect Union" (2008) "Change Has Come to America" (2008) "A New Birth of Freedom" (2009) Joint session of Congress (2009) "A New Beginning" (2009) Joint session of Congress (health care reform) (2009) State of the Union address 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Tucson memorial speech (2011) Joint session of Congress (jobs) (2011) "You didn't build that" (2012) Selma 50th anniversary (2015) Farewell address (2017) Elections Illinois State Senate election, 1996, 1998, 2002 Illinois's 1st congressional district election, 2000 United States Senate election, 2004 Democratic presidential primaries, 2008 2012 Obama primary campaign, 2008 Democratic National Convention, 2008 2012 Presidential campaign, 2008 endorsements GOP/conservative support Presidential election, 2008 Presidential campaign, 2012 endorsements Presidential election, 2012 international reactions Family Michelle Obama (wife) Ann Dunham (mother) Barack Obama Sr. (father) Lolo Soetoro (step-father) Maya Soetoro-Ng (maternal half-sister) Stanley Armour Dunham (maternal grandfather) Madelyn Dunham (maternal grandmother) Marian Shields Robinson (mother-in-law) Craig Robinson (brother-in-law) Bo (family dog) Sunny (family dog) Public image News and political events Oprah Winfrey's endorsement Citizenship conspiracy theories litigation legislation Religion conspiracy theories Bill Ayers controversy Jeremiah Wright controversy Republican and conservative support (2008) Assassination threats 2008 Denver 2008 Tennessee First inauguration invitations Inaugural Celebration at the Lincoln Memorial Citizen's Briefing Book Tea Party protests New Energy for America Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 Gates-Crowley Rose Garden meeting Firing of Shirley Sherrod Impeachment efforts Books about Bibliography Obama: From Promise to Power Barack Obama: Der schwarze Kennedy Redemption Song The Case Against Barack Obama The Obama Nation Culture of Corruption Catastrophe Barack and Michelle The Speech The Obama Story Game Change Game Change 2012 Rising Star Music Obama Girl "I Got a Crush... on Obama" "Barack the Magic Negro" "Yes We Can" "We Are the Ones" "There's No One as Irish as Barack O'Bama" "Sí Se Puede Cambiar" "My President" "Deadheads for Obama" "Air and Simple Gifts" Change Is Now Hope! – Das Obama Musical "Barack Obama vs. Mitt Romney" Barack's Dubs "Signed, Sealed, Delivered I'm Yours" Film By the People: The Election of Barack Obama (2009) 2016: Obama's America (2012) The Road We've Traveled (2012) Southside with You (2016) Barry (2016) Other media On social media Artists for Obama "Hope" poster "Joker" poster Situation Room Obama logo In comics Miscellaneous Barack Obama Day (Illinois) Obama Day (Kenya) Awards and honors Namesakes ← George W. Bush Donald Trump → Book Category Portal Offices and distinctions Illinois Senate Preceded by Alice Palmer Member of the Illinois Senate from the 13th district 1997–2004 Succeeded by Kwame Raoul Party political offices Preceded by Carol Moseley Braun Democratic nominee for U.S. Senator from Illinois (Class 3) 2004 Succeeded by Alexi Giannoulias Preceded by Harold Ford Jr. Keynote Speaker of the Democratic National Convention 2004 Succeeded by Mark Warner Preceded by John Kerry Democratic nominee for President of the United States 2008, 2012 Succeeded by Hillary Clinton U.S. Senate Preceded by Peter Fitzgerald United States Senator (Class 3) from Illinois 2005–2008 Served alongside: Dick Durbin Succeeded by Roland Burris Political offices Preceded by George W. Bush 44th President of the United States 2009–2017 Succeeded by Donald Trump Positions in intergovernmental organisations Preceded by Gordon Brown Chair of the Group of Twenty 2009 Succeeded by Stephen Harper Preceded by Naoto Kan Chair of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation 2011 Succeeded by Vladimir Putin Preceded by Nicolas Sarkozy Chair of the Group of Eight 2012 Succeeded by David Cameron Awards and achievements Preceded by Martti Ahtisaari Laureate of the Nobel Peace Prize 2009 Succeeded by Liu Xiaobo Current U.S. order of precedence (ceremonial) Preceded by George W. Bush as Former President Order of Precedence of the United States Former President Succeeded by Walter Mondale as Former Vice President Links to related articles v t e Presidents of the United States (list) George Washington (1789–1797) John Adams (1797–1801) Thomas Jefferson (1801–1809) James Madison (1809–1817) James Monroe (1817–1825) John Quincy Adams (1825–1829) Andrew Jackson (1829–1837) Martin Van Buren (1837–1841) William Henry Harrison (1841) John Tyler (1841–1845) James K. Polk (1845–1849) Zachary Taylor (1849–1850) Millard Fillmore (1850–1853) Franklin Pierce (1853–1857) James Buchanan (1857–1861) Abraham Lincoln (1861–1865) Andrew Johnson (1865–1869) Ulysses S. Grant (1869–1877) Rutherford B. Hayes (1877–1881) James A. Garfield (1881) Chester A. Arthur (1881–1885) Grover Cleveland (1885–1889) Benjamin Harrison (1889–1893) Grover Cleveland (1893–1897) William McKinley (1897–1901) Theodore Roosevelt (1901–1909) William H. Taft (1909–1913) Woodrow Wilson (1913–1921) Warren G. Harding (1921–1923) Calvin Coolidge (1923–1929) Herbert Hoover (1929–1933) Franklin D. Roosevelt (1933–1945) Harry S. Truman (1945–1953) Dwight D. Eisenhower (1953–1961) John F. Kennedy (1961–1963) Lyndon B. Johnson (1963–1969) Richard Nixon (1969–1974) Gerald Ford (1974–1977) Jimmy Carter (1977–1981) Ronald Reagan (1981–1989) George H. W. Bush (1989–1993) Bill Clinton (1993–2001) George W. Bush (2001–2009) Barack Obama (2009–2017) Donald Trump (2017–present) Presidency timelines Wilson Harding Coolidge Hoover F. D. Roosevelt Truman Eisenhower Kennedy L. B. Johnson Nixon Ford Carter Reagan G. H. W. Bush Clinton G. W. Bush Obama Trump Book Category v t e (2004 ←)    United States presidential election, 2008    (→ 2012) United States elections, 2008 Candidates Comparison Debates Congressional support Fundraising Ballot access Timeline Super Tuesday Potomac primary Super Tuesday II General polls Statewide general polls International polls International reaction Democratic Party Convention Primary polls General polls Debates Primaries Primary results Superdelegates Democratic candidates Nominee Barack Obama (campaign positions) VP nominee Joe Biden (positions) Other candidates: Evan Bayh (campaign) Joe Biden (campaign) Hillary Clinton (campaign) Chris Dodd (campaign) John Edwards (campaign) Mike Gravel (campaign) Dennis Kucinich (campaign) Bill Richardson (campaign) Tom Vilsack (campaign) Republican Party Convention Primary polls General polls Debates Primaries Primary results Republican candidates Nominee John McCain (campaign positions) VP nominee Sarah Palin (candidacy positions) Other candidates: Sam Brownback John Cox Jim Gilmore (campaign) Rudy Giuliani (campaign) Mike Huckabee (campaign) Duncan Hunter (campaign) Alan Keyes (campaign) Ray McKinney Ron Paul (campaign) Mitt Romney (campaign) Tom Tancredo (campaign) Fred Thompson (campaign) Tommy Thompson (campaign) Draft movements Democratic Party Al Gore Mark Warner (movement) Republican Party Newt Gingrich Condoleezza Rice (movement) Independent Michael Bloomberg (movement) Third party and independent candidates Constitution Party Convention Nominee Chuck Baldwin (campaign) VP nominee Darrell Castle Candidates Daniel Imperato Alan Keyes (campaign) Green Party Convention Nominee Cynthia McKinney (campaign positions) VP nominee Rosa Clemente Candidates Elaine Brown Jesse Johnson Kent Mesplay Kat Swift Libertarian Party Convention Nominee Bob Barr (campaign positions) VP nominee Wayne Allyn Root Candidates Mike Gravel (campaign) Daniel Imperato Michael Jingozian Steve Kubby Wayne Allyn Root Mary Ruwart Doug Stanhope American Party Nominee Diane Beall Templin America's Independent Party Nominee Alan Keyes (campaign) VP nominee Brian Rohrbough Boston Tea Party Nominee Charles Jay New American Independent Party Nominee Frank McEnulty Objectivist Party Nominee Tom Stevens Peace and Freedom Party Nominee Ralph Nader (campaign) VP nominee Matt Gonzalez Candidates: Gloria La Riva Cynthia McKinney (campaign) Brian Moore (campaign) Prohibition Party Nominee Gene Amondson Reform Party Nominee Ted Weill VP nominee Frank McEnulty Socialism and Liberation Party Nominee Gloria La Riva VP nominee Eugene Puryear Socialist Party Nominee Brian Moore (campaign) VP nominee Stewart Alexander Candidates Eric Chester Socialist Workers Party Nominee Róger Calero Alternate nominee James Harris VP nominee Alyson Kennedy Independent / Other Jeff Boss Stephen Colbert Earl Dodge Bradford Lyttle Frank Moore Joe Schriner Jonathon Sharkey Other 2008 elections: House Senate Gubernatorial v t e (2008 ←)    United States presidential election, 2012    (→ 2016) United States elections, 2012 Fundraising National polls Statewide polls (pre-2012, early 2012) Timeline General election debates Newspaper endorsements International reactions Hurricane Sandy Democratic Party Convention Primaries Newspaper endorsements Incumbent nominee: Barack Obama campaign endorsements positions Incumbent VP nominee: Joe Biden positions Challengers: Bob Ely Keith Judd Warren Mosler Darcy Richardson Jim Rogers Vermin Supreme Randall Terry John Wolfe Republican Party Convention Primaries Debates Statewide polls National polls Straw polls Newspaper endorsements Nominee: Mitt Romney campaign endorsements positions VP nominee: Paul Ryan positions Candidates: Michele Bachmann (campaign) Herman Cain (campaign) Mark Callahan Jack Fellure Newt Gingrich (campaign) Stewart Greenleaf Jon Huntsman (campaign) Gary Johnson (campaign) Fred Karger Andy Martin Thaddeus McCotter (campaign) Jimmy McMillan Roy Moore Ron Paul (campaign) Tim Pawlenty (campaign) Rick Perry (campaign) Buddy Roemer (campaign) Rick Santorum (campaign) Libertarian Party Convention Primaries Nominee: Gary Johnson campaign positions VP nominee: Jim Gray Candidates: Jim Duensing R. J. Harris Carl Person Sam Sloan R. Lee Wrights Green Party Convention Nominee: Jill Stein (campaign) VP nominee: Cheri Honkala Candidates: Stewart Alexander Roseanne Barr Kent Mesplay Other third-party and independent candidates American Independent Party Nominee Tom Hoefling Candidates Wiley Drake Virgil Goode (campaign) Edward C. Noonan Laurie Roth American Third Position Party Nominee Merlin Miller VP nominee Virginia Abernethy America's Party Nominee Tom Hoefling Constitution Party Convention Nominee Virgil Goode (campaign) VP nominee Jim Clymer Candidates Darrell Castle Laurie Roth Robby Wells Freedom Socialist Party Nominee Stephen Durham Grassroots Party Nominee Jim Carlson Justice Party Nominee Rocky Anderson VP nominee Luis J. Rodriguez Objectivist Party Nominee Tom Stevens Party for Socialism and Liberation Nominee Peta Lindsay Peace and Freedom Party Nominee Roseanne Barr VP nominee Cindy Sheehan Candidates Stewart Alexander Rocky Anderson Stephen Durham Peta Lindsay Prohibition Party Nominee Jack Fellure Candidates James Hedges Reform Party Nominee Andre Barnett Candidates Laurence Kotlikoff Darcy Richardson Buddy Roemer (campaign) Robert David Steele Robby Wells Socialist Equality Party Nominee Jerry White Socialist Workers Party Nominee James Harris Socialist Party Nominee Stewart Alexander (campaign) VP nominee Alejandro Mendoza Independents Candidates Lee Abramson Randy Blythe Jeff Boss Robert Burck Terry Jones Joe Schriner Draft movements Michael Bloomberg (movement) State results Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming Other 2012 elections: House Senate Gubernatorial v t e United States Democratic Party Chairpersons of the DNC Hallett McLane Smalley Belmont Schell Hewitt Barnum Brice Harrity Jones Taggart Mack McCombs McCormick Cummings White Hull Shaver Raskob Farley Flynn Walker Hannegan McGrath Boyle McKinney Mitchell Butler Jackson Bailey O'Brien Harris O'Brien Westwood Strauss Curtis White Manatt Kirk Brown Wilhelm DeLee Dodd/Fowler Romer/Grossman Rendell/Andrew McAuliffe Dean Kaine Wasserman Schultz Perez Presidential tickets Jackson/Calhoun Jackson/Van Buren Van Buren/R. Johnson Van Buren/None Polk/Dallas Cass/Butler Pierce/King Buchanan/Breckinridge Douglas/H. Johnson (Breckinridge/Lane, SD) McClellan/Pendleton Seymour/Blair Greeley/Brown Tilden/Hendricks Hancock/English Cleveland/Hendricks Cleveland/Thurman Cleveland/Stevenson I W. Bryan/Sewall W. Bryan/Stevenson I Parker/H. Davis W. Bryan/Kern Wilson/Marshall (twice) Cox/Roosevelt J. Davis/C. Bryan Smith/Robinson Roosevelt/Garner (twice) Roosevelt/Wallace Roosevelt/Truman Truman/Barkley Stevenson II/Sparkman Stevenson II/Kefauver Kennedy/L. Johnson L. Johnson/Humphrey Humphrey/Muskie McGovern/(Eagleton, Shriver) Carter/Mondale (twice) Mondale/Ferraro Dukakis/Bentsen B. Clinton/Gore (twice) Gore/Lieberman Kerry/Edwards Obama/Biden (twice) H. Clinton/Kaine State/ Territorial Parties Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming