Contents 1 Etymology 2 History 2.1 Origin 2.2 Antiquity 2.3 Middle Ages 2.4 Early modern history 2.5 Modern history 3 Geographic distribution 3.1 Armenia 3.2 Diaspora 4 Culture 4.1 Religion 4.2 Language and literature 4.3 Architecture 4.4 Sports 4.5 Music and dance 4.6 Carpet weaving 4.7 Cuisine 5 Institutions 6 Notable people 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading


Etymology Main article: Name of Armenia Hayk, the legendary founder of the Armenian nation. Painting by Mkrtum Hovnatanian (1779–1846) Historically, the name Armenian has come to internationally designate this group of people. It was first used by neighbouring countries of ancient Armenia. The earliest attestations of the exonym Armenia date around the 6th century BC. In his trilingual Behistun Inscription dated to 517 BC, Darius I the Great of Persia refers to Urashtu (in Babylonian) as Armina (in Old Persian; Armina ( ) and Harminuya (in Elamite). In Greek, Αρμένιοι "Armenians" is attested from about the same time, perhaps the earliest reference being a fragment attributed to Hecataeus of Miletus (476 BC).[28] Xenophon, a Greek general serving in some of the Persian expeditions, describes many aspects of Armenian village life and hospitality in around 401 BC. He relates that the people spoke a language that to his ear sounded like the language of the Persians.[29] Armenians call themselves Hay (Հայ, pronounced [ˈhaj]; plural: Հայեր, [haˈjɛɾ]). The name has traditionally been derived from Hayk (Հայկ), the legendary patriarch of the Armenians and a great-great-grandson of Noah, who, according to Moses of Chorene, defeated the Babylonian king Bel in 2492 BC and established his nation in the Ararat region.[30] It is also further postulated[31][32] that the name Hay comes from one of the two confederated, Hittite vassal states—the Ḫayaša-Azzi (1600–1200 BC). Movses Khorenatsi, the important early medieval Armenian historian, wrote that the word Armenian originated from the name Armenak or Aram (the descendant of Hayk).


History Main article: History of Armenia Part of a series on Indo-European topics Languages List of Indo-European languages Historical Albanian Armenian Balto-Slavic Baltic Slavic Celtic Germanic Hellenic Greek Indo-Iranian Indo-Aryan Iranian Italic Romance Extinct Anatolian Tocharian Paleo-Balkan Dacian Illyrian Liburnian Messapian Mysian Paeonian Phrygian Thracian Reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language Phonology: Sound laws, Accent, Ablaut Hypothetical Daco-Thracian Graeco-Armenian Graeco-Aryan Graeco-Phrygian Indo-Hittite Italo-Celtic Thraco-Illyrian Grammar Vocabulary Root Verbs Nouns Pronouns Numerals Particles Other Proto-Anatolian Proto-Armenian Proto-Germanic (Proto-Norse) Proto-Celtic Proto-Italic Proto-Greek Proto-Balto-Slavic (Proto-Slavic) Proto-Indo-Iranian (Proto-Iranian) Philology Hittite texts Hieroglyphic Luwian Linear B Rigveda Avesta Homer Behistun Gaulish epigraphy Latin epigraphy Runic epigraphy Ogam Gothic Bible Armenian Bible Slanting Brahmi Old Irish glosses Origins Homeland Proto-Indo-Europeans Society Religion Mainstream Kurgan hypothesis Indo-European migrations Eurasian nomads Alternative and fringe Anatolian hypothesis Armenian hypothesis Indigenous Aryans Baltic homeland Paleolithic Continuity Theory Archaeology Chalcolithic (Copper Age) Pontic Steppe Domestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan culture Steppe cultures Bug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk Yamna Mikhaylovka culture Caucasus Maykop East-Asia Afanasevo Eastern Europe Usatovo Cernavodă Cucuteni Northern Europe Corded ware Baden Middle Dnieper Bronze Age Pontic Steppe Chariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka Srubna Northern/Eastern Steppe Abashevo culture Andronovo Sintashta Europe Globular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordic Bronze Age Terramare Tumulus Urnfield Lusatian South-Asia BMAC Yaz Gandhara grave Iron Age Steppe Chernoles Europe Thraco-Cimmerian Hallstatt Jastorf Caucasus Colchian India Painted Grey Ware Northern Black Polished Ware Peoples and societies Bronze Age Anatolians Armenians Mycenaean Greeks Indo-Iranians Iron Age Indo-Aryans Indo-Aryans Iranians Iranians Scythians Persians Medes Europe Celts Gauls Celtiberians Insular Celts Hellenic peoples Italic peoples Germanic peoples Paleo-Balkans/Anatolia: Thracians Dacians Illyrians Phrygians Middle Ages East-Asia Tocharians Europe Balts Slavs Albanians Medieval Europe Indo-Aryan Medieval India Iranian Greater Persia Religion and mythology Reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion Proto-Indo-Iranian religion Historical Hittite Indian Vedic Hinduism Buddhism Jainism Iranian Persian Zoroastrianism Kurdish Yazidism Yarsanism Scythian Ossetian Other Armenian Europe Paleo-Balkans Greek Roman Celtic Irish Scottish Breton Welsh Cornish Germanic Anglo-Saxon Continental Norse Baltic Latvian Lithuanian Slavic Albanian Practices Fire-sacrifice Horse sacrifice Sati Winter solstice/Yule Indo-European studies Scholars Marija Gimbutas J.P. Mallory Institutes Copenhagen Studies in Indo-European Publications Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture The Horse, the Wheel and Language Journal of Indo-European Studies Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch Indo-European Etymological Dictionary v t e Origin The Armenian Highland lies in the highlands surrounding Mount Ararat, the highest peak of the region. In the Bronze Age, several states flourished in the area of Greater Armenia, including the Hittite Empire (at the height of its power), Mitanni (South-Western historical Armenia), and Hayasa-Azzi (1600–1200 BC). Soon after Hayasa-Azzi came Arme-Shupria (1300s–1190 BC), the Nairi (1400–1000 BC) and the Kingdom of Urartu (860–590 BC), who successively established their sovereignty over the Armenian Highland. Each of the aforementioned nations and tribes participated in the ethnogenesis of the Armenian people.