Contents 1 History 2 Topography and geography 3 Environment 3.1 Flora 3.2 Fauna 4 Hiking 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

History[edit] Construction on the backbone trail began in the early 1980s, and involved the cooperation of the National Park Service, the California Department of Parks and Recreation, and private parties interested in connecting existing trails within the Santa Monica Mountains NRA into a single trail spanning the length of the park.[3] The range of conditions found on the trail - ranging from flat, wide fire roads to narrow single-track trails - reflects the trail's origin as a series of unconnected paths and backcountry roads, connected to form the Backbone Trail System. In 2016, the National Park Service completed land acquisitions from former California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger and fitness pioneer Betty Weider to enable right-of-way for the trail.[4] In May 2016, a new section of the trail was completed on the east side of Yerba Buena Road in support of these acquisitions. The official opening ceremony for the Backbone Trail was held on Saturday, June 4, 2016 at Will Rogers State Park, from 9:00am to 12:00pm, with a ribbon-cutting ceremony held at 10:00am.[5]

Topography and geography[edit] The Backbone Trail as it passes through Mishe Mokwa. As the Backbone Trail passes over the peaks and through the canyons of the Santa Monica Mountains, it climbs and falls in elevation nearly constantly. From its lowest point, the sea-level Ray Miller Trailhead at Point Mugu State Park, to its highest point, Sandstone Peak (which, at 3,111 ft (948 m), is the highest peak in the Santa Monica Mountains), the trail is more frequently graded than level. Scenic views of Ventura County are seen from the six-mile loop trail, starting at the trailhead off Yerba Buena road. The Mishe Mokwa Trail in Circle X Ranch follows Carlisle Canyon along Boney Mountain past weathered red volcanic formations. There are views of the sculpted caves and crevices of Echo Cliffs and a forested streamside picnic area by a huge split boulder known as Split Rock. The return route on the Backbone Trail leads to Inspiration Point and culminates at Sandstone Peak, the highest point in the Santa Monica Mountains. Both points overlook the Pacific Ocean, the Channel Islands, and the surrounding mountains.[6] Parts of the trail lie within the city limits of Los Angeles and Malibu, California; the rest sits in unincorporated areas of Los Angeles County and Ventura County. The following national, state, and privately administered wilderness areas are traversed by the Backbone Trail: Will Rogers State Historic Park Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area Topanga State Park Cold Creek Canyon Preserve - owned by the Mountains Restoration Trust. Malibu Creek State Park Point Mugu State Park

Environment[edit] Like the surrounding Santa Monica Mountains, the Backbone Trail System belongs to the California chaparral and woodlands and California coastal sage and chaparral ecoregions, and a wide range of flora and fauna can be observed from the trail. Flora[edit] Main article: Flora of the Santa Monica Mountains For the majority of its length, the Backbone Trail passes through terrain occupied by the ground-hugging bushes and shrubs that characterize the coastal sage scrub and chaparral ecosystems. Relatively few trees line the trail, an important consideration for travellers looking for shade. Fauna[edit] More than 450 vertebrate species have been observed within the Santa Monica Mountains NRA,[7] including more than 380 species of birds.[8] Lizards, seven species of which inhabit areas surrounding the trail,[9] are particularly numerous, and can be easily found on or alongside the trail. Southern Pacific rattlesnakes can be numerous in early spring, particularly along Temescal Ridge in the eastern section of the trail. Mountain lions have been observed in the western section near Sandstone Peak trailhead in June 2008. At least eight mountain lions are believed to remain from Pt. Mugu to Topanga State Park. Notable species that can found along the Backbone trail include: Bobcat California Kingsnake Coyote Mountain lion Pacific treefrog Peregrine falcon Red-tailed hawk Southern Pacific rattlesnake

Hiking[edit] The Backbone Trail follows a well-maintained, single-track path with some dirt roads along the route. The trail is very well designed with climbs and descents occurring on well-graded trails full of switchbacks. The trail can be hiked in either the westbound or eastbound direction. There are no major differences between the two directions. Hiking westbound, you will progress towards more remote territory and can end your hike at the Pacific Ocean, but transportation may be more difficult from the Ray Miller Trailhead. There is no permit required for hiking the BBT. Camping along the Backbone Trail is restricted to established campgrounds. These include group campsites that can be reserved in advance and walk-in campsites that are available on a first-come, first-served basis. There are still relatively few established campgrounds right on the BBT, and they are not evenly spaced out, posing a logistical challenge for an end-to-end hike. Backbacking the full length of the BBT with reasonable daily mileages may require the use of off-trail camping and lodging options, which are available within a reasonable distance from the trail.[10]