District of Columbia Guam Puerto Rico Conventions (List) 1832 (Baltimore) 1835 (Baltimore) 1840 (Baltimore) 1844 (Baltimore) 1848 (Baltimore) 1852 (Baltimore) 1856 (Cincinnati) 1860 (Baltimore) 1864 (Chicago) 1868 (New York) 1872 (Baltimore) 1876 (Saint Louis) 1880 (Cincinnati) 1884 (Chicago) 1888 (Saint Louis) 1892 (Chicago) 1896 (Chicago) 1900 (Kansas City) 1904 (Saint Louis) 1908 (Denver) 1912 (Baltimore) 1916 (Saint Louis) 1920 (San Francisco) 1924 (New York) 1928 (Houston) 1932 (Chicago) 1936 (Philadelphia) 1940 (Chicago) 1944 (Chicago) 1948 (Philadelphia) 1952 (Chicago) 1956 (Chicago) 1960 (Los Angeles) 1964 (Atlantic City) 1968 (Chicago) 1972 (Miami Beach) 1976 (New York) 1980 (New York) 1984 (San Francisco) 1988 (Atlanta) 1992 (New York) 1996 (Chicago) 2000 (Los Angeles) 2004 (Boston) 2008 (Denver) 2012 (Charlotte) 2016 (Philadelphia) Affiliated groups Fundraising Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee Democratic Governors Association Democratic Legislative Campaign Committee Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee National Conference of Democratic Mayors Sectional College Democrats of America Democrats Abroad National Federation of Democratic Women Stonewall Democrats Stonewall Young Democrats Young Democrats of America High School Democrats of America Related articles History Primaries Debates Party factions Superdelegate 2005 chairmanship election 2017 chairmanship election Liberalism portal v t e Laureates of the Nobel Peace Prize 1901–1925 1901 Henry Dunant / Frédéric Passy 1902 Élie Ducommun / Charles Gobat 1903 Randal Cremer 1904 Institut de Droit International 1905 Bertha von Suttner 1906 Theodore Roosevelt 1907 Ernesto Moneta / Louis Renault 1908 Klas Arnoldson / Fredrik Bajer 1909 A. M. F. Beernaert / Paul Estournelles de Constant 1910 International Peace Bureau 1911 Tobias Asser / Alfred Fried 1912 Elihu Root 1913 Henri La Fontaine 1914 1915 1916 1917 International Committee of the Red Cross 1918 1919 Woodrow Wilson 1920 Léon Bourgeois 1921 Hjalmar Branting / Christian Lange 1922 Fridtjof Nansen 1923 1924 1925 Austen Chamberlain / Charles Dawes 1926–1950 1926 Aristide Briand / Gustav Stresemann 1927 Ferdinand Buisson / Ludwig Quidde 1928 1929 Frank B. Kellogg 1930 Nathan Söderblom 1931 Jane Addams / Nicholas Butler 1932 1933 Norman Angell 1934 Arthur Henderson 1935 Carl von Ossietzky 1936 Carlos Saavedra Lamas 1937 Robert Cecil 1938 Nansen International Office for Refugees 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 International Committee of the Red Cross 1945 Cordell Hull 1946 Emily Balch / John Mott 1947 Friends Service Council / American Friends Service Committee 1948 1949 John Boyd Orr 1950 Ralph Bunche 1951–1975 1951 Léon Jouhaux 1952 Albert Schweitzer 1953 George Marshall 1954 United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees 1955 1956 1957 Lester B. Pearson 1958 Georges Pire 1959 Philip Noel-Baker 1960 Albert Lutuli 1961 Dag Hammarskjöld 1962 Linus Pauling 1963 International Committee of the Red Cross / League of Red Cross Societies 1964 Martin Luther King Jr. 1965 UNICEF 1966 1967 1968 René Cassin 1969 International Labour Organization 1970 Norman Borlaug 1971 Willy Brandt 1972 1973 Lê Đức Thọ (declined award) / Henry Kissinger 1974 Seán MacBride / Eisaku Satō 1975 Andrei Sakharov 1976–2000 1976 Betty Williams / Mairead Corrigan 1977 Amnesty International 1978 Anwar Sadat / Menachem Begin 1979 Mother Teresa 1980 Adolfo Pérez Esquivel 1981 United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees 1982 Alva Myrdal / Alfonso García Robles 1983 Lech Wałęsa 1984 Desmond Tutu 1985 International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War 1986 Elie Wiesel 1987 Óscar Arias 1988 UN Peacekeeping Forces 1989 Tenzin Gyatso (14th Dalai Lama) 1990 Mikhail Gorbachev 1991 Aung San Suu Kyi 1992 Rigoberta Menchú 1993 Nelson Mandela / F. W. de Klerk 1994 Shimon Peres / Yitzhak Rabin / Yasser Arafat 1995 Pugwash Conferences / Joseph Rotblat 1996 Carlos Belo / José Ramos-Horta 1997 International Campaign to Ban Landmines / Jody Williams 1998 John Hume / David Trimble 1999 Médecins Sans Frontières 2000 Kim Dae-jung 2001–present 2001 United Nations / Kofi Annan 2002 Jimmy Carter 2003 Shirin Ebadi 2004 Wangari Maathai 2005 International Atomic Energy Agency / Mohamed ElBaradei 2006 Grameen Bank / Muhammad Yunus 2007 Al Gore / Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2008 Martti Ahtisaari 2009 Barack Obama 2010 Liu Xiaobo 2011 Ellen Johnson Sirleaf / Leymah Gbowee / Tawakkol Karman 2012 European Union 2013 Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons 2014 Kailash Satyarthi / Malala Yousafzai 2015 Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet 2016 Juan Manuel Santos 2017 International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons v t e Time Persons of the Year 1927–1950 Charles Lindbergh (1927) Walter Chrysler (1928) Owen D. Young (1929) Mohandas Gandhi (1930) Pierre Laval (1931) Franklin D. Roosevelt (1932) Hugh S. Johnson (1933) Franklin D. Roosevelt (1934) Haile Selassie (1935) Wallis Simpson (1936) Chiang Kai-shek / Soong Mei-ling (1937) Adolf Hitler (1938) Joseph Stalin (1939) Winston Churchill (1940) Franklin D. Roosevelt (1941) Joseph Stalin (1942) George Marshall (1943) Dwight D. Eisenhower (1944) Harry S. Truman (1945) James F. Byrnes (1946) George Marshall (1947) Harry S. Truman (1948) Winston Churchill (1949) The American Fighting-Man (1950) 1951–1975 Mohammed Mosaddeq (1951) Elizabeth II (1952) Konrad Adenauer (1953) John Foster Dulles (1954) Harlow Curtice (1955) Hungarian Freedom Fighters (1956) Nikita Khrushchev (1957) Charles de Gaulle (1958) Dwight D. Eisenhower (1959) U.S. Scientists: George Beadle / Charles Draper / John Enders / Donald A. Glaser / Joshua Lederberg / Willard Libby / Linus Pauling / Edward Purcell / Isidor Rabi / Emilio Segrè / William Shockley / Edward Teller / Charles Townes / James Van Allen / Robert Woodward (1960) John F. Kennedy (1961) Pope John XXIII (1962) Martin Luther King Jr. (1963) Lyndon B. Johnson (1964) William Westmoreland (1965) The Generation Twenty-Five and Under (1966) Lyndon B. Johnson (1967) The Apollo 8 Astronauts: William Anders / Frank Borman / Jim Lovell (1968) The Middle Americans (1969) Willy Brandt (1970) Richard Nixon (1971) Henry Kissinger / Richard Nixon (1972) John Sirica (1973) King Faisal (1974) American Women: Susan Brownmiller / Kathleen Byerly / Alison Cheek / Jill Conway / Betty Ford / Ella Grasso / Carla Hills / Barbara Jordan / Billie Jean King / Susie Sharp / Carol Sutton / Addie Wyatt (1975) 1976–2000 Jimmy Carter (1976) Anwar Sadat (1977) Deng Xiaoping (1978) Ayatollah Khomeini (1979) Ronald Reagan (1980) Lech Wałęsa (1981) The Computer (1982) Ronald Reagan / Yuri Andropov (1983) Peter Ueberroth (1984) Deng Xiaoping (1985) Corazon Aquino (1986) Mikhail Gorbachev (1987) The Endangered Earth (1988) Mikhail Gorbachev (1989) George H. W. Bush (1990) Ted Turner (1991) Bill Clinton (1992) The Peacemakers: Yasser Arafat / F. W. de Klerk / Nelson Mandela / Yitzhak Rabin (1993) Pope John Paul II (1994) Newt Gingrich (1995) David Ho (1996) Andrew Grove (1997) Bill Clinton / Ken Starr (1998) Jeffrey P. Bezos (1999) George W. Bush (2000) 2001–present Rudolph Giuliani (2001) The Whistleblowers: Cynthia Cooper / Coleen Rowley / Sherron Watkins (2002) The American Soldier (2003) George W. Bush (2004) The Good Samaritans: Bono / Bill Gates / Melinda Gates (2005) You (2006) Vladimir Putin (2007) Barack Obama (2008) Ben Bernanke (2009) Mark Zuckerberg (2010) The Protester (2011) Barack Obama (2012) Pope Francis (2013) Ebola Fighters: Dr. Jerry Brown / Dr. Kent Brantly / Ella Watson-Stryker / Foday Gollah / Salome Karwah (2014) Angela Merkel (2015) Donald Trump (2016) The Silence Breakers (2017) Book v t e United States Senators from Illinois Class 2 Thomas McLean Baker Robinson McRoberts Semple S. Douglas Browning Richardson Yates Logan Davis Cullom Lewis McCormick Deneen Lewis Slattery Brooks P. Douglas Percy Simon Durbin Class 3 Edwards McLean Kane Ewing Young Breese Shields Trumbull Oglesby Logan Farwell Palmer Mason Hopkins Lorimer Sherman McKinley Glenn Dieterich Lucas Dirksen Smith Stevenson III Dixon Moseley Braun Fitzgerald Obama Burris Kirk Duckworth v t e Patriot Act Titles I · II · III · IV · V · VI · VII · VIII · IX · X (History) Acts modified Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 Electronic Communications Privacy Act Computer Fraud and Abuse Act Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act Money Laundering Control Act Bank Secrecy Act Right to Financial Privacy Act Fair Credit Reporting Act Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 Victims of Crime Act of 1984 Telemarketing and Consumer Fraud and Abuse Prevention Act People George W. Bush John Ashcroft Alberto Gonzales Patrick Leahy Orrin Hatch Jon Kyl Dianne Feinstein Viet D. Dinh Joe Biden Michael Chertoff Barack Obama Eric Holder Chuck Schumer Lamar Smith Bob Graham Jay Rockefeller Arlen Specter Mike Oxley Dick Armey Paul Sarbanes Trent Lott Tom Daschle Russ Feingold Ellen Huvelle Ron Paul Lisa Murkowski Ron Wyden Dennis Kucinich Larry Craig John E. Sununu Richard Durbin Bernie Sanders Jerrold Nadler John Conyers, Jr. Butch Otter Government organizations Federal Bureau of Investigation Department of Justice Select Committee on Intelligence Department of the Treasury FinCEN Department of State National Institute of Standards and Technology Customs Service U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement Non-government organizations American Civil Liberties Union American Library Association Center for Democracy and Technology Center for Public Integrity Electronic Frontier Foundation Electronic Privacy Information Center Humanitarian Law Project v t e Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album (2000s) 2000 LeVar Burton - The Autobiography of Martin Luther King Jr. 2001 Sidney Poitier, Rick Harris, John Runnette (producers) - The Measure of a Man: A Spiritual Autobiography 2002 Quincy Jones, Jeffrey S. Thomas, Steven Strassman (engineers), Elisa Shokoff (producer) - Q: The Autobiography of Quincy Jones 2003 Maya Angelou, Charles B. Potter (producer) - A Song Flung Up to Heaven / Robin Williams, Nathaniel Kunkel (engineer/mixer), Peter Asher (producer) - Live 2002 2004 Al Franken, Paul Ruben (producer) - Lies and the Lying Liars Who Tell Them 2005 Bill Clinton - My Life 2006 Barack Obama - Dreams from My Father 2007 Jimmy Carter - Our Endangered Values: America's Moral Crisis / Ossie Davis, Ruby Dee - With Ossie and Ruby 2008 Barack Obama, Jacob Bronstein (producer) - The Audacity of Hope 2009 Beau Bridges, Cynthia Nixon, Blair Underwood - An Inconvenient Truth by Al Gore Complete list (1959 & 1960s) (1970s) (1980s) (1990s) (2000s) (2010s) Find out more on Wikipedia's Sister projects Media from Commons News stories from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Source texts from Wikisource Data from Wikidata Authority control WorldCat Identities VIAF: 52010985 LCCN: n94112934 ISNI: 0000 0001 2133 1026 GND: 132522136 SELIBR: 314463 SUDOC: 118177257 BNF: cb15591663c (data) ULAN: 500404040 MusicBrainz: 0de4d19f-05c8-4562-a3c0-7abdc144f1d5 NLA: 44067442 NDL: 01112565 NCL: 1208890 NKC: js20070608010 ICCU: IT\ICCU\UMCV\307371 US Congress: O000167 BNE: XX4663545 CiNii: DA1624368X RKD: 424232 Retrieved from "" Categories: Barack Obama1961 births20th-century American writers20th-century scholars21st-century American politicians21st-century American writers21st-century scholarsActivists from IllinoisAfrican-American feministsAfrican-American non-fiction writersAmerican ChristiansAmerican ProtestantsAmerican non-fiction writersAfrican-American people in Illinois politicsAfrican-American United States presidential candidatesAfrican-American United States SenatorsAmerican civil rights lawyersAmerican community activistsAmerican feminist writersAmerican feministsAmerican legal scholarsAmerican Nobel laureatesAmerican people of English descentAmerican people of French descentAmerican people of German descentAmerican people of Irish descentAmerican people of Luo descentAmerican people of Scottish descentAmerican people of Swiss descentAmerican people of Welsh descentAmerican political writersAmerican politicians of Luo descentColumbia University alumniDemocratic Party (United States) presidential nomineesDemocratic Party Presidents of the United StatesDemocratic Party United States SenatorsGrammy Award winnersHarvard Law School alumniIllinois DemocratsIllinois lawyersIllinois State SenatorsLiving peopleMale feministsNobel Peace Prize laureatesObama familyOccidental College alumniPoliticians from ChicagoPoliticians from HonoluluPresidents of the United StatesPunahou School alumniUnited States presidential candidates, 2008United States presidential candidates, 2012United States Senators from IllinoisUniversity of Chicago Law School facultyWriters from ChicagoHidden categories: CS1 Indonesian-language sources (id)CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors listPages containing links to subscription-only contentCS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknownAll articles lacking reliable referencesArticles lacking reliable references from March 2017Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pagesWikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pagesUse American English from December 2014All Wikipedia articles written in American EnglishUse mdy dates from October 2017Articles with hAudio microformatsArticles including recorded pronunciations (English)Citation overkillArticles tagged with the inline citation overkill template from September 2017Spoken articlesOfficial website different in Wikidata and WikipediaArticles with Encyclopædia Britannica linksArticles with Curlie linksArticles with Project Gutenberg linksArticles with Internet Archive linksArticles with LibriVox linksAC with 18 elementsWikipedia articles with VIAF identifiersWikipedia articles with LCCN identifiersWikipedia articles with ISNI identifiersWikipedia articles with GND identifiersWikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiersWikipedia articles with BNF identifiersWikipedia articles with ULAN identifiersWikipedia articles with MusicBrainz identifiersWikipedia articles with NLA identifiersWikipedia articles with SBN identifiersWikipedia articles with RKDartists identifiersFeatured articlesArticles containing video clips

Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog in Namespaces ArticleTalk Variants Views ReadView sourceView history More Search Navigation Main pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom articleDonate to WikipediaWikipedia store Interaction HelpAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact page Tools What links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkPage informationWikidata itemCite this page Print/export Create a bookDownload as PDFPrintable version In other projects Wikimedia CommonsWikinewsWikiquoteWikisource Languages AcèhAfrikaansAlemannischአማርኛÆngliscАҧсшәаالعربيةAragonésܐܪܡܝܐArpetanঅসমীয়াAsturianuAvañe'ẽАварAymar aruAzərbaycancaتۆرکجهBamanankanবাংলাBahasa BanjarBân-lâm-gúBasa BanyumasanБашҡортсаБеларускаяБеларуская (тарашкевіца)‎भोजपुरीBikol CentralBislamaБългарскиBoarischབོད་ཡིགBosanskiBrezhonegБуряадCatalàЧӑвашлаCebuanoČeštinaChavacano de ZamboangaChi-ChewaCorsuCymraegDanskDavvisámegiellaDeitschDeutschދިވެހިބަސްDiné bizaadDolnoserbskiEestiΕλληνικάEmiliàn e rumagnòlЭрзяньEspañolEsperantoEstremeñuEuskaraفارسیFiji HindiFøroysktFrançaisFryskFurlanGaeilgeGaelgGàidhligGalego贛語𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃𐌺गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî한국어HausaHawaiʻiՀայերենहिन्दीHornjoserbsceHrvatskiIdoIgboIlokanoBahasa IndonesiaInterlinguaInterlingueᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitutИронIsiZuluÍslenskaItalianoעבריתBasa JawaKalaallisutಕನ್ನಡKapampanganქართულიकॉशुर / کٲشُرҚазақшаKernowekKinyarwandaKiswahiliKreyòl ayisyenKurdîКыргызчаLadinoລາວLatgaļuLatinaLatviešuLëtzebuergeschLietuviųLigureLimburgsLingálaLa .lojban.LumbaartMagyarमैथिलीМакедонскиMalagasyമലയാളംMaltiMāoriमराठीმარგალურიمصرىمازِرونیBahasa MelayuMìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄Монголမြန်မာဘာသာNāhuatlDorerin NaoeroNederlandsNedersaksiesनेपालीनेपाल भाषा日本語NapulitanoНохчийнNordfriiskNorfuk / PitkernNorskNorsk nynorskNouormandOccitanОлык марийଓଡ଼ିଆOʻzbekcha/ўзбекчаਪੰਜਾਬੀPangasinanپنجابیPapiamentuپښتوភាសាខ្មែរPiemontèisTok PisinPlattdüütschPolskiPortuguêsQaraqalpaqshaQırımtatarcaReo tahitiRipoarischRomânăRomaniRumantschRuna SimiРусиньскыйРусскийСаха тылаसंस्कृतम्SarduScotsSeelterskSesotho sa LeboaShqipSicilianuසිංහලSimple EnglishسنڌيSlovenčinaSlovenščinaŚlůnskiSoomaaligaکوردیSranantongoСрпски / srpskiSrpskohrvatski / српскохрватскиBasa SundaSuomiSvenskaTagalogதமிழ்TaqbaylitTarandíneТатарча/tatarçaతెలుగుTetunไทยТоҷикӣᏣᎳᎩTsetsêhestâheseTürkçeTürkmençeУкраїнськаاردوئۇيغۇرچە / UyghurcheVènetoVepsän kel’Tiếng ViệtVolapükWalonWest-VlamsWinaray吴语ייִדישYorùbá粵語ZazakiZeêuwsŽemaitėška中文डोटेलीKabɩyɛ Edit links This page was last edited on 17 March 2018, at 16:09. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Contact Wikipedia Developers Cookie statement Mobile view (window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgPageParseReport":{"limitreport":{"cputime":"5.088","walltime":"5.538","ppvisitednodes":{"value":40685,"limit":1000000},"ppgeneratednodes":{"value":0,"limit":1500000},"postexpandincludesize":{"value":1766223,"limit":2097152},"templateargumentsize":{"value":234216,"limit":2097152},"expansiondepth":{"value":17,"limit":40},"expensivefunctioncount":{"value":20,"limit":500},"unstrip-depth":{"value":0,"limit":20},"unstrip-size":{"value":695884,"limit":5000000},"entityaccesscount":{"value":1,"limit":400},"timingprofile":["100.00% 4633.284 1 -total"," 65.93% 3054.613 1 Template:Reflist"," 37.81% 1751.972 408 Template:Cite_news"," 13.37% 619.597 159 Template:Cite_web"," 6.18% 286.323 1 Template:Infobox_president"," 5.78% 267.579 2 Template:Navboxes"," 5.35% 247.847 8 Template:Infobox"," 3.92% 181.775 16 Template:Navbox"," 2.77% 128.509 4 Template:Official_website"," 2.05% 95.097 21 Template:Cite_book"]},"scribunto":{"limitreport-timeusage":{"value":"2.876","limit":"10.000"},"limitreport-memusage":{"value":14750770,"limit":52428800}},"cachereport":{"origin":"mw1274","timestamp":"20180317160927","ttl":3600,"transientcontent":true}}});});(window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgBackendResponseTime":143,"wgHostname":"mw1254"});});

Barack_Obama - Photos and All Basic Informations

Barack_Obama More Links

This Is A Featured Article. Click Here For More Information.This Article Is Semi-protected.Listen To This ArticleBarack (disambiguation)Obama (disambiguation)Obama Standing With His Arms Folded And SmilingPresident Of The United StatesVice President Of The United StatesJoe BidenGeorge W. BushDonald TrumpUnited States SenateIllinoisPeter Fitzgerald (politician)Roland BurrisIllinois SenateAlice Palmer (politician)Kwame RaoulHonoluluHawaiiDemocratic Party (United States)Michelle RobinsonBarack Obama Sr.Ann DunhamFamily Of Barack ObamaColumbia UniversityBachelor Of ArtsHarvard UniversityJuris DoctorNobel Peace Prize2009 Nobel Peace PrizeProfile In Courage AwardBarack Obama's SignaturePolitical Positions Of Barack ObamaElectoral History Of Barack ObamaEarly Life And Career Of Barack ObamaFamily Of Barack ObamaPublic Image Of Barack ObamaIllinois Senate Career Of Barack Obama2004 Democratic National Convention Keynote AddressUnited States Senate Career Of Barack ObamaPresidency Of Barack ObamaTimeline Of The Presidency Of Barack ObamaEconomic Policy Of The Barack Obama AdministrationEnergy Policy Of The Barack Obama AdministrationForeign Policy Of The Barack Obama AdministrationObama DoctrineList Of Presidential Trips Made By Barack ObamaList Of People Granted Executive Clemency By Barack ObamaSocial Policy Of The Barack Obama AdministrationSpace Policy Of The Barack Obama AdministrationPresidency Of Barack ObamaList Of Federal Judges Appointed By Barack ObamaBarack Obama Presidential Campaign, 2008United States Presidential Election, 2008Barack Obama Presidential Primary Campaign, 2008Presidential Transition Of Barack ObamaFirst Inauguration Of Barack ObamaFirst 100 Days Of Barack Obama's PresidencyPatient Protection And Affordable Care ActWithdrawal Of U.S. Troops From IraqDeath Of Osama Bin LadenTimeline Of The Presidency Of Barack Obama (2009)Timeline Of The Presidency Of Barack Obama (2010)Timeline Of The Presidency Of Barack Obama (2011)Timeline Of The Presidency Of Barack Obama (2012)Barack Obama Presidential Campaign, 2012United States Presidential Election, 2012International Reactions To The United States Presidential Election, 2012Second Inauguration Of Barack ObamaImmigration ReformJoint Comprehensive Plan Of ActionCuban ThawTimeline Of The Presidency Of Barack Obama (2013)Timeline Of The Presidency Of Barack Obama (2014)Timeline Of The Presidency Of Barack Obama (2015)Timeline Of The Presidency Of Barack Obama (2016)Timeline Of The Presidency Of Barack Obama (2017)Barack Obama Presidential CenterObama FoundationOne America AppealDreams From My FatherThe Audacity Of Hope2009 Nobel Peace PrizeTemplate:Barack Obama SidebarTemplate Talk:Barack Obama SidebarNew DemocratsBarack Obama And Bill ClintonCentrismClintonismCultural LiberalismEconomic LiberalismRadical CentrismSocial LiberalismThird WayBruce BabbittEvan BayhJohn Carney (politician)Tom CarperLawton ChilesBill ClintonHillary ClintonGerry ConnollyJim Davis (Florida Politician)Susan Davis (politician)Cal DooleyJohn EdwardsHarold Ford Jr.Al FromDick GephardtAl GoreBob GrahamJim HimesJohn KerryRon KindMary LandrieuRick LarsenJoe LiebermanBlanche LincolnWill MarshallJim MoranSam NunnJared PolisChuck RobbTim RoemerPaul TsongasAllyson SchwartzAdam Smith (politician)Coalition For A Democratic MajorityDemocratic Leadership CouncilModerate Dems Working GroupNew Democrat CoalitionNew Democrat NetworkProgressive Policy InstituteSenate Centrist CoalitionThird Way (think Tank)Portal:PoliticsTemplate:New DemocratsTemplate Talk:New DemocratsHelp:IPA/EnglishAbout This SoundList Of Presidents Of The United StatesAfrican AmericanSeniority In The United States SenateIllinoisIllinois State SenateHonoluluHawaii Admission ActList Of U.S. States By Date Of Admission To The UnionWashington (state)IndonesiaColumbia UniversityNew York CityCommunity OrganizerChicagoHarvard Law SchoolHarvard Law ReviewCivil RightsConstitutional LawUniversity Of Chicago Law SchoolIllinois Senate Career Of Barack ObamaIllinois SenateUnited States Senate Election In Illinois, 2004United States Senate Election In Illinois, 20042004 Democratic National Convention2004 Democratic National Convention Keynote AddressBarack Obama Presidential Campaign, 2008Democratic Party Presidential Primaries, 2008Hillary ClintonUnited States Presidential Election, 2008Republican Party (United States)John McCainFirst Inauguration Of Barack Obama2009 Nobel Peace PrizePatient Protection And Affordable Care ActDodd–Frank Wall Street Reform And Consumer Protection ActDon't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act Of 2010American Recovery And Reinvestment Act Of 2009Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, And Job Creation Act Of 2010Stimulus (economics)Great RecessionUnited States Debt CeilingBudget Control Act Of 2011American Taxpayer Relief Act Of 2012War In Afghanistan (2001–14)New STARTWithdrawal Of U.S. Troops From IraqIraq War2011 Military Intervention In LibyaMuammar GaddafiDeath Of Muammar GaddafiDeath Of Osama Bin LadenUnited States Presidential Election, 2012Mitt RomneySecond Inauguration Of Barack ObamaLGBT AmericanSupreme Court Of The United StatesSame-sex Marriage In The United StatesUnited States V. WindsorObergefell V. HodgesGun Politics In The United StatesSandy Hook Elementary School ShootingClimate ChangeAmerican-led Intervention In Iraq (2014–present)Iraqi Insurgency (2011–13)ISILWithdrawal Of U.S. Troops From AfghanistanParis AgreementInternational Sanctions During The Ukrainian CrisisRussian Military Intervention In Ukraine (2014–present)Russian Interference In The 2016 United States ElectionsJoint Comprehensive Plan Of ActionUnited States–Cuban ThawEarly Life And Career Of Barack ObamaKapiolani Medical Center For Women And ChildrenHonoluluContiguous United StatesWhite PeopleBlack PeopleAnn DunhamWichita, KansasEnglish PeopleGermansIrish PeopleScottish PeopleSwiss PeopleWelsh PeopleBarack Obama Sr.Luo People Of Kenya And TanzaniaNyang'oma KogeloRussian LanguageUniversity Of Hawaii At ManoaForeign StudentWailuku, HawaiiUniversity Of WashingtonSeattleHarvard UniversityLolo SoetoroUniversity Of HawaiiNative IndonesianEast–West CenterGraduate StudentMolokaiJ-1 VisaIndonesiaTebet, South JakartaSouth JakartaMentengCentral JakartaIndonesian LanguageSt. Francis Of AssisiCatholic SchoolBesuki Public SchoolCalvert SchoolJakartaMadelyn DunhamStanley Armour DunhamPunahou SchoolUniversity-preparatory SchoolMaya Soetoro-NgAnthropologyOvarian CancerUterine CancerMarijuanaCocaineOccidental CollegeDisinvestment From South AfricaApartheidColumbia College, Columbia UniversityPolitical ScienceInternational RelationsBachelor Of ArtsBusiness International CorporationNew York Public Interest Research GroupCity College Of New YorkFamily Of Barack ObamaEnlargeGreen Room (White House)Family Of Barack ObamaBernie MacMargaret ThatcherMaya Soetoro-NgMoneygallJefferson DavisPresident Of The Confederate States Of AmericaAmerican Civil WarEnlargeJonathan ToewsStanley CupChicago BlackhawksEnlargeJump Shot (basketball)Pick-up GameChicago White Sox2005 American League Championship