[33] Under Ashurbanipal (669–627 BC), the Assyrian empire reached the Caucasus Mountains (modern Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan).[34] Yerevan, the modern capital of Armenia, was founded in 782 BC by king Argishti I. T. Gamkrelidze and V. Ivanov proposed the Indo-European homeland around the Armenian Highland.[35] Eric P. Hamp in his 2012 Indo-European family tree, groups the Armenian language along with Greek and Ancient Macedonian ("Helleno-Macedonian") in the Pontic Indo-European (also called Helleno-Armenian) subgroup.[36] In Hamp's view the homeland of this subgroup is the northeast coast of the Black Sea and its hinterlands.[36] He assumes that they migrated from there southeast through the Caucasus with the Armenians remaining after Batumi while the pre-Greeks proceeded westwards along the southern coast of the Black Sea.[36] However, some genetics studies explain Armenian diversity by several mixtures of Eurasian populations that occurred between ~3,000 and ~2,000 b.c. But genetic signals of population mixture cease after ~1,200 b.c when Bronze Age civilizations in the Eastern Mediterranean world suddenly and violently collapsed. Armenians have since remained isolated and genetic structure within the population developed ~500 years ago when Armenia was divided between the Ottomans and the Safavid Empire in Iran.[37][38] The Kingdom of Armenia at its greatest extent under Tigranes the Great (95–55 BC) Antiquity Persis, Parthia, Armenia. Rest Fenner, published in 1835. Armenia, Mesopotamia, Babylonia and Assyria with Adjacent Regions, Karl von Spruner, published in 1865. The first geographical entity that was called Armenia by neighboring peoples (such as by Hecataeus of Miletus and on the Achaemenid Behistun Inscription) was established in the late 6th century BC under the Orontid dynasty within the Achaemenid Persian Empire as part of the latters' territories, and which later became a kingdom. At its zenith (95–65 BC), the state extended from the Caucasus all the way to what is now central Turkey, Lebanon, and northern Iran. The imperial reign of Tigranes the Great is thus the span of time during which Armenia itself conquered areas populated by other peoples. The Arsacid Kingdom of Armenia, itself a branch of the Arsacid dynasty of Parthia, was the first state to adopt Christianity as its religion (it had formerly been adherent to Armenian paganism, which was influenced by Zoroastrianism,[39] while later on adopting a few elements regarding identification of its pantheon with Greco-Roman deities).[40] in the early years of the 4th century, likely AD 301,[41] partly in defiance of the Sassanids it seems.[42] In the late Parthian period, Armenia was a predominantly Zoroastrian-adhering land,[39] but by the Christianisation, previously predominant Zoroastrianism and paganism in Armenia gradually declined.[42][43] Later on, in order to further strengthen Armenian national identity, Mesrop Mashtots invented the Armenian alphabet, in 405 AD. This event ushered the Golden Age of Armenia, during which many foreign books and manuscripts were translated to Armenian by Mesrop's pupils. Armenia lost its sovereignty again in 428 AD to the rivalling Byzantine and Sassanid Persian empires, until the Muslim conquest of Persia overran also the regions in which Armenians lived. The Cathedral of Ani, completed in 1001 Middle Ages In 885 AD the Armenians reestablished themselves as a sovereign kingdom under the leadership of Ashot I of the Bagratid Dynasty. A considerable portion of the Armenian nobility and peasantry fled the Byzantine occupation of Bagratid Armenia in 1045, and the subsequent invasion of the region by Seljuk Turks in 1064. They settled in large numbers in Cilicia, an Anatolian region where Armenians were already established as a minority since Roman times. In 1080, they founded an independent Armenian Principality then Kingdom of Cilicia, which became the focus of Armenian nationalism. The Armenians developed close social, cultural, military, and religious ties with nearby Crusader States,[44] but eventually succumbed to Mamluk invasions. In the next few centuries, Djenghis Khan, Timurids, and the tribal Turkic federations of the Ak Koyunlu and the Kara Koyunlu ruled over the Armenians. Early modern history From the early 16th century, both Western Armenia and Eastern Armenia fell under Iranian Safavid rule.