See also[edit] Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area Malibu Creek State Park Topanga State Park Mulholland Highway Point Mugu State Park Sandstone Peak

References[edit] ^ Backbone Trail System Milage/GPS Chart, National Park Service Archived 16 February 2010 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Santa Monica Mountains NRA - Backbone Trail (U.S. National Park Service). Accessed June 9, 2010. ^ Santa Monica Mountains NRA - Backbone Trail (U.S. National Park Service). Accessed August 27, 2007. ^ You can now hike 67 miles through the Santa Monica Mountains uninterrupted, Los Angeles Times. Accessed June 13, 2016. ^ Backbone Trail to officially open with ceremony Saturday, Ventura County Star. Accessed June 13, 2016. ^ Day Hikes Around Ventura County, Stone. 2003 p. 96 ^ - Santa Monica Mountains NRA: Animals. Accessed August 27, 2007. ^ - Santa Monica Mountains NRA: Birds. Accessed August 27, 2007. ^ - Santa Monica Mountains NRA: Lizards. Accessed August 27, 2007. ^ Ward, S. (2017). Plan & Go: Trans-Catalina & Backbone Trails. sandiburg press. pp. 43–64. ISBN 978-1-943126-08-8. 

External links[edit] Official Backbone Trail Website Map of the Backbone Trail System from the US National Park Service Complete List of Backbone Trail System Trailheads and Mile Markers from the US National Park Service California Coast - Backbone Trail Backbone Trail Mountain Biking Reviews from Coordinates: 34°07′10″N 118°56′15″W / 34.11944°N 118.93750°W / 34.11944; -118.93750 Retrieved from "" Categories: Hiking trails in CaliforniaLong-distance trails in the United StatesSanta Monica Mountains National Recreation AreaParks in Los Angeles County, CaliforniaParks in Ventura County, CaliforniaRegional parks in CaliforniaSanta Monica MountainsHidden categories: Webarchive template wayback linksCoordinates on Wikidata

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Will Rogers State Historic ParkTopanga State ParkLos Angeles County, CaliforniaVentura County, CaliforniaCaliforniaUnited StatesTrailheadPoint Mugu State ParkWill Rogers State Historic ParkPacific OceanSanta Monica MountainsHazards Of Outdoor RecreationMountain LionToxicodendron DiversilobumVenomous SnakesLong Distance TrailSanta Monica MountainsU.S. StateCaliforniaPoint Mugu State ParkWill Rogers State Historic ParkPacific Palisades, Los Angeles, CaliforniaHikingCyclingEquestrianismNational Park ServiceCalifornia Department Of Parks And RecreationEnlargeSanta Monica MountainsBoney MountainLos AngelesMalibu, CaliforniaLos Angeles CountyVentura CountyWill Rogers State Historic ParkSanta Monica Mountains National Recreation AreaTopanga State ParkMalibu Creek State ParkPoint Mugu State ParkCalifornia Chaparral And WoodlandsCalifornia Coastal Sage And Chaparral EcoregionFlora Of The Santa Monica MountainsCoastal Sage ScrubChaparralBobcatCalifornia KingsnakeCoyoteMountain LionPacific TreefrogPeregrine FalconRed-tailed HawkSouthern Pacific RattlesnakeFirst-come, First-servedSanta Monica Mountains National Recreation AreaMalibu Creek State ParkTopanga State ParkMulholland HighwayPoint Mugu State ParkSandstone PeakWayback MachineInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-943126-08-8Geographic Coordinate SystemHelp:CategoryCategory:Hiking Trails In CaliforniaCategory:Long-distance Trails In The United StatesCategory:Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation AreaCategory:Parks In Los Angeles County, CaliforniaCategory:Parks In Ventura County, CaliforniaCategory:Regional Parks In CaliforniaCategory:Santa Monica MountainsCategory:Webarchive Template Wayback LinksCategory:Coordinates On WikidataDiscussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer

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