Series2009 Major League Baseball All-Star GameChicago BearsNational Football LeagueSteeler NationSuper Bowl XLIII1985 Chicago Bears SeasonSuper Bowl XXSpace Shuttle Challenger DisasterSheila Miyoshi JagerMichelle ObamaSidley AustinUniversity Of Chicago Laboratory SchoolsSidwell Friends SchoolPortuguese Water DogBo (dog)Ted KennedySunny (dog)Hyde Park, ChicagoKenwood, ChicagoTony RezkoMoney (magazine)Fisher House FoundationEnlargeLBJ Presidential LibraryGlamour (magazine)FeministProtestantBlack ChurchCommunity OrganizingEnlargeAfrican Methodist Episcopal ChurchChristianity TodayRedeemer (Christianity)Resurrection Of JesusGolden RuleTrinity United Church Of ChristJeremiah WrightJeremiah Wright ControversyShiloh Baptist Church (Washington, D.C.)St. John's Episcopal Church, Lafayette SquareCamp DavidDeveloping Communities ProjectRoseland, ChicagoWest Pullman, ChicagoRiverdale, ChicagoSouth Side, ChicagoAltgeld Gardens Homes (Chicago, Illinois)Gamaliel FoundationFamily Of Barack ObamaWGBH Educational FoundationHarvard Law SchoolSomerville, MassachusettsHarvard Law ReviewLaurence TribeAssociate AttorneySidley AustinHopkins & SutterJuris DoctorMagna Cum LaudeList Of African-American FirstsDreams From My FatherUniversity Of Chicago Law SchoolConstitutional LawProject VoteVoter Registration CampaignCrain's Chicago BusinessOf CounselWoods Fund Of ChicagoJoyce FoundationChicago Annenberg ChallengeIllinois Senate Career Of Barack ObamaEnlargeShoreBankIllinois SenateAlice Palmer (politician)Hyde Park, ChicagoKenwood, ChicagoSouth Shore, ChicagoChicago Lawn, ChicagoTax CreditPayday LoanPredatory LendingIllinois's 1st Congressional District Election, 2000Illinois's 1st Congressional DistrictUnited States House Of RepresentativesBobby RushRacial ProfilingCapital Punishment In The United StatesUnited States Senate Election In Illinois, 2004EnlargeDavid AxelrodGeorge W. Bush2003 Invasion Of IraqIraq ResolutionProtests Against The Iraq WarPeter Fitzgerald (politician)Carol Moseley BraunDemocratic Party (United States)2004 Democratic National ConventionJack Ryan (politician)Alan KeyesUnited States Senate Election In Illinois, 2004United States Senate Career Of Barack ObamaEnlargeCongressional Black CaucusCongressional QuarterlyResignation From The United States SenateLame Duck (politics)List Of Bills Sponsored By Barack Obama In The United States SenateSponsor (legislative)Secure America And Orderly Immigration ActNunn–Lugar Cooperative Threat ReductionFederal Funding Accountability And Transparency Act Of 2006Tom CarperTom CoburnJohn McCainTort ReformClass Action Fairness Act Of 2005Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act Of 1978 Amendments Act Of 2008NSA Warrantless Surveillance (2001–07)EnlargeRichard LugarDemocratic Republic Of The CongoHonest Leadership And Open Government ActDeceptive Practices And Voter Intimidation Prevention ActIraq War De-Escalation Act Of 2007Disinvestment From IranState Children's Health Insurance ProgramEnlargeUnited States Senate Committee On Foreign RelationsUnited States Senate Committee On Environment And Public WorksUnited States Senate Committee On Veterans' AffairsUnited States Senate Committee On Health, Education, Labor And PensionsUnited States Senate Committee On Homeland Security And Governmental AffairsUnited States Senate Foreign Relations Subcommittee On Europe And Regional Security CooperationMahmoud AbbasPresident Of The Palestinian National AuthorityUniversity Of NairobiUnited States Presidential Election, 2008Barack Obama Presidential Primary Campaign, 2008Barack Obama Presidential Campaign, 2008EnlargeSpringfield, IllinoisOld State Capitol State Historic Site (Illinois)Springfield, IllinoisAbraham LincolnLincoln's House Divided SpeechIraq WarEnergy Policy Of The United StatesHealth Care Reform In The United StatesDemocratic Party Presidential Primaries, 2008Hillary ClintonDelegateCaucusEnlargeGeorge W. BushOval OfficeDelawareJoe BidenEvan BayhTim Kaine2008 Democratic National ConventionBill ClintonInvesco Field At Mile HighCampaign Finance In The United StatesEnlargeSarah PalinUnited States Presidential Election DebatesElectoral College (United States)ElectionBarack Obama Election Victory Speech, 2008Grant Park (Chicago)United States Presidential Election, 2012Barack Obama Presidential Campaign, 2012EnlargeMitt RomneyOval OfficeEnlargeFederal Election CommissionDemocratic Party Presidential Primaries, 20122012 Democratic National Convention2012 Democratic National ConventionCharlotte, North CarolinaJoe BidenBill ClintonMitt RomneyPaul RyanElectoral College (United States)Franklin D. RooseveltList Of United States Presidential Elections By Popular Vote MarginMcCormick PlacePresidency Of Barack ObamaTimeline Of The Presidency Of Barack ObamaConfirmations Of Barack Obama's CabinetList Of International Presidential Trips Made By Barack ObamaFirst 100 Days Of Barack Obama's PresidencyEnlargeOath Of Office Of The President Of The United StatesChief Justice Of The United StatesJohn RobertsUnited States CapitolFirst Inauguration Of Barack ObamaGuantanamo Bay Detention CampGeorge W. BushRonald ReaganMexico City PolicySocial Policy Of The Barack Obama AdministrationLilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act Of 2009Statute Of LimitationsEmbryonic Stem CellEnlargeBarack Obama Speech To Joint Session Of Congress, February 2009Joe BidenSpeaker Of The United States House Of RepresentativesNancy PelosiSonia SotomayorAssociate Justice Of The Supreme Court Of The United StatesDavid SouterHispanicElena KaganJohn Paul StevensHealth Care And Education Reconciliation Act Of 2010Reconciliation (United States Congress)Pell GrantEnlargeCabinet Of The United StatesSpace Policy Of The Barack Obama AdministrationNASAHuman SpaceflightAres IAres VConstellation ProgramInternational Space Station2011 State Of The Union AddressInnovation EconomicsEarmark (politics)Sustainable EnergyMatthew Shepard And James Byrd Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention ActHate Crime Laws In The United StatesImmigration EqualityDon't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act Of 2010Don't Ask, Don't TellUnited States Armed ForcesThe PentagonTransgenderSame-sex Marriage In The United StatesSecond Inauguration Of Barack ObamaLGBT Rights In The United StatesEnlargeWhite HouseSupreme Court Of The United StatesHollingsworth V. PerrySame-sex Marriage In The United StatesUnited States V. WindsorDefense Of Marriage ActObergefell V. HodgesHuman Rights CampaignWhite House Council On Women And GirlsExecutive Order (United States)Senior Advisor To The PresidentValerie JarrettWhite House Task Force To Protect Students From Sexual AssaultJoe BidenOffice Of The Vice President Of The United StatesViolence Against Women ActEconomic Policy Of The Barack Obama AdministrationEnlargeAmerican Recovery And Reinvestment Act Of 2009American Recovery And Reinvestment Act Of 2009Stimulus (economics)Great RecessionTax IncentiveEnlargeUnited States Federal BudgetNational Debt Of The United StatesTimothy GeithnerFinancial Crisis Of 2007–08Public–Private Investment Program For Legacy AssetsAutomotive Industry Crisis Of 2008–10General MotorsChryslerChrysler Chapter 11 ReorganizationFiatGeneral Motors Chapter 11 ReorganizationCar Allowance Rebate SystemCongressional Budget Office2010 United States Federal BudgetDebt CeilingBudget Control Act Of 2011Federal Government Of The United StatesDefault (finance)EnlargeUnemployment RateFederal Reserve SystemBen BernankeNational Association For Business EconomicsNATOWorld War IIOECDUnited States Elections, 2010Bush Tax CutsFederal Insurance Contributions Act TaxEstate Tax In The United StatesTax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, And Job Creation Act Of 2010Income Inequality In The United StatesFast Food Worker StrikesPope FrancisTrickle-down EconomicsTrans-Pacific PartnershipClimate Change Policy Of The United StatesEnlargeBP Oil SpillUnited States Coast GuardVenice, LouisianaGlobal WarmingDrilling RigMacondo ProspectGulf Of MexicoDeepwater Horizon Oil SpillUnited States Secretary Of The InteriorKen SalazarDeepwater DrillingKeystone XL PipelinePetroleum Exploration In The ArcticConservation MovementFederal LandsAntiquities ActNational Monument (United States)Health Care Reform In The United StatesEnlargeUnited States CongressHealth Care In The United StatesPublic Health Insurance OptionPre-existing ConditionEnlargeFederal Poverty LevelPatient Protection And Affordable Care ActCongressional Research ServiceBarack Obama Speech To Joint Session Of Congress, September 2009Patient Protection And Affordable Care ActProvisions Of The Patient Protection And Affordable Care ActMedicaidFederal Poverty LevelHealth Insurance ExchangeEnlargeJAMA (journal)Tax BracketIndoor TanningMedicare AdvantageNational Federation Of Independent Business V. SebeliusBurwell V. Hobby Lobby Stores, Inc.Religious Freedom Restoration ActKing V. BurwellEnergy Policy Of The Obama AdministrationSocial Policy Of The Barack Obama AdministrationEnlarge2012 Aurora ShootingUniversity Of Colorado HospitalSandy Hook Elementary School ShootingFederal Assault Weapons BanBureau Of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms And ExplosivesExecutive OrderWomen's SuffrageUnited States House Of Representatives Elections, 2010United States Senate Elections, 2010United States House Of Representatives Elections, 2010Federal Communications CommissionInternet AccessNet NeutralityForeign Policy Of The Barack Obama AdministrationEnlargeA New BeginningCairo UniversityEnlargeList Of International Presidential Trips Made By Barack ObamaEnlargeAngela MerkelUnited States Secretary Of StateRussian ResetAl ArabiyaAnkaraCairo UniversityA New BeginningIranian Presidential Election, 2009President Of The United Nations Security CouncilUnited Nations Security CouncilBenjamin NetanyahuEast JerusalemDmitry MedvedevSTART INew STARTUnited States SenateLGBT Rights By Country Or Territory2014 Winter OlympicsSochiEnlargeMatteo RenziWhite HouseUnited States–Cuban ThawCuba–United States RelationsSaudi Arabian-led Intervention In YemenAngela MerkelIraq WarAmerican-led Intervention In Iraq (2014–present)United States Marine CorpsCounter-terrorismEnlargeDavid Cameron2010 G20 Toronto SummitNorthern Iraq Offensive (June 2014)Islamic State Of Iraq And The LevantIslamic State Of Iraq And The LevantSinjar MassacreAmerican-led Intervention In Iraq (2014–present)82nd Airborne DivisionWar In Afghanistan (2001–14)David D. McKiernanSpecial Forces (United States Army)Stanley A. McChrystalDavid PetraeusEnlargeShimon PeresOval OfficeIsraeli SettlementTwo-state SolutionArab–Israeli ConflictJoint Political Military GroupIron DomePalestinian Rocket Attacks On IsraelJeffrey GoldbergZionismCivil Rights Movement2014 Israel–Gaza ConflictJoint Comprehensive Plan Of ActionBenjamin NetanyahuUnited Nations Security Council Resolution 2334United States House Of Representatives2011 Military Intervention In LibyaEnlargeVladimir PutinMuammar GaddafiArab SpringArab LeagueUnited Nations Security Council Resolution 1973MisrataTomahawk (missile)Northrop Grumman B-2 SpiritNATOOperation Unified ProtectorForeign Involvement In The Syrian Civil WarSyrian Civil WarBashar Al-AssadGhouta Chemical AttackU.S. Government Assessment Of The Syrian Government's Use Of Chemical Weapons On August 21, 2013Destruction Of Syria's Chemical WeaponsChlorine GasMilitary Intervention Against ISILDeath Of Osama Bin LadenEnlargeFile:050111 Osama Bin Laden Death Statement Audioonly.oggWikisource Has Information On "Remarks By The President On Osama Bin Laden"EnlargeOperation Neptune's SpearWhite House Situation RoomSituation Room (photograph)Osama Bin LadenOsama Bin Laden's Compound In AbbottabadAbbottabadIslamabadLeon PanettaUnited States Navy SEALsWorld Trade Center SiteTimes SquareReactions To The Death Of Osama Bin LadenEnlargeJoint Comprehensive Plan Of ActionNegotiations Leading To The Joint Comprehensive Plan Of ActionNuclear WeaponJoint Plan Of ActionJoint Comprehensive Plan Of ActionBenjamin NetanyahuHezbollahDrug Enforcement AdministrationProject CassandraCentral Intelligence AgencyUnited States–Cuban ThawEnlargeRaúl CastroVatican CityPope FrancisPrisoner ExchangeRaúl CastroDeath Of Nelson MandelaJohannesburgPope FrancisCuban ThawThe New RepublicHavanaCalvin CoolidgeAfrican UnionAddis AbabaEducation In AfricaEconomy Of AfricaLGBTDemocratizationUnited States Presidential Visits To Sub-Saharan AfricaAtomic Bombings Of Hiroshima And NagasakiWorld War IIHiroshimaShinzō AbeHiroshima Peace Memorial MuseumEnlargeVladimir PutinRussia–United States RelationsAnnexation Of Crimea By The Russian FederationRussian Military Intervention In Syria2016 United States Election Interference By RussiaUnited States Presidential Election, 2016George Robertson, Baron Robertson Of Port EllenPublic Image Of Barack ObamaInternational Reaction