[45][46] Owing to the century long Turco-Iranian geo-political rivalry that would last in Western Asia, significant parts of the region were frequently fought over between the two rivalling empires. From the mid 16th century with the Peace of Amasya, and decisively from the first half of the 17th century with the Treaty of Zuhab until the first half of the 19th century,[47] Eastern Armenia was ruled by the successive Iranian Safavid, Afsharid and Qajar empires, while Western Armenia remained under Ottoman rule. In the late 1820s, the parts of historic Armenia under Iranian control centering on Yerevan and Lake Sevan (all of Eastern Armenia) were incorporated into the Russian Empire following Iran's forced ceding of the territories after its loss in the Russo-Persian War (1826-1828) and the outcoming Treaty of Turkmenchay.[48] Western Armenia however, remained in Ottoman hands. Modern history About 1.5 million Armenians were killed during the Armenian Genocide in 1915–1918. The ethnic cleansing of Armenians during the final years of the Ottoman Empire is widely considered a genocide, resulting in an estimated 1.5 million victims. The first wave of persecution was in the years 1894 to 1896, the second one culminating in the events of the Armenian Genocide in 1915 and 1916. With World War I in progress, the Ottoman Empire accused the (Christian) Armenians as liable to ally with Imperial Russia, and used it as a pretext to deal with the entire Armenian population as an enemy within their empire. Governments of the Republic of Turkey since that time have consistently rejected charges of genocide, typically arguing either that those Armenians who died were simply in the way of a war, or that killings of Armenians were justified by their individual or collective support for the enemies of the Ottoman Empire. Passage of legislation in various foreign countries, condemning the persecution of the Armenians as genocide, has often provoked diplomatic conflict. (See Recognition of the Armenian Genocide) Following the breakup of the Russian Empire in the aftermath of World War I for a brief period, from 1918 to 1920, Armenia was an independent republic. In late 1920, the communists came to power in Russia following an invasion of Armenia by the Red Army; in 1922, Armenia became part of the Transcaucasian SFSR of the Soviet Union, later on forming the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic (1936 to 21 September 1991). In 1991, Armenia declared independence from the USSR and established the second Republic of Armenia.


Geographic distribution Historical and modern distribution of Armenians.Settlement area of Armenians in early 20th century:   >50%       25–50%       <25%   Armenian settlement area today. Map of the Armenian diaspora Armenia Armenians have had a presence in the Armenian Highland for over 4,000 years, since the time when Hayk, the legendary patriarch and founder of the first Armenian nation, led them to victory over Bel of Babylon.[49] Today, with a population of 3.5 million, they not only constitute an overwhelming majority in Armenia, but also in the disputed region of Artsakh. Armenians in the diaspora informally refer to them as Hayastantsis (Հայաստանցի), meaning those that are from Armenia (that is, those born and raised in Armenia). They, as well as the Armenians of Iran and Russia speak the Eastern dialect of the Armenian language. The country itself is secular as a result of Soviet domination, but most of its citizens identify themselves as Apostolic Armenian Christian. Diaspora Main article: Armenian diaspora Small Armenian trading and religious communities have existed outside Armenia for centuries. For example, a community survived for over a millennium in the Holy Land, and one of the four-quarters of the walled Old City of Jerusalem has been called the Armenian Quarter.[50] An Armenian Catholic monastic community of 35 founded in 1717 exists on an island near Venice, Italy. There are also remnants of formerly populous communities in India, Myanmar, Thailand, Belgium, Portugal, Italy, Poland, Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, Ethiopia, Sudan and Egypt.[citation needed] Regardless, most of the modern days diaspora consists of Armenians scattered throughout the world as a direct consequence of the genocide of 1915, constituting the main portion of the Armenian diaspora. However, Armenian communities in the Georgian capital city of Tbilisi, in Syria and in Iran existed since antiquity.[citation needed] Within the diasporan Armenian community, there is an unofficial classification of the different kinds of Armenians. For example, Armenians who originate from Iran are referred to as Parskahay (Պարսկահայ), while Armenians from Lebanon are usually referred to as Lipananahay (Լիբանանահայ). Armenians of the Diaspora are the primary speakers of the Western dialect of the Armenian language. This dialect has considerable differences with Eastern Armenian, but speakers of either of the two variations can usually understand each other. Eastern Armenian in the diaspora is primarily spoken in Iran and European countries such as Ukraine, Russia, and Georgia (where they form a majority in the Samtskhe-Javakheti province). In diverse communities (such as in Canada and the U.S.) where many different kinds of Armenians live together, there is a tendency for the different groups to cluster together.


Culture Armenian woman in traditional dress. Main article: Culture of Armenia Religion Church service, Yerevan. The Etchmiadzin Cathedral, the mother church of the Armenian Apostolic Church, was established in 301 AD. Ancient Tatev Monastery. Main articles: Armenian Apostolic Church, Religion in Armenia, and Armenian mythology Before Christianity, Armenians adhered to Armenian paganism: a type of indigenous polytheism that stemmed from the Urartu period but which adopted several Greco-Roman and Iranian religious characteristics.[51][52] In 301 AD, Armenia adopted Christianity as a state religion, becoming the first state to do so.[26] The claim is primarily based on the fifth-century work of Agathangelos titled "The History of the Armenians." Agathangelos witnessed at first hand the baptism of the Armenian King Trdat III (c. 301/314 A.D.) by St. Gregory the Illuminator.[53] Trdat III decreed Christianity was the state religion.[54] Armenia established a Church that still exists independently of both the Catholic and the Eastern Orthodox churches, having become so in 451 AD as a result of its stance regarding the Council of Chalcedon.[26] Today this church is known as the Armenian Apostolic Church, which is a part of the Oriental Orthodox communion, not to be confused with the Eastern Orthodox communion. During its later political eclipses, Armenia depended on the church to preserve and protect its unique identity. The original location of the Armenian Catholicosate is Echmiadzin. However, the continuous upheavals, which characterized the political scenes of Armenia, made the political power move to safer places. The Church center moved as well to different locations together with the political authority. Therefore, it eventually moved to Cilicia as the Holy See of Cilicia.[55] The Armenians collective has, at times, constituted a Christian "island" in a mostly Muslim region. There is, however, a minority of ethnic Armenian Muslims, known as Hamshenis but many Armenians view them as a separate race, while the history of the Jews in Armenia dates back 2,000 years. The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia had close ties to European Crusader States. Later on, the deteriorating situation in the region led the bishops of Armenia to elect a Catholicos in Etchmiadzin, the original seat of the Catholicosate. In 1441, a new Catholicos was elected in Etchmiadzin in the person of Kirakos Virapetsi, while Krikor Moussapegiants preserved his title as Catholicos of Cilicia. Therefore, since 1441, there have been two Catholicosates in the Armenian Church with equal rights and privileges, and with their respective jurisdictions. The primacy of honor of the Catholicosate of Etchmiadzin has always been recognized by the Catholicosate of Cilicia.[56] While the Armenian Apostolic Church remains the most prominent church in the Armenian community throughout the world, Armenians (especially in the diaspora) subscribe to any number of other Christian denominations. These include the Armenian Catholic Church (which follows its own liturgy but recognizes the Roman Catholic Pope), the Armenian Evangelical Church, which started as a reformation in the Mother church but later broke away, and the Armenian Brotherhood Church, which was born in the Armenian Evangelical Church, but later broke apart from it. There are other numerous Armenian churches belonging to Protestant denominations of all kinds. Through the ages many Armenians have collectively belonged to other faiths or Christian movements, including the Paulicians which is a form of Gnostic and Manichaean Christianity. Paulicians sought to restore the pure Christianity of Paul and in c.660 founded the first congregation in Kibossa, Armenia. Another example is the Tondrakians, who flourished in medieval Armenia between the early 9th century and 11th century. Tondrakians advocated the abolishment of the church, denied the immortality of the soul, did not believe in an afterlife, supported property rights for peasants, and equality between men and women. The Orthodox Armenians or the Chalcedonian Armenians in the Byzantine Empire were called Iberians ("Georgians") or "Greeks". See Gregory Pakourianos – the great Byzantine general. Their descendants are the Hayhurum and Catholic Armenians in Georgia. Language and literature A 14th-century Armenian illuminated manuscript Main articles: Armenian language and Armenian literature Armenian is a sub-branch of the Indo-European family, and with some 8 million speakers one of the smallest surviving branches, comparable to Albanian or the somewhat more widely spoken Greek, with which it may be connected (see Graeco-Armenian). Today, that branch has just one language – Armenian. Five million Eastern Armenian speakers live in the Caucasus, Russia, and Iran, and approximately two to three million people in the rest of the Armenian diaspora speak Western Armenian. According to US Census figures, there are 300,000 Americans who speak Armenian at home. It is in fact the twentieth most commonly spoken language in the United States, having slightly fewer speakers than Haitian Creole, and slightly more than Navajo. Armenian literature dates back to 400 AD, when Mesrop Mashtots first invented the Armenian alphabet. This period of time is often viewed as the Golden Age of Armenian literature. Early Armenian literature was written by the "father of Armenian history", Moses of Chorene, who authored The History of Armenia. The book covers the time-frame from the formation of the Armenian people to the fifth century AD. The nineteenth century beheld a great literary movement that was to give rise to modern Armenian literature. This period of time, during which Armenian culture