To The United States Presidential Election, 2008International Reactions To The United States Presidential Election, 2012Ivy LeagueCivil Rights MovementNational Association Of Black JournalistsMichael Eric DysonEnlargeGallup OrganizationRonald ReaganBill ClintonDeath Of Osama Bin LadenHarris InteractiveFrance 24International Herald TribuneEnlarge2012 UEFA Champions League FinalGrammy Award For Best Spoken Word AlbumGrammy AwardAudiobookDreams From My FatherThe Audacity Of HopeBarack Obama Presidential Primary Campaign, 2008Yes We Can ( Song)Daytime Emmy AwardTime (magazine)Time Person Of The YearParliament Of The United KingdomWestminster HallCharles De GaulleNelson MandelaElizabeth IIPope Benedict XVINorwegian Nobel Committee2009 Nobel Peace PrizeOsloWikipedia:Citing SourcesThe New York TimesGeir LundestadEnlargeJoe BidenDonald TrumpInauguration Of Donald TrumpInauguration Of Donald TrumpDonald TrumpExecutive OneJoint Base AndrewsKalorama, Washington, D.C.Democratic National Committee Chairmanship Election, 2017Tom PerezKeith EllisonJohn F. Kennedy Presidential Library And MuseumProfile In Courage AwardUniversity Of ChicagoFrench Presidential Election, 2017Emmanuel MacronCivic EngagementMilan, ItalyBerlinAngela MerkelKensington PalacePrince Harry2017 Manchester Arena BombingParis AgreementIndonesiaJakartaBasuki Tjahaja PurnamaJoko Widodo2017 Congressional Baseball ShootingJeff FlakeSteve ScaliseEnlargeMauricio MacriBetter Care Reconciliation Act Of 2017Jeff SessionsDeferred Action For Childhood ArrivalsJimmy CarterGeorge H. W. BushBill ClintonGeorge W. BushOne America AppealHurricane HarveyHurricane IrmaGulf Coast Of The United StatesTexasObama FoundationXi JinpingNarendra ModiDalai LamaEmmanuel MacronFrancois HollandeAnne HidalgoEnlargePatient Protection And Affordable Care ActHealth Care And Education Reconciliation ActHealth Care In The United StatesMedicare (United States)MedicaidDepression (economics)Great RecessionU.S. Bureau Of Labor StatisticsObama AdministrationFirst Inauguration Of Barack ObamaNational Defense Authorization Act For Fiscal Year 2010Matthew Shepard And James Byrd Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention ActBill ClintonHate Crime Laws In The United StatesDodd–Frank Wall Street Reform And Consumer Protection ActFinancial Crisis Of 2007–08Financial RegulationGreat DepressionFranklin D. RooseveltDon't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act Of 2010Don't Ask, Don't TellLesbian, Gay And BisexualTransgenderGallup PollDrone StrikesGeorge W. BushAfghanistanIraqPakistanSomaliaYemenLibyaPhilippinesSyriaAfghanistanPew Research CenterUnited States Bureau Of Justice StatisticsJimmy CarterC-SPANHistorical Rankings Of Presidents Of The United StatesBarack Obama Presidential CenterPresidential LibraryUniversity Of ChicagoJackson Park (Chicago)South Side, ChicagoDreams From My FatherThe Audacity Of HopeOf Thee I Sing (book)Random House AudioInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-7393-6641-7Portal:Barack ObamaPortal:Government Of The United StatesPortal:2010sBook:Barack ObamaSocial Policy Of Barack ObamaDREAM ActImmigration Reform And Control Act Of 1986List Of International Presidential Trips Made By Barack ObamaMiddle Class Tax Relief And Job Creation Act Of 2012Fraud Enforcement And Recovery Act Of 2009National Broadband Plan (United States)Office Of Energy Efficiency And Renewable EnergySPEECH ActStay With ItWhite House Office Of Energy And Climate Change PolicySpeeches Of Barack ObamaRoberts CourtAssassination Threats Against Barack ObamaList Of People Pardoned By Barack ObamaList Of Federal Political Scandals In The United StatesList Of Barack Obama Presidential Campaign Endorsements, 2008List Of Barack Obama Presidential Campaign Endorsements, 2012List Of African-American United States SenatorsList Of Things Named After Barack ObamaYouTubeThe Washington PostThe Honolulu AdvertiserInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9781317937159International Standard Serial NumberHuffPostChicago TribuneTime (magazine)The EastAfricanKompasUniversity Of PennsylvaniaHonolulu Star-BulletinNewsweekThe Bridge: The Life And Rise Of Barack ObamaInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-4000-4360-6International Standard Serial NumberNPRInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-8379-7011-0Dick CheneyHarry S. TrumanChicago BearsThe Christian Science MonitorPBS NewsHourPBS NewsHourUSA TodayABC NewsThe Bridge: The Life And Rise Of Barack ObamaInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-4000-4360-6Peter Baker (author)International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9780935112900OCLCInternational Standard Serial NumberInternational Standard Serial NumberInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-9620873-3-5International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-250-01005-6WGBH Educational FoundationAmerican Archive Of Public BroadcastingLibrary Of CongressInternational Standard Serial NumberYouTubeInternational Standard Serial NumberOCLCInternational Standard Serial NumberInternational Standard Serial NumberCategory:CS1 Maint: Multiple Names: Authors ListJesse White (politician)Illinois Secretary Of StateCategory:CS1 Maint: BOT: Original-url Status UnknownFederal Election CommissionBoston GlobeThe New York TimesBiographical Directory Of The United States CongressEvan ThomasPublicAffairsInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-58648-607-5Karen TumultyLos Angeles TimesBloomberg L.P.Commission On Presidential DebatesHartford CourantUnited Press InternationalFederal Elections CommissionThe New York TimesMSNBCWhite HouseFederal News RadioNPRCBS NewsHuffPostBloomberg NewsDigital Object IdentifierSocial Science Research NetworkBureau Of Labor StatisticsBureau Of Labor StatisticsBureau Of Labor StatisticsBureau Of Labor StatisticsBureau Of Labor StatisticsThe Christian Science MonitorThe Hill (newspaper)All Things ConsideredUnited Press InternationalChicago Sun-TimesPoliticoNPRThe Christian Science MonitorDigital Object IdentifierInternational Standard Serial NumberThe Christian Science MonitorBloomberg NewsThe New York TimesThe New York TimesThe GuardianThe Times Of IndiaVoice Of AmericaLos Angeles TimesHuffPostThe Gazette (Colorado Springs)Associated PressThe Wall Street JournalThe Times Of IsraelHaaretzFox NewsAssociated PressFox News ChannelThe Times Of IsraelNational JournalAl JazeeraBloomberg NewsNPRThe New RepublicThe Hill (newspaper)HuffPostInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-544-38766-9Los Angeles TimesFrance 24Digital Object IdentifierInternational Standard Serial NumberDigital Object IdentifierInternational Standard Serial NumberInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9780190231569ROAR MagazineWikipedia:Identifying Reliable SourcesGreg GrandinThe NationTime (magazine)The Other Barack: The Bold And Reckless Life Of President Obama's FatherPublicAffairsInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-58648-793-5David MaranissBarack Obama: The StorySimon & SchusterInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-4391-6040-4David MendellObama: From Promise To PowerHarperCollinsInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-06-085820-9Dreams From My FatherThree Rivers PressInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-4000-8277-3The Audacity Of HopeCrown Publishing GroupInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-307-23769-9A Singular Woman: The Untold Story Of Barack Obama's MotherRiverhead BooksInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-59448-797-2International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-59454-360-9International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-60819-060-7File:Barack Obama.oggWikipedia:Media HelpWikipedia:Spoken ArticlesWikipedia:LIBRARYOrganizing For ActionEncyclopædia BritannicaUnited States Health Care Reform: Progress To Date And Next StepsJAMA (journal)Digital Object IdentifierHarvard Law ReviewDMOZBiographical Directory Of The United States CongressC-SPANChicago TribunePolitiFact.comVox (website)Project GutenbergInternet ArchiveLibriVoxIMDbTemplate:Barack ObamaTemplate Talk:Barack ObamaList Of Presidents Of The United StatesPresident Of The United StatesUnited States SenateList Of United States Senators From IllinoisIllinois SenateEarly Life And Career Of Barack ObamaIllinois Senate Career Of Barack Obama2004 Democratic National ConventionUnited States Senate Career Of Barack ObamaPolitical Positions Of Barack ObamaForeign Policy Of The Barack Obama AdministrationEconomic Policy Of The Barack Obama AdministrationEnergy Policy Of The Barack Obama AdministrationBarack Obama On Mass SurveillanceSocial Policy Of The Barack Obama AdministrationSpace Policy Of The Barack Obama Administration2009 Nobel Peace PrizeWest Wing WeekPresidency Of Barack ObamaPresidential Transition Of Barack ObamaFirst Inauguration Of Barack ObamaSecond Inauguration Of Barack ObamaFirst 100 Days Of Barack Obama's PresidencyTimeline Of The Presidency Of Barack Obama (2009)Timeline Of The Presidency Of Barack Obama (2010)Timeline Of The Presidency Of Barack Obama (2011)Timeline Of The Presidency Of Barack Obama (2012)Timeline Of The Presidency Of Barack Obama (2013)Timeline Of The Presidency Of Barack Obama (2014)Timeline Of The Presidency Of Barack Obama (2015)Timeline Of The Presidency Of Barack Obama (2016)Timeline Of The Presidency Of Barack Obama (2017)Foreign Policy Of The Barack Obama AdministrationWar In Afghanistan (2001–2014)Withdrawal Of U.S. Troops From IraqDeath Of Osama Bin LadenJoint Comprehensive Plan Of ActionCuban ThawObama DoctrinePatient Protection And Affordable Care ActHealthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act Of 2010New STARTList Of People Granted Executive Clemency By Barack ObamaList Of Presidential Trips Made By Barack ObamaList Of International Presidential Trips Made By Barack ObamaList Of Presidential Trips Made By Barack Obama During 2009List Of Presidential Trips Made By Barack Obama During 2010List Of Presidential Trips Made By Barack Obama During 2011List Of Presidential Trips Made By Barack Obama During 2012List Of Presidential Trips Made By Barack Obama During 2013List Of Presidential Trips Made By Barack Obama During 2014List Of Presidential Trips Made By Barack Obama During 2015List Of Presidential Trips Made By Barack Obama During 2016List Of Federal Judges Appointed By Barack ObamaBarack Obama Supreme Court CandidatesBarack Obama Judicial Appointment ControversiesPresidency Of Barack ObamaBarack Obama Presidential CenterCategory:Books By Barack ObamaDreams From My FatherThe Audacity Of HopeOf Thee I Sing (book)Speeches Of Barack Obama2004 Democratic National Convention Keynote AddressA More Perfect Union (speech)Barack Obama Election Victory Speech, 2008First Inauguration Of Barack ObamaBarack Obama Speech To Joint Session Of Congress, February 2009A New BeginningBarack Obama Speech To Joint Session Of Congress, September 2009State Of The Union2010 State Of The Union Address2011 State Of The Union Address2012 State Of The Union Address2013 State Of The Union Address2014 State Of The Union Address2015 State Of The Union Address2016 State Of The Union AddressBarack Obama Tucson Memorial SpeechAmerican Jobs ActYou Didn't Build ThatBarack Obama Selma 50th Anniversary SpeechBarack Obama's Farewell AddressElectoral History Of Barack ObamaIllinois Senate Elections Of Barack ObamaIllinois's 1st Congressional District Election, 2000United States Senate Election In Illinois, 2004Democratic Party Presidential Primaries, 2008Democratic Party Presidential Primaries, 2012Barack Obama Presidential Primary Campaign, 20082008 Democratic National Convention2012 Democratic National ConventionBarack Obama Presidential Campaign, 2008List Of Barack Obama Presidential Campaign Endorsements, 2008Republican And Conservative Support For Barack Obama In 2008United States Presidential Election, 2008Barack Obama Presidential Campaign, 2012List Of Barack Obama Presidential Campaign Endorsements, 2012United States Presidential Election, 2012International Reactions To The United States Presidential Election, 2012Family Of Barack ObamaMichelle ObamaAnn DunhamBarack Obama Sr.Lolo SoetoroMaya Soetoro-NgStanley Armour DunhamMadelyn DunhamMarian Shields RobinsonCraig Robinson (basketball)Bo (dog)Sunny (dog)Public Image Of Barack ObamaOprah Winfrey's Endorsement Of Barack ObamaBarack Obama Citizenship Conspiracy TheoriesBarack Obama Presidential Eligibility LitigationUnited States Presidential Eligibility LegislationBarack Obama Religion Conspiracy TheoriesBill Ayers 2008 Presidential Election ControversyJeremiah Wright ControversyRepublican And Conservative Support For Barack Obama In 2008Assassination Threats Against Barack ObamaBarack Obama Assassination Plot In DenverBarack Obama Assassination Plot In TennesseeInvitations To The First Inauguration Of Barack ObamaWe Are One: The Obama Inaugural Celebration At The Lincoln MemorialCitizen's Briefing BookTea Party ProtestsNew Energy For AmericaLilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act Of 2009American Recovery And Reinvestment Act Of 2009Henry Louis Gates Arrest ControversyFiring Of Shirley SherrodEfforts To Impeach Barack ObamaCategory:Books About Barack ObamaBibliography Of Barack ObamaObama: From Promise To PowerBarack Obama: Der Schwarze KennedyRedemption Song (book)The Case Against Barack ObamaThe Obama NationCulture Of CorruptionCatastrophe (book)Barack And MichelleThe Speech: Race And Barack Obama's "A More Perfect Union"The Obama StoryGame ChangeDouble Down: Game Change 2012Rising Star (book)Amber Lee EttingerCrush On ObamaBarack The Magic NegroWill.i.amYes We Can ( Song)We Are The OnesThere's No One As Irish As Barack O'BamaSí Se Puede CambiarMy PresidentDeadheads For ObamaAir And Simple GiftsChange Is Now: Renewing America's PromiseHope! – Das Obama MusicalBarack Obama Vs. Mitt RomneyBaracksdubsSigned, Sealed, Delivered I'm YoursBy The People: The Election Of Barack Obama2016: Obama's AmericaThe Road We've TraveledSouthside With YouBarry (2016 Film)Category:Images Of Barack ObamaBarack Obama On Social MediaArtists For ObamaBarack Obama "Hope" PosterBarack Obama "Joker" PosterSituation Room (photograph)Obama LogoBarack Obama In ComicsBarack Obama DayObama DayList Of Honors And Awards Received By Barack ObamaList Of Things Named After Barack ObamaGeorge W. BushDonald TrumpBook:Barack ObamaCategory:Barack ObamaPortal:Barack ObamaIllinois SenateAlice Palmer (politician)Illinois SenateKwame RaoulCarol Moseley BraunDemocratic Party (United States)List Of United States Senators From IllinoisIllinoisClasses Of United States SenatorsUnited States Senate Election In Illinois, 2004Alexi GiannouliasHarold Ford Jr.Democratic National Convention2004 Democratic National ConventionMark WarnerJohn KerryDemocratic Party (United States)List Of United States Democratic Party Presidential TicketsUnited States Presidential Election, 2008United States Presidential Election, 2012Hillary ClintonUnited States SenatePeter Fitzgerald (politician)List Of United States Senators From IllinoisDick DurbinRoland BurrisGeorge W. BushPresident Of The United StatesDonald TrumpGordon BrownG20Stephen HarperNaoto KanAsia-Pacific Economic CooperationVladimir PutinNicolas SarkozyGroup Of EightDavid CameronMartti AhtisaariNobel Peace PrizeLiu XiaoboUnited States Order Of PrecedenceGeorge W. BushUnited States Order Of PrecedenceWalter MondaleTemplate:US PresidentsTemplate Talk:US PresidentsPresident Of The United StatesList Of Presidents Of The United StatesGeorge WashingtonPresidency Of George WashingtonJohn AdamsPresidency Of John AdamsThomas JeffersonPresidency Of Thomas JeffersonJames MadisonPresidency Of James MadisonJames MonroePresidency Of James MonroeJohn Quincy AdamsPresidency Of John Quincy AdamsAndrew JacksonPresidency Of Andrew JacksonMartin Van BurenPresidency Of Martin Van BurenWilliam Henry HarrisonPresidency Of William Henry HarrisonJohn TylerPresidency Of John TylerJames K. PolkPresidency Of James K. PolkZachary TaylorPresidency Of Zachary TaylorMillard FillmorePresidency Of Millard FillmoreFranklin PiercePresidency Of Franklin PierceJames BuchananPresidency Of James BuchananAbraham LincolnPresidency Of Abraham LincolnAndrew JohnsonPresidency Of Andrew JohnsonUlysses S. GrantPresidency Of Ulysses S. GrantRutherford B. HayesPresidency Of Rutherford B. HayesJames A. GarfieldPresidency Of James A. GarfieldChester A. ArthurPresidency Of Chester A. ArthurGrover ClevelandPresidencies Of Grover ClevelandBenjamin HarrisonPresidency Of Benjamin HarrisonGrover ClevelandPresidencies Of Grover ClevelandWilliam McKinleyPresidency Of William McKinleyTheodore RooseveltPresidency Of Theodore RooseveltWilliam Howard TaftPresidency Of William Howard TaftWoodrow WilsonPresidency Of Woodrow WilsonWarren G. HardingPresidency Of Warren G. HardingCalvin CoolidgePresidency Of Calvin CoolidgeHerbert HooverPresidency Of Herbert HooverFranklin D. RooseveltPresidency Of Franklin D. RooseveltHarry S. TrumanPresidency Of Harry S. TrumanDwight D. EisenhowerPresidency Of Dwight D. EisenhowerJohn F. KennedyPresidency Of John F. KennedyLyndon B. JohnsonPresidency Of Lyndon B. JohnsonRichard NixonPresidency Of Richard NixonGerald FordPresidency Of Gerald FordJimmy CarterPresidency Of Jimmy CarterRonald ReaganPresidency Of Ronald ReaganGeorge H. W. BushPresidency Of George H. W. BushBill ClintonPresidency Of Bill ClintonGeorge W. BushPresidency Of George W. BushPresidency Of Barack ObamaDonald TrumpPresidency Of Donald TrumpTimeline Of The Presidency Of Woodrow WilsonTimeline Of The Presidency Of Warren G. HardingTimeline Of The Presidency Of Calvin CoolidgeTimeline Of The Presidency Of Herbert HooverTimeline Of The Presidency Of Franklin D. RooseveltTimeline Of The Presidency Of Harry S. TrumanTimeline Of The Presidency Of Dwight D. EisenhowerTimeline Of The Presidency Of John F. KennedyTimeline Of The Presidency Of Lyndon B. JohnsonTimeline Of The Presidency Of Richard NixonTimeline Of The Presidency Of Gerald FordTimeline Of The Presidency Of Jimmy CarterTimeline Of The Presidency Of Ronald ReaganTimeline Of The Presidency Of George H. W. BushTimeline Of The Presidency Of Bill ClintonTimeline Of The Presidency Of George W. BushTimeline Of The Presidency Of Barack ObamaTimeline Of The Presidency Of Donald TrumpBook:Presidents Of The United StatesCategory:Presidents Of The United StatesTemplate:United States Presidential Election, 2008Template Talk:United States Presidential Election, 2008United States Presidential Election, 2004United States Presidential Election, 2008United States Presidential Election, 2012Template:United States Elections, 2008List Of Candidates In The United States Presidential Election, 2008Comparison Of United States Presidential Candidates, 2008United States Presidential Debates, 2008Congressional Endorsements For The United States Presidential Election, 2008Fundraising For The 2008 United States Presidential ElectionBallot Access For The 2008 United States Presidential ElectionUnited States Presidential Election, 2008 TimelineSuper Tuesday, 2008Potomac PrimarySuper Tuesday II, 2008Nationwide Opinion Polling For The United States Presidential Election, 2008Statewide Opinion Polling For The United States Presidential Election, 2008International Opinion Polling For The United States Presidential Election, 2008International Reaction To The United States Presidential Election, 2008Democratic Party (United States)2008 Democratic National ConventionStatewide Opinion Polling For The Democratic Party Presidential Primaries, 2008Nationwide Opinion Polling For The Democratic Party 2008 Presidential CandidatesDemocratic Party Presidential Debates, 2008Democratic Party Presidential Primaries, 2008Results Of The 2008 Democratic Party Presidential PrimariesList Of Democratic Party Superdelegates, 2008Barack Obama Presidential Campaign, 2008Political Positions Of Barack ObamaDemocratic Party Vice Presidential Candidate Selection, 2008Joe BidenPolitical Positions Of Joe BidenDemocratic Party Presidential Candidates, 2008Evan BayhEvan Bayh Presidential Campaign, 2008Joe BidenJoe Biden Presidential Campaign, 2008Hillary ClintonHillary Clinton Presidential Campaign, 2008Chris DoddChris Dodd Presidential Campaign, 2008John EdwardsJohn Edwards Presidential Campaign, 2008Mike GravelMike Gravel Presidential Campaign, 2008Dennis KucinichDennis Kucinich Presidential Campaign, 2008Bill RichardsonBill Richardson Presidential Campaign, 2008Tom VilsackTom Vilsack Presidential Campaign, 2008Republican Party (United States)2008 Republican National ConventionStatewide Opinion Polling For The Republican Party Presidential Primaries, 2008Nationwide Opinion Polling For The Republican Party 2008 Presidential CandidatesRepublican Party Presidential Debates, 2008Republican Party Presidential Primaries, 2008Results Of The 2008 Republican Party Presidential PrimariesJohn McCainJohn McCain Presidential Campaign, 2008Political Positions Of John McCainRepublican Party Vice Presidential Candidate Selection, 2008Sarah PalinVice Presidential Candidacy Of Sarah PalinPolitical Positions Of Sarah PalinRepublican Party Presidential Candidates, 2008Sam BrownbackJohn H. CoxJim GilmoreJim Gilmore Presidential Campaign, 2008Rudy GiulianiRudy Giuliani Presidential Campaign, 2008Mike HuckabeeMike Huckabee Presidential Campaign, 2008Duncan HunterDuncan Hunter Presidential Campaign, 2008Alan KeyesAlan Keyes Presidential Campaign, 2008Ray McKinneyRon PaulRon Paul Presidential Campaign, 2008Mitt RomneyMitt Romney Presidential Campaign, 2008Tom TancredoTom Tancredo Presidential Campaign, 2008Fred ThompsonFred Thompson Presidential Campaign, 2008Tommy ThompsonTommy Thompson Presidential Campaign, 2008Draft (politics)Al GoreMark WarnerDraft Mark Warner MovementNewt GingrichCondoleezza RiceDraft Condi MovementIndependent PoliticianMichael BloombergDraft Bloomberg MovementThird Party (United States)Independent PoliticianUnited States Third Party And Independent Presidential Candidates, 2008Constitution Party (United States)Constitution Party National ConventionChuck BaldwinChuck Baldwin Presidential Campaign, 2008Darrell CastleDaniel ImperatoAlan KeyesAlan Keyes Presidential Campaign, 2008Green Party Of The United States2008 Green National ConventionCynthia McKinneyCynthia McKinney Presidential Campaign, 2008Political Positions Of Cynthia McKinneyRosa ClementeElaine BrownJesse Johnson (politician)Kent MesplayKat SwiftLibertarian Party (United States)2008 Libertarian National ConventionBob BarrBob Barr Presidential Campaign, 2008Political Positions Of Bob BarrWayne Allyn RootMike GravelMike Gravel Presidential Campaign, 2008Daniel ImperatoMichael JingozianSteve KubbyWayne Allyn RootMary RuwartDoug StanhopeAmerican Party (1969)Diane Beall TemplinAmerica's Independent PartyAlan KeyesAlan Keyes Presidential Campaign, 2008Brian RohrboughBoston Tea Party (political Party)Charles JayNew American Independent PartyFrank McEnultyObjectivist PartyTom Stevens (politician)Peace And Freedom PartyRalph NaderRalph Nader Presidential Campaign, 2008Matt GonzalezGloria La RivaCynthia McKinneyCynthia McKinney Presidential Campaign, 2008Brian Moore (political Activist)Brian Moore Presidential Campaign, 2008Prohibition PartyGene AmondsonReform Party Of The United States Of AmericaTed WeillFrank McEnultyParty For Socialism And LiberationGloria La RivaEugene PuryearSocialist Party USABrian Moore (political Activist)Brian Moore Presidential Campaign, 2008Stewart AlexanderEric ChesterSocialist Workers Party (United States)Róger CaleroJames Harris (Socialist Workers Party Politician)Alyson KennedyJeff BossStephen Colbert (character)Earl DodgeBradford LyttleFrank Moore (performance Artist)Joe SchrinerJonathon SharkeyUnited States House Of Representatives Elections, 2008United States Senate Elections, 2008United States Gubernatorial Elections, 2008Template:United States Presidential Election, 2012Template Talk:United States Presidential Election, 2012United States Presidential Election, 2008United States Presidential Election, 2012United States Presidential Election, 2016Template:United States Elections, 2012Fundraising For The 2012 United States Presidential ElectionNationwide Opinion Polling For The United States Presidential Election, 2012Statewide Opinion Polling For The United States Presidential Election, 2012Pre-2012 Statewide Opinion Polling For The United States Presidential Election, 2012Early/Mid 2012 Statewide Opinion Polling For The United States Presidential Election, 2012United States Presidential Election, 2012 TimelineUnited States Presidential Debates, 2012Newspaper Endorsements In The United States Presidential Election, 2012International Reactions To The United States Presidential Election, 2012Political Impact Of Hurricane SandyDemocratic Party (United States)2012 Democratic National ConventionDemocratic Party Presidential Primaries, 2012Newspaper Endorsements In The United States Presidential Primaries, 2012Barack Obama Presidential Campaign, 2012List Of Barack Obama Presidential Campaign Endorsements, 2012Political Positions Of Barack ObamaJoe BidenPolitical Positions Of Joe BidenDemocratic Party Presidential Candidates, 2012Bob ElyKeith JuddWarren MoslerDarcy RichardsonJim Rogers (Oklahoma Politician)Vermin SupremeRandall TerryJohn Wolfe Jr.Republican Party (United States)2012 Republican National ConventionRepublican Party Presidential Primaries, 2012Republican Party Presidential Debates And Forums, 2012Statewide Opinion Polling For The Republican Party Presidential Primaries, 2012Nationwide Opinion Polling For The Republican Party 2012 Presidential PrimariesStraw Polls For The Republican Party