flourished, is known as the Revival period (Zartonki sherchan). The Revivalist authors of Constantinople and Tiflis, almost identical to the Romanticists of Europe, were interested in encouraging Armenian nationalism. Most of them adopted the newly created Eastern or Western variants of the Armenian language depending on the targeted audience, and preferred them over classical Armenian (grabar). This period ended after the Hamidian massacres, when Armenians experienced turbulent times. As Armenian history of the 1920s and of the Genocide came to be more openly discussed, writers like Paruyr Sevak, Gevork Emin, Silva Kaputikyan and Hovhannes Shiraz began a new era of literature. Architecture Main article: Armenian architecture The famous Khachkar at Goshavank, carved in 1291 by the artist Poghos. The first Armenian churches were built on the orders of St. Gregory the Illuminator, and were often built on top of pagan temples, and imitated some aspects of Armenian pre-Christian architecture.[57] Classical and Medieval Armenian Architecture is divided into four separate periods. The first Armenian churches were built between the 4th and 7th century, beginning when Armenia converted to Christianity, and ending with the Arab invasion of Armenia. The early churches were mostly simple basilicas, but some with side apses. By the fifth century the typical cupola cone in the center had become widely used. By the seventh century, centrally planned churches had been built and a more complicated niched buttress and radiating Hrip'simé style had formed. By the time of the Arab invasion, most of what we now know as classical Armenian architecture had formed. From the 9th to 11th century, Armenian architecture underwent a revival under the patronage of the Bagratid Dynasty with a great deal of building done in the area of Lake Van, this included both traditional styles and new innovations. Ornately carved Armenian Khachkars were developed during this time.[58] Many new cities and churches were built during this time, including a new capital at Lake Van and a new Cathedral on Akdamar Island to match. The Cathedral of Ani was also completed during this dynasty. It was during this time that the first major monasteries, such as Haghpat and Haritchavank were built. This period was ended by the Seljuk invasion. Sports Main article: Sport in Armenia Armenian children at the UN Cup Chess Tournament in 2005. Many types of sports are played in Armenia, among the most popular being football, chess, boxing, basketball, hockey, sambo, wrestling, weightlifting and volleyball.[59] Since independence, the Armenian government has been actively rebuilding its sports program in the country. During Soviet rule, Armenian athletes rose to prominence winning plenty of medals and helping the USSR win the medal standings at the Olympics on numerous occasions. The first medal won by an Armenian in modern Olympic history was by Hrant Shahinyan, who won two golds and two silvers in gymnastics at the 1952 Summer Olympics in Helsinki. In football, their most successful team was Yerevan's FC Ararat, which had claimed most of the Soviet championships in the 70s and had also gone to post victories against professional clubs like FC Bayern Munich in the Euro cup. Armenians have also been successful in chess, which is the most popular mind sport in Armenia. Some of the most prominent chess players in the world are Armenian such as Tigran Petrosian, Levon Aronian and Garry Kasparov. Armenians have also been successful in weightlifting and wrestling (Armen Nazaryan), winning medals in each sport at the Olympics.[citation needed] There are also successful Armenians in football – Henrikh Mkhitaryan, boxing – Arthur Abraham and Vic Darchinyan. Music and dance Main articles: Music of Armenia and Armenian Dance Armenian folk musicians and traditional Armenian dance. Armenian music is a mix of indigenous folk music, perhaps best-represented by Djivan Gasparyan's well-known duduk music, as well as light pop, and extensive Christian music. Instruments like the duduk, the dhol, the zurna and the kanun are commonly found in Armenian folk music. Artists such as Sayat Nova are famous due to their influence in the development of Armenian folk music. One of the oldest types of Armenian music is the Armenian chant which is the most common kind of religious music in Armenia. Many of these chants are ancient in origin, extending to pre-Christian times, while others are relatively modern, including several composed by Saint Mesrop Mashtots, the inventor of the Armenian alphabet. Whilst under Soviet rule, Armenian classical music composer Aram Khatchaturian became internationally well known for his music, for various ballets and the Sabre Dance from his composition for the ballet Gayane. The Armenian Genocide caused widespread emigration that led to the settlement of Armenians in various countries in the world. Armenians kept to their traditions and certain diasporans rose to fame with their music. In the post-Genocide Armenian community of the United States, the so-called "kef" style Armenian dance music, using Armenian and Middle Eastern folk instruments (often electrified/amplified) and some western instruments, was popular. This style preserved the folk songs and dances of Western Armenia, and many artists also played the contemporary popular songs of Turkey and other Middle Eastern countries from which the Armenians emigrated. Richard Hagopian is perhaps the most famous artist of the traditional "kef" style and the Vosbikian Band was notable in the 40s and 50s for developing their own style of "kef music" heavily influenced by the popular American Big Band Jazz of the time. Later, stemming from the Middle Eastern Armenian