Presidential Primaries, 2012Newspaper Endorsements In The United States Presidential Primaries, 2012Mitt RomneyMitt Romney Presidential Campaign, 2012List Of Mitt Romney Presidential Campaign Endorsements, 2012Political Positions Of Mitt RomneyPaul RyanPolitical Positions Of Paul RyanRepublican Party Presidential Candidates, 2012Michele BachmannMichele Bachmann Presidential Campaign, 2012Herman CainHerman Cain Presidential Campaign, 2012Mark CallahanJack FellureNewt GingrichNewt Gingrich Presidential Campaign, 2012Stewart GreenleafJon Huntsman Jr.Jon Huntsman Presidential Campaign, 2012Gary JohnsonGary Johnson Presidential Campaign, 2012Fred KargerAndy MartinThaddeus McCotterThaddeus McCotter Presidential Campaign, 2012Jimmy McMillanRoy MooreRon PaulRon Paul Presidential Campaign, 2012Tim PawlentyTim Pawlenty Presidential Campaign, 2012Rick PerryRick Perry Presidential Campaign, 2012Buddy RoemerBuddy Roemer Presidential Campaign, 2012Rick SantorumRick Santorum Presidential Campaign, 2012Libertarian Party (United States)2012 Libertarian National ConventionLibertarian Party (United States) Presidential Primaries, 2012Gary JohnsonGary Johnson Presidential Campaign, 2012Political Positions Of Gary JohnsonJames P. GrayLibertarian Party Presidential Candidates, 2012Jim DuensingR. J. HarrisCarl PersonSam SloanR. Lee WrightsGreen Party Of The United States2012 Green National ConventionJill SteinJill Stein Presidential Campaign, 2012Cheri HonkalaGreen Party Presidential Candidates, 2012Stewart AlexanderRoseanne BarrKent MesplayUnited States Third-party And Independent Presidential Candidates, 2012American Independent PartyTom HoeflingWiley DrakeVirgil GoodeVirgil Goode Presidential Campaign, 2012Edward C. NoonanLaurie RothAmerican Freedom PartyMerlin MillerVirginia AbernethyAmerica's Party (political Party)Tom HoeflingConstitution Party (United States)2012 Constitution Party National ConventionVirgil GoodeVirgil Goode Presidential Campaign, 2012Jim ClymerDarrell CastleLaurie RothRobby WellsFreedom Socialist PartyStephen DurhamGrassroots PartyJim Carlson (businessman)Justice Party (United States)Rocky AndersonLuis J. RodriguezObjectivist PartyTom Stevens (politician)Party For Socialism And LiberationPeta LindsayPeace And Freedom PartyRoseanne BarrCindy SheehanStewart AlexanderRocky AndersonStephen DurhamPeta LindsayProhibition PartyJack FellureJames HedgesReform Party Of The United States Of AmericaAndre BarnettLaurence KotlikoffDarcy RichardsonBuddy RoemerBuddy Roemer Presidential Campaign, 2012Robby WellsSocialist Equality Party (United States)Jerry White (socialist)Socialist Workers Party (United States)James Harris (Socialist Workers Party Politician)Socialist Party USAStewart AlexanderStewart Alexander Presidential Campaign, 2012Alejandro MendozaIndependent PoliticianLee AbramsonRandy BlytheJeff BossNaked CowboyTerry Jones (pastor)Joe SchrinerDraft (politics)Michael BloombergDraft Bloomberg MovementUnited States Presidential Election In Alabama, 2012United States Presidential Election In Alaska, 2012United States Presidential Election In Arizona, 2012United States Presidential Election In Arkansas, 2012United States Presidential Election In California, 2012United States Presidential Election In Colorado, 2012United States Presidential Election In Connecticut, 2012United States Presidential Election In Delaware, 2012United States Presidential Election In The District Of Columbia, 2012United States Presidential Election In Florida, 2012United States Presidential Election In Georgia, 2012United States Presidential Election In Hawaii, 2012United States Presidential Election In Idaho, 2012United States Presidential Election In Illinois, 2012United States Presidential Election In Indiana, 2012United States Presidential Election In Iowa, 2012United States Presidential Election In Kansas, 2012United States Presidential Election In Kentucky, 2012United States Presidential Election In Louisiana, 2012United States Presidential Election In Maine, 2012United States Presidential Election In Maryland, 2012United States Presidential Election In Massachusetts, 2012United States Presidential Election In Michigan, 2012United States Presidential Election In Minnesota, 2012United States Presidential Election In Mississippi, 2012United States Presidential Election In Missouri, 2012United States Presidential Election In Montana, 2012United States Presidential Election In Nebraska, 2012United States Presidential Election In Nevada, 2012United States Presidential Election In New Hampshire, 2012United States Presidential Election In New Jersey, 2012United States Presidential Election In New Mexico, 2012United States Presidential Election In New York, 2012United States Presidential Election In North Carolina, 2012United States Presidential Election In North Dakota, 2012United States Presidential Election In Ohio, 2012United States Presidential Election In Oklahoma, 2012United States Presidential Election In Oregon, 2012United States Presidential Election In Pennsylvania, 2012United States Presidential Election In Rhode Island, 2012United States Presidential Election In South Carolina, 2012United States Presidential Election In South Dakota, 2012United States Presidential Election In Tennessee, 2012United States Presidential Election In Texas, 2012United States Presidential Election In Utah, 2012United States Presidential Election In Vermont, 2012United States Presidential Election In Virginia, 2012United States Presidential Election In Washington (state), 2012United States Presidential Election In West Virginia, 2012United States Presidential Election In Wisconsin, 2012United States Presidential Election In Wyoming, 2012Template:United States Elections, 2012United States House Of Representatives Elections, 2012United States Senate Elections, 2012United States Gubernatorial Elections, 2012Template:Democratic Party (United States)Template Talk:Democratic Party (United States)Democratic Party (United States)Democratic National CommitteeBenjamin F. HallettRobert Milligan McLaneDavid Allen SmalleyAugust BelmontAugustus SchellAbram HewittWilliam Henry BarnumCalvin S. BriceWilliam F. HarrityJames Kimbrough JonesThomas TaggartNorman E. MackWilliam F. McCombsVance C. McCormickHomer Stille CummingsGeorge White (Ohio Politician)Cordell HullClem L. ShaverJohn J. RaskobJames FarleyEdward J. FlynnFrank Comerford WalkerRobert E. HanneganJ. Howard McGrathWilliam M. BoyleFrank E. McKinneyStephen A. Mitchell (politician)Paul Butler (lawyer)Henry M. JacksonJohn Moran BaileyLarry O'BrienFred R. HarrisLarry O'BrienJean Westwood (politician)Robert S. StraussKenneth M. CurtisJohn C. WhiteCharles Taylor ManattPaul G. KirkRon Brown (U.S. Politician)David WilhelmDebra DeLeeChris DoddDonald FowlerRoy RomerSteven Grossman (politician)Ed RendellJoe AndrewTerry McAuliffeHoward DeanTim KaineDebbie Wasserman SchultzTom PerezList Of United States Democratic Party Presidential TicketsAndrew JacksonJohn C. CalhounAndrew JacksonMartin Van BurenMartin Van BurenRichard Mentor JohnsonMartin Van BurenJames K. PolkGeorge M. DallasLewis CassWilliam Orlando ButlerFranklin PierceWilliam R. KingJames BuchananJohn C. BreckinridgeStephen A. DouglasHerschel Vespasian JohnsonJohn C. BreckinridgeJoseph LaneSouthern DemocratsGeorge B. McClellanGeorge H. PendletonHoratio SeymourFrancis Preston Blair Jr.Horace GreeleyBenjamin Gratz BrownSamuel J. TildenThomas A. HendricksWinfield Scott HancockWilliam Hayden EnglishGrover ClevelandThomas A. HendricksGrover ClevelandAllen G. ThurmanGrover ClevelandAdlai Stevenson IWilliam Jennings BryanArthur SewallWilliam Jennings BryanAdlai Stevenson IAlton B. ParkerHenry G. DavisWilliam Jennings BryanJohn W. KernWoodrow WilsonThomas R. MarshallJames M. CoxFranklin D. RooseveltJohn W. DavisCharles W. BryanAl SmithJoseph Taylor RobinsonFranklin D. RooseveltJohn Nance GarnerFranklin D. RooseveltHenry A. WallaceFranklin D. RooseveltHarry S. TrumanHarry S. TrumanAlben W. BarkleyAdlai Stevenson IIJohn SparkmanAdlai Stevenson IIEstes KefauverJohn F. KennedyLyndon B. JohnsonLyndon B. JohnsonHubert HumphreyHubert HumphreyEdmund MuskieGeorge McGovernThomas EagletonSargent ShriverJimmy CarterWalter MondaleWalter MondaleGeraldine FerraroMichael DukakisLloyd BentsenBill ClintonAl GoreAl GoreJoe LiebermanJohn KerryJohn EdwardsJoe BidenHillary ClintonTim KaineList Of State Parties Of The Democratic Party (United States)Alabama Democratic PartyAlaska Democratic PartyArizona Democratic PartyDemocratic Party Of ArkansasCalifornia Democratic PartyColorado Democratic PartyDemocratic Party Of ConnecticutDelaware Democratic PartyFlorida Democratic PartyDemocratic Party Of GeorgiaDemocratic Party Of HawaiiIdaho Democratic PartyDemocratic Party Of IllinoisIndiana Democratic PartyIowa Democratic PartyKansas Democratic PartyKentucky Democratic PartyLouisiana Democratic PartyMaine Democratic PartyMaryland Democratic PartyMassachusetts Democratic PartyMichigan Democratic PartyMinnesota Democratic–Farmer–Labor PartyMississippi Democratic PartyMissouri Democratic PartyMontana Democratic PartyNebraska Democratic PartyNevada Democratic PartyNew Hampshire Democratic PartyNew Jersey Democratic State CommitteeDemocratic Party Of New MexicoNew York State Democratic CommitteeNorth Carolina Democratic PartyNorth Dakota Democratic-Nonpartisan League PartyOhio Democratic PartyOklahoma Democratic PartyDemocratic Party Of OregonPennsylvania Democratic PartyRhode Island Democratic PartySouth Carolina Democratic PartySouth Dakota Democratic PartyTennessee Democratic PartyTexas Democratic PartyUtah Democratic PartyVermont Democratic PartyDemocratic Party Of VirginiaWashington State Democratic PartyWest Virginia Democratic PartyDemocratic Party Of WisconsinWyoming Democratic PartyDistrict Of Columbia Democratic State CommitteeDemocratic Party Of GuamDemocratic Party (Puerto Rico)Democratic National ConventionList Of Democratic National Conventions1832 Democratic National Convention1835 Democratic National Convention1840 Democratic National Convention1844 Democratic National Convention1848 Democratic National Convention1852 Democratic National Convention1856 Democratic National Convention1860 Democratic National Conventions1864 Democratic National Convention1868 Democratic National Convention1872 Democratic National Convention1876 Democratic National Convention1880 Democratic National Convention1884 Democratic National Convention1888 Democratic National Convention1892 Democratic National Convention1896 Democratic National Convention1900 Democratic National Convention1904 Democratic National Convention1908 Democratic National Convention1912 Democratic National Convention1916 Democratic National Convention1920 Democratic National Convention1924 Democratic National Convention1928 Democratic National Convention1932 Democratic National Convention1936 Democratic National Convention1940 Democratic National Convention1944 Democratic National Convention1948 Democratic National Convention1952 Democratic National Convention1956 Democratic National Convention1960 Democratic National Convention1964 Democratic National Convention1968 Democratic National Convention1972 Democratic National Convention1976 Democratic National Convention1980 Democratic National Convention1984 Democratic National Convention1988 Democratic National Convention1992 Democratic National Convention1996 Democratic National Convention2000 Democratic National Convention2004 Democratic National Convention2008 Democratic National Convention2012 Democratic National Convention2016 Democratic National ConventionDemocratic Party (United States) OrganizationsDemocratic Congressional Campaign CommitteeDemocratic Governors AssociationDemocratic Legislative Campaign CommitteeDemocratic Senatorial Campaign CommitteeNational Conference Of Democratic MayorsCollege Democrats Of AmericaDemocrats AbroadNational Federation Of Democratic WomenStonewall DemocratsStonewall Young DemocratsYoung Democrats Of AmericaHigh School Democrats Of AmericaHistory Of The United States Democratic PartyDemocratic Party Presidential PrimariesDemocratic Party Presidential DebatesFactions In The Democratic Party (United States)SuperdelegateDemocratic National Committee Chairmanship Election, 2005Democratic National Committee Chairmanship Election, 2017Portal:LiberalismTemplate:Nobel Peace Prize LaureatesTemplate Talk:Nobel Peace Prize LaureatesList Of Nobel Peace Prize LaureatesNobel Peace PrizeHenry DunantFrédéric PassyÉlie DucommunCharles Albert GobatRandal CremerInstitut De Droit InternationalBertha Von SuttnerTheodore RooseveltErnesto Teodoro MonetaLouis Renault (jurist)Klas Pontus ArnoldsonFredrik BajerAuguste BeernaertPaul-Henri-Benjamin D'Estournelles De ConstantInternational Peace BureauTobias AsserAlfred Hermann FriedElihu RootHenri La FontaineInternational Committee Of The Red CrossWoodrow WilsonLéon BourgeoisHjalmar BrantingChristian Lous