diaspora and influenced by Continental European (especially French) pop music, the Armenian pop music genre grew to fame in the 60s and 70s with artists such as Adiss Harmandian and Harout Pamboukjian performing to the Armenian diaspora and Armenia. Also with artists such as Sirusho, performing pop music combined with Armenian folk music in today's entertainment industry. Other Armenian diasporans that rose to fame in classical or international music circles are world-renowned French-Armenian singer and composer Charles Aznavour, pianist Sahan Arzruni, prominent opera sopranos such as Hasmik Papian and more recently Isabel Bayrakdarian and Anna Kasyan. Certain Armenians settled to sing non-Armenian tunes such as the heavy metal band System of a Down (which nonetheless often incorporates traditional Armenian instrumentals and styling into their songs) or pop star Cher. Ruben Hakobyan (Ruben Sasuntsi) is a well recognized Armenian ethnographic and patriotic folk singer who has achieved widespread national recognition due to his devotion to Armenian folk music and exceptional talent. In the Armenian diaspora, Armenian Revolutionary Songs are popular with the youth.[citation needed] These songs encourage Armenian patriotism and are generally about Armenian history and national heroes. Carpet weaving See also: Armenian carpet Armenian girls, weaving carpets in Van, 1907, Ottoman Empire Carpet-weaving is historically a major traditional profession for the majority of Armenian women, including many Armenian families. Prominent Karabakh carpet weavers there were men too. The oldest extant Armenian carpet from the region, referred to as Artsakh (see also Karabakh carpet) during the medieval era, is from the village of Banants (near Gandzak) and dates to the early 13th century.[60] The first time that the Armenian word for carpet, gorg, was used in historical sources was in a 1242–1243 Armenian inscription on the wall of the Kaptavan Church in Artsakh.[61] Common themes and patterns found on Armenian carpets were the depiction of dragons and eagles. They were diverse in style, rich in color and ornamental motifs, and were even separated in categories depending on what sort of animals were depicted on them, such as artsvagorgs (eagle-carpets), vishapagorgs (dragon-carpets) and otsagorgs (serpent-carpets).[61] The rug mentioned in the Kaptavan inscriptions is composed of three arches, "covered with vegatative ornaments", and bears an artistic resemblance to the illuminated manuscripts produced in Artsakh.[61] The art of carpet weaving was in addition intimately connected to the making of curtains as evidenced in a passage by Kirakos Gandzaketsi, a 13th-century Armenian historian from Artsakh, who praised Arzu-Khatun, the wife of regional prince Vakhtang Khachenatsi, and her daughters for their expertise and skill in weaving.[62] Armenian carpets were also renowned by foreigners who traveled to Artsakh; the Arab geographer and historian Al-Masudi noted that, among other works of art, he had never seen such carpets elsewhere in his life.[63] Cuisine Main article: Armenian cuisine Khorovats is a favorite Armenian dish Khorovats, an Armenian-styled barbecue, is arguably the favorite Armenian dish. Lavash is a very popular Armenian flat bread, and Armenian paklava is a popular dessert made from filo dough. Other famous Armenian foods include the kabob (a skewer of marinated roasted meat and vegetables), various dolmas (minced lamb, or beef meat and rice wrapped in grape leaves, cabbage leaves, or stuffed into hollowed vegetables), and pilaf, a rice dish. Also, ghapama, a rice-stuffed pumpkin dish,[64] and many different salads are popular in Armenian culture. Fruits play a large part in the Armenian diet. Apricots (Prunus armeniaca, also known as Armenian Plum) have been grown in Armenia for centuries and have a reputation for having an especially good flavor. Peaches are popular as well, as are grapes, figs, pomegranates, and melons. Preserves are made from many fruits, including cornelian cherries, young walnuts, sea buckthorn, mulberries, sour cherries, and many others.


Institutions The Armenian Apostolic Church, the world's oldest national church The Armenian General Benevolent Union (AGBU) founded in 1906 and the largest Armenian non-profit organization in the world, with educational, cultural and humanitarian projects on all continents The Armenian Revolutionary Federation, founded in 1890. It is generally referred to as the Dashnaktsutyun, which means Federation in Armenian. The ARF is the strongest worldwide Armenian political organization and the only diasporan Armenian organization with a significant political presence in the Republic of Armenia. Hamazkayin, an Armenian cultural and educational society founded in Cairo in 1928, and responsible for the founding of Armenian secondary schools and institutions of higher education in several countries The Armenian Catholic Church, representing small communities of Armeno-Catholics in different countries around the world, as well as important monastic and cultural institutions in Venice and Vienna Homenetmen, an Armenian Scouting and athletic organization founded in 1910 with a worldwide membership of about 25,000 The Armenian Relief Society, founded in 1910


Notable people For a more comprehensive list, see Lists of Armenians.


See also Armenia portal Peoples of the Caucasus Hemshin peoples Hayk Hidden Armenians