LangeFridtjof NansenAusten ChamberlainCharles G. DawesAristide BriandGustav StresemannFerdinand BuissonLudwig QuiddeFrank B. KelloggNathan SöderblomJane AddamsNicholas Murray ButlerNorman AngellArthur HendersonCarl Von OssietzkyCarlos Saavedra LamasRobert Cecil, 1st Viscount Cecil Of ChelwoodNansen International Office For RefugeesInternational Committee Of The Red CrossCordell HullEmily Greene BalchJohn MottQuaker Peace And Social WitnessAmerican Friends Service CommitteeJohn Boyd Orr, 1st Baron Boyd-OrrRalph BuncheLéon JouhauxAlbert SchweitzerGeorge MarshallUnited Nations High Commissioner For RefugeesLester B. PearsonDominique PirePhilip Noel-BakerAlbert LutuliDag HammarskjöldLinus PaulingInternational Committee Of The Red CrossInternational Federation Of Red Cross And Red Crescent SocietiesMartin Luther King Jr.UNICEFRené CassinInternational Labour OrganizationNorman BorlaugWilly BrandtLê Đức ThọHenry KissingerSeán MacBrideEisaku SatōAndrei SakharovBetty Williams (Nobel Laureate)Mairead MaguireAmnesty InternationalAnwar SadatMenachem BeginMother TeresaAdolfo Pérez EsquivelUnited Nations High Commissioner For RefugeesAlva MyrdalAlfonso García RoblesLech WałęsaDesmond TutuInternational Physicians For The Prevention Of Nuclear WarElie WieselÓscar AriasUnited Nations Peacekeeping14th Dalai LamaMikhail GorbachevAung San Suu KyiRigoberta MenchúNelson MandelaF. W. De KlerkShimon PeresYitzhak RabinYasser ArafatPugwash Conferences On Science And World AffairsJoseph RotblatCarlos Filipe Ximenes BeloJosé Ramos-HortaInternational Campaign To Ban LandminesJody WilliamsJohn HumeDavid TrimbleMédecins Sans FrontièresKim Dae-jung2001 Nobel Peace PrizeUnited NationsKofi Annan2002 Nobel Peace PrizeJimmy Carter2003 Nobel Peace PrizeShirin Ebadi2004 Nobel Peace PrizeWangari Maathai2005 Nobel Peace PrizeInternational Atomic Energy AgencyMohamed ElBaradei2006 Nobel Peace PrizeGrameen BankMuhammad Yunus2007 Nobel Peace PrizeAl GoreIntergovernmental Panel On Climate Change2008 Nobel Peace PrizeMartti Ahtisaari2009 Nobel Peace Prize2010 Nobel Peace PrizeLiu Xiaobo2011 Nobel Peace PrizeEllen Johnson SirleafLeymah GboweeTawakkol Karman2012 Nobel Peace PrizeEuropean Union2013 Nobel Peace PrizeOrganisation For The Prohibition Of Chemical Weapons2014 Nobel Peace PrizeKailash SatyarthiMalala Yousafzai2015 Nobel Peace PrizeTunisian National Dialogue Quartet2016 Nobel Peace PrizeJuan Manuel Santos2017 Nobel Peace PrizeInternational Campaign To Abolish Nuclear WeaponsTemplate:Time Persons Of The YearTemplate Talk:Time Persons Of The YearTime Person Of The YearCharles LindberghWalter ChryslerOwen D. YoungMahatma GandhiPierre LavalFranklin D. RooseveltHugh S. JohnsonFranklin D. RooseveltHaile SelassieWallis SimpsonChiang Kai-shekSoong Mei-lingAdolf HitlerJoseph StalinWinston ChurchillFranklin D. RooseveltJoseph StalinGeorge MarshallDwight D. EisenhowerHarry S. TrumanJames F. ByrnesGeorge MarshallHarry S. TrumanWinston ChurchillKorean WarMohammad MosaddeghElizabeth IIKonrad AdenauerJohn Foster DullesHarlow CurticeHungarian Revolution Of 1956Nikita KhrushchevCharles De GaulleDwight D. EisenhowerGeorge BeadleCharles Stark DraperJohn Franklin EndersDonald A. GlaserJoshua LederbergWillard LibbyLinus PaulingEdward Mills PurcellIsidor Isaac RabiEmilio SegrèWilliam ShockleyEdward TellerCharles H. TownesJames Van AllenRobert Burns WoodwardJohn F. KennedyPope John XXIIIMartin Luther King Jr.Lyndon B. JohnsonWilliam WestmorelandBaby BoomersLyndon B. JohnsonApollo 8William AndersFrank BormanJim LovellMiddle America (United States)Willy BrandtRichard NixonHenry KissingerRichard NixonJohn SiricaFaisal Of Saudi ArabiaSusan BrownmillerKathleen ByerlyAlison CheekJill Ker ConwayBetty FordElla T. GrassoCarla Anderson HillsBarbara JordanBillie Jean KingSusie SharpCarol SuttonAddie L. WyattJimmy CarterAnwar SadatDeng XiaopingRuhollah KhomeiniRonald ReaganLech WałęsaPersonal ComputerRonald ReaganYuri AndropovPeter UeberrothDeng XiaopingCorazon AquinoMikhail GorbachevEnvironmentalismMikhail GorbachevGeorge H. W. BushTed TurnerBill ClintonYasser ArafatF. W. De KlerkNelson MandelaYitzhak RabinPope John Paul IINewt GingrichDavid HoAndrew GroveBill ClintonKen StarrJeff BezosGeorge W. BushRudy GiulianiCynthia Cooper (accountant)Coleen RowleySherron WatkinsIraq WarGeorge W. BushBonoBill GatesMelinda GatesYou (Time Person Of The Year)Vladimir PutinBen BernankeMark ZuckerbergProtestPope FrancisResponses To The West African Ebola Virus EpidemicKent BrantlySalome KarwahAngela MerkelDonald TrumpMe Too (hashtag)Book:Time Persons Of The YearTemplate:United States Senators From IllinoisTemplate Talk:United States Senators From IllinoisList Of United States Senators From IllinoisJesse B. ThomasJohn McLean (Illinois Politician)David J. BakerJohn McCracken RobinsonSamuel McRobertsJames SempleStephen A. DouglasOrville Hickman BrowningWilliam Alexander RichardsonRichard Yates (politician, Born 1815)John A. LoganDavid Davis (Supreme Court Justice)Shelby Moore CullomJ. Hamilton LewisJoseph M. McCormickCharles S. DeneenJ. Hamilton LewisJames M. SlatteryCharles W. BrooksPaul DouglasCharles H. PercyPaul Simon (politician)Dick DurbinNinian EdwardsJohn McLean (Illinois Politician)Elias KaneWilliam Lee D. EwingRichard M. YoungSidney BreeseJames Shields (politician, Born 1810)Lyman TrumbullRichard J. OglesbyJohn A. LoganCharles B. FarwellJohn M. Palmer (politician)William E. MasonAlbert J. HopkinsWilliam Lorimer (politician)Lawrence Yates ShermanWilliam B. McKinleyOtis F. GlennWilliam H. DieterichScott W. LucasEverett DirksenRalph Tyler SmithAdlai Stevenson IIIAlan J. DixonCarol Moseley BraunPeter Fitzgerald (politician)Roland BurrisMark KirkTammy DuckworthTemplate:Patriot ActTemplate Talk:Patriot ActPatriot ActPatriot Act, Title IPatriot Act, Title IIPatriot Act, Title IIIPatriot Act, Title IVPatriot Act, Title VPatriot Act, Title VIPatriot Act, Title VIIPatriot Act, Title VIIIPatriot Act, Title IXPatriot Act, Title XHistory Of The Patriot ActOmnibus Crime Control And Safe Streets Act Of 1968Electronic Communications Privacy ActComputer Fraud And Abuse ActForeign Intelligence Surveillance ActFamily Educational Rights And Privacy ActMoney Laundering Control ActBank Secrecy ActRight To Financial Privacy ActFair Credit Reporting ActImmigration And Nationality Act Of 1952Victims Of Crime Act Of 1984Telemarketing And Consumer Fraud And Abuse Prevention ActGeorge W. BushJohn AshcroftAlberto GonzalesPatrick LeahyOrrin HatchJon KylDianne FeinsteinViet D. DinhJoe BidenMichael ChertoffEric HolderChuck SchumerLamar SmithBob GrahamJay RockefellerArlen SpecterMike OxleyDick ArmeyPaul SarbanesTrent LottTom DaschleRuss FeingoldEllen Segal HuvelleRon PaulLisa MurkowskiRon WydenDennis KucinichLarry CraigJohn E. SununuDick DurbinBernie SandersJerrold NadlerJohn ConyersButch OtterFederal Bureau Of InvestigationUnited States Department Of JusticeUnited States House Permanent Select Committee On IntelligenceUnited States Department Of The TreasuryFinancial Crimes Enforcement NetworkUnited States Department Of StateNational Institute Of Standards And TechnologyUnited States Customs ServiceU.S. Immigration And Customs EnforcementAmerican Civil Liberties UnionAmerican Library AssociationCenter For Democracy And TechnologyCenter For Public IntegrityElectronic Frontier FoundationElectronic Privacy Information CenterHumanitarian Law ProjectTemplate:Grammy Award For Best Spoken Word Album 2000sTemplate Talk:Grammy Award For Best Spoken Word Album 2000sGrammy Award For Best Spoken Word AlbumLeVar BurtonSidney PoitierThe Measure Of A Man: A Spiritual AutobiographyQuincy JonesMaya AngelouA Song Flung Up To HeavenRobin WilliamsPeter AsherRobin Williams: Live On BroadwayAl FrankenLies And The Lying Liars Who Tell ThemBill ClintonMy Life (Bill Clinton Autobiography)Dreams From My FatherJimmy CarterOur Endangered ValuesOssie DavisRuby DeeThe Audacity Of HopeBeau BridgesCynthia NixonBlair UnderwoodAn Inconvenient Truth (book)Al GoreTemplate:Grammy Award For Best Spoken Word AlbumTemplate:Grammy Award For Best Spoken Word Album 1960sTemplate:Grammy Award For Best Spoken Word Album 1970sTemplate:Grammy Award For Best Spoken Word Album 1980sTemplate:Grammy Award For Best Spoken Word Album 1990sTemplate:Grammy Award For Best Spoken Word Album 2000sTemplate:Grammy Award For Best Spoken Word Album 2010sWikipedia:Wikimedia Sister ProjectsHelp:Authority ControlVirtual International Authority FileLibrary Of Congress Control NumberInternational Standard Name IdentifierIntegrated Authority FileLIBRISSystème Universitaire De DocumentationBibliothèque Nationale De FranceUnion List Of Artist NamesMusicBrainzNational Library Of AustraliaNational Diet LibraryNational Central LibraryNational Library Of The Czech RepublicIstituto Centrale Per Il Catalogo UnicoBiographical Directory Of The United States CongressBiblioteca Nacional De EspañaCiNiiNetherlands Institute For Art HistoryHelp:CategoryCategory:Barack ObamaCategory:1961 BirthsCategory:20th-century American WritersCategory:20th-century ScholarsCategory:21st-century American PoliticiansCategory:21st-century American WritersCategory:21st-century ScholarsCategory:Activists From IllinoisCategory:African-American FeministsCategory:African-American Non-fiction WritersCategory:American ChristiansCategory:American ProtestantsCategory:American Non-fiction WritersCategory:African-American People In Illinois PoliticsCategory:African-American United States Presidential CandidatesCategory:African-American United States SenatorsCategory:American Civil Rights LawyersCategory:American Community ActivistsCategory:American Feminist WritersCategory:American FeministsCategory:American Legal ScholarsCategory:American Nobel LaureatesCategory:American People Of English DescentCategory:American People Of French DescentCategory:American People Of German DescentCategory:American People Of Irish DescentCategory:American People Of Luo DescentCategory:American People Of Scottish DescentCategory:American People Of Swiss DescentCategory:American People Of Welsh DescentCategory:American Political WritersCategory:American Politicians Of Luo DescentCategory:Columbia University AlumniCategory:Democratic Party (United States) Presidential NomineesCategory:Democratic Party Presidents Of The United StatesCategory:Democratic Party United States SenatorsCategory:Grammy Award WinnersCategory:Harvard Law School AlumniCategory:Illinois DemocratsCategory:Illinois LawyersCategory:Illinois State SenatorsCategory:Living PeopleCategory:Male FeministsCategory:Nobel Peace Prize LaureatesCategory:Obama FamilyCategory:Occidental College AlumniCategory:Politicians From ChicagoCategory:Politicians From HonoluluCategory:Presidents Of The United StatesCategory:Punahou School AlumniCategory:United States Presidential Candidates, 2008Category:United States Presidential Candidates, 2012Category:United States Senators From IllinoisCategory:University Of Chicago Law School FacultyCategory:Writers From ChicagoCategory:CS1 Indonesian-language Sources (id)Category:CS1 Maint: Multiple Names: Authors ListCategory:Pages Containing Links To Subscription-only ContentCategory:CS1 Maint: BOT: Original-url Status UnknownCategory:All Articles Lacking Reliable ReferencesCategory:Articles Lacking Reliable References From March 2017Category:Wikipedia Indefinitely Move-protected PagesCategory:Wikipedia Indefinitely Semi-protected PagesCategory:Use American English From December 2014Category:All Wikipedia Articles Written In American EnglishCategory:Use Mdy Dates From October 2017Category:Articles With HAudio MicroformatsCategory:Articles Including Recorded Pronunciations (English)Category:Citation OverkillCategory:Articles Tagged With The Inline Citation Overkill Template From September 2017Category:Spoken ArticlesCategory:Official Website Different In Wikidata And WikipediaCategory:Articles With Encyclopædia Britannica LinksCategory:Articles With Curlie LinksCategory:Articles With Project Gutenberg LinksCategory:Articles With Internet Archive LinksCategory:Articles With LibriVox LinksCategory:AC With 18 ElementsCategory:Wikipedia Articles With VIAF IdentifiersCategory:Wikipedia Articles With LCCN IdentifiersCategory:Wikipedia Articles With ISNI IdentifiersCategory:Wikipedia Articles With GND IdentifiersCategory:Wikipedia Articles With SELIBR IdentifiersCategory:Wikipedia Articles With BNF IdentifiersCategory:Wikipedia Articles With ULAN IdentifiersCategory:Wikipedia Articles With MusicBrainz IdentifiersCategory:Wikipedia Articles With NLA IdentifiersCategory:Wikipedia Articles With SBN IdentifiersCategory:Wikipedia Articles With RKDartists IdentifiersCategory:Featured ArticlesCategory:Articles Containing Video ClipsDiscussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]This Page Is Protected. You Can View Its Source [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer

view link view link view link view link view link