References Notes ^ Abkhazia's status is disputed. It considers itself to be an independent state, but this is recognised by only a few other countries. The Georgian government and most of the world's other states consider Abkhazia de jure a part of Georgia's territory. In Georgia's official subdivision it is an autonomous republic, whose government sits in exile in Tbilisi. ^ The Republic of Artsakh is de facto independent and mainly integrated into Armenia, however, it is internationally recognized as de jure part of Azerbaijan ^ The number of Syrian Armenians is estimated to be far lower due to the Syrian Civil War, as these are pre war figures. Many fled to Lebanon, Armenia, and the west respectively. Inline ^ different sources: Dennis J.D. Sandole (24 January 2007). Peace and Security in the Postmodern World: The OSCE and Conflict Resolution. Routledge. p. 182. ISBN 9781134145713. The nearly 3 million Armenians in Armenia (and 3–4 million in the Armenian Diaspora worldwide) "perceive" the nearly 8 million Azerbaijanis in Azerbaijan as "Turks."  McGoldrick, Monica; Giordano, Joe; Garcia-Preto, Nydia, eds. (18 August 2005). Ethnicity and Family Therapy, Third Edition (3 ed.). Guilford Press. p. 439. ISBN 9781606237946. The impact of such a horror on a group who presently number approximately 6 million, worldwide, is incalculable.  Gevorg Sargsyan; Ani Balabanyan; Denzel Hankinson (1 January 2006). From Crisis to Stability in the Armenian Power Sector: Lessons Learned from Armenia's Energy Reform Experience (illustrated ed.). World Bank Publications. p. 18. ISBN 9780821365908. The country's estimated 3–6 million Diaspora represent a major source of foreign direct investment in the country.  Arthur G. Sharp (15 September 2011). The Everything Guide to the Middle East: Understand the people, the politics, and the culture of this conflicted region. Adams Media. p. 137. ISBN 9781440529122. Since the newly independent Republic of Armenia was declared in 1991, nearly 4 million of the world's 6 million Armenians have been living on the eastern edge of their Middle Eastern homeland.  ^ different sources: Von Voss, Huberta (2007). Portraits of Hope: Armenians in the Contemporary World. New York: Berghahn Books. p. xxv. ISBN 9781845452575. ...there are some 8 million Armenians in the world...  Freedman, Jeri (2008). The Armenian genocide. New York: Rosen Publishing Group. p. 52. ISBN 9781404218253. In contrast to its population of 3.2 million, approximately 8 million Armenians live in other countries of the world, including large communities in the America and Russia.  Guntram H. Herb, David H. Kaplan (2008). Nations and Nationalism: A Global Historical Overview: A Global Historical Overview. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. p. 1705. ISBN 9781851099085. A nation of some 8 million people, about 3 million of whom live in the newly independent post-Soviet state, Armenians are constantly battling not to lose their distinct culture, identity and the newly established statehood.  Robert A. Saunders, Vlad Struko (2010). Historical dictionary of the Russian Federation. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press. p. 50. ISBN 9780810854758.  Philander, S. George (2008). Encyclopedia of global warming and climate change. Los Angeles: SAGE. p. 77. ISBN 9781412958783. An estimated 60 percent of the total 8 million Armenians worldwide live outside the country...  Robert A. Saunders, Vlad Strukov (2010). Historical dictionary of the Russian Federation. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press. p. 51. ISBN 9780810874602. Worldwide, there are more than 8 million Armenians; 3.2 million reside in the Republic of Armenia.  ^ "Statistical Service of Armenia" (PDF). Armstat. Retrieved 20 February 2014.  ^ "National makeup of the population of the Russian Federation (Национальный состав населения Российской Федерации)" (in Russian). Russian Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 5 January 2013.  ^ Robert A. Saunders, Vlad Struko (2010). Historical dictionary of the Russian Federation. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press. p. 50. ISBN 978-0-8108-5475-8.  ^ "Total ancestry categories tallied for people with one or more ancestry categories reported 2011 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 22 December 2012.  ^ "Barack Obama on the Importance of US-Armenia Relations". Armenian National Committee of America. 19 January 2008. Retrieved 24 July 2012.  "Kim Kardashian Urges Support for Telethon". The Armenian Weekly. 20 May 2012. Retrieved 24 July 2012.  Milliken, Mary (12 October 2007). "Armenian-American clout buys genocide breakthrough". Reuters. Retrieved 5 December 2012.  ^ Thon, Caroline (2012). Armenians in Hamburg: an ethnographic exploration into the relationship between diaspora and success. Berlin: LIT Verlag Münster. p. 25. ISBN 978-3-643-90226-9.  ^ Taylor, Tony (2008). Denial: history betrayed. Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Pub. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-522-85482-4.  ^ "National Statistics Office of Georgia" (PDF).  ^ В Абхазии объявили данные переписи населения. Delfi (in Russian). 29 December 2011. Retrieved 20 August 2013.  (According to the 2011 census). ^ Republic of Artsakh. "Population estimates of NKR as of 01.01.2013". Retrieved 20 February 2014.  ^ Gibney, Matthew J. (2005). Immigration and asylum: from 1900 to the present. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. p. 13. ISBN 978-1-57607-796-2.  ^ Vardanyan, Tamara (21 June 2007). Իրանահայ համայնք. ճամպրուկային տրամադրություններ [The Iranian-Armenian community] (in Armenian). Noravank Foundation. Retrieved 5 January 2013.  ^ Sargsyan, Babken (8 December 2012). Armenian Service "Գերմանիաիի հայ համայնքը [Armenian community of Germany]" Check |url= value (help) (in Armenian). Retrieved 10 January 2015.  ^ "THE VIRTUAL MUSEUM OF ARMENIAN DIASPORA". Ministry of Diaspora of the Republic of Armenia. Archived from the original on 19 February 2014. Retrieved 2014-02-19.  ^ The distribution of the population by nationality and mother tongue, Kiev: State Statistics Committee of Ukraine, 2001, retrieved 5 January 2013 [permanent dead link] ^ Comunidade armênia prospera no Brasil, mas não abandona luta pela memória do massacre. By Breno Salvador. O Globo, 24 April 2015 ^ "Federal Senate of Brazil Recognizes Armenian Genocide". Armenian Weekly. 3 June 2015.  ^ Bedevyan, Astghik (18 January 2011). "Հունաստանի հայ համայնքը պատրաստվում է Հայաստանի նախագահի հետ հանդիպմանը [Armenian community of Greece preparing for the meeting with the Armenian president]" (in Armenian). Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Armenian Service. Retrieved 10 January 2015.  ^ Ayvazyan 2003, p. 100. ^ "Foreign Ministry: 89,000 minorities live in Turkey". Today's Zaman. 15 December 2008. Retrieved 5 January 2013.  ^ Canada National Household Survey, Statistics Canada, 2011, retrieved 20 August 2013 . Of those, 31,075 reported single and 24,675 mixed Armenian ancestry. ^ "Narodowy Spis Powszechny 2011 (Polish Census of 2011)". Główny Urząd Statystyczny (Polish Central Statistical Office). 2011. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 31 October 2015.  ^ Richard G. Hovannisian, The Armenian people from ancient to modern times: the fifteenth century to the twentieth century, Volume 2, p. 427, Palgrave Macmillan, 1997. ^ a b c see Hastings, Adrian (2000). A World History of Christianity. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 289. ISBN 978-0-8028-4875-8.  ^ "Armenia first nation to adopt Christianity as a state religion". Archived from the original on 11 February 2011. Retrieved 2007-02-27.  ^ "Χαλύβοισι πρὸς νότον Ἀρμένιοι ὁμουρέουσι (The Armenians border on the Chalybes to the south)". Chahin, Mark (2001). The Kingdom of Armenia. London: Routledge. pp. fr. 203. ISBN 0-7007-1452-9.  ^ Xenophon. Anabasis. pp. IV.v.2–9.  ^ Razmik Panossian, The Armenians: From Kings And Priests to Merchants And Commissars, Columbia University Press (2006), ISBN 978-0-231-13926-7, p. 106. ^ Rafael Ishkhanyan, "Illustrated History of Armenia," Yerevan, 1989 ^ Elisabeth Bauer. Armenia: Past and Present (1981), p. 49 ^ Vahan Kurkjian, "History of Armenia", Michigan, 1968, History of Armenia by Vahan Kurkjian; Armenian Soviet Encyclopedia, v. 12, Yerevan 1987; Artak Movsisyan, "Sacred Highland: Armenia in the spiritual conception of the Near East", Yerevan, 2000; Martiros Kavoukjian, "The Genesis of Armenian People", Montreal, 1982 ^ Curtis, John (November 2003). "The Achaemenid Period in Northern Iraq". L'archéologie de l'empire achéménide (Paris, France): 12. ^ Thomas Gamkrelidze and Vyacheslav V. Ivanov, The Early History of Indo-European Languages, March 1990, p. 110. ^ a b c Hamp, Eric P. (August 2013). "The Expansion of the Indo-European Languages: An Indo-Europeanist's Evolving View" (PDF). Sino-Platonic Papers. 239: 8, 10, 13. Retrieved 8 February 2014.  ^ Haber, Marc; Mezzavilla, Massimo; Xue, Yali; Comas, David; Gasparini, Paolo; Zalloua, Pierre; Tyler-Smith, Chris (2015). "Genetic evidence for an origin of the Armenians from Bronze Age mixing of multiple populations". European Journal of Human Genetics. 24 (6): 931. bioRxiv 015396 . doi:10.1038/ejhg.2015.206. PMID 26486470.  ^ https://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/11/science/study-backs-5th-century-historians-date-for-founding-of-armenia.html?_r=0 ^ a b Mary Boyce. Zoroastrians: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices Psychology Press, 2001 ISBN 978-0415239028 p 84 ^ "The conversion of Armenia to Christianity was probably the most crucial step in its history. It turned Armenia sharply away from its Iranian past and stamped it for centuries with an intrinsic character as clear to the native population as to those outside its borders, who identified Armenia almost at once as the first state to adopt Christianity". (Nina Garsoïan in Armenian People from Ancient to Modern Times, ed. R.G. Hovannisian, Palgrave Macmillan, 1997, Volume 1, p.81). ^ traditionally dated to 301 following Mikayel Chamchian (1784). 314 is the date favoured by mainstream scholarship, so Nicholas Adontz (1970), p.82, following the research of Ananian, and Seibt The Christianization of Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Albania) (2002). ^ a b Mary Boyce. Zoroastrians: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices Psychology Press, 2001 ISBN 0415239028 p 84 ^ Charl Wolhuter, Corene de Wet. International Comparative Perspectives on Religion and Education AFRICAN SUN MeDIA, ISBN 1920382372. 1 March 2014 p 31 ^ Hodgson, Natasha (2010). Kostick, Conor, ed. The Crusades and the Near East: Cultural Histories. Routledge. ISBN 1136902473.  ^ Donald Rayfield. Edge of Empires: A History of Georgia Reaktion Books, 2013 ISBN 1780230702 p 165 ^ Steven R. Ward. Immortal, Updated Edition: A Military History of Iran and Its Armed Forces Georgetown University Press, 8 January 2014 ISBN 1626160325 p 43 ^ "Armenians: Past and Present in the Making of National Identity". Retrieved 30 December 2014.  ^ Timothy C. Dowling Russia at War: From the Mongol Conquest to Afghanistan, Chechnya, and Beyond pp 728 ABC-CLIO, 2 December 2014 ISBN 1598849484 ^ Vahan Kurkjian, "History of Armenia", Michigan, 1968, History of Armenia by Vahan Kurkjian ^ "Armenian Quarter in Jerusalem". Archived from the original on 7 March 2007. Retrieved 2007-02-27.  ^ The Cambridge Ancient History. vol. 12, p. 486. London: Cambridge University Press, 2005. ^ Terzian, Shelley (2014). Wolhuter, Charl; de Wet, Corene, eds. International Comparative Perspectives on Religion and Education. African Sun Media. p. 29. ISBN 1920382372.  ^ Agathangelos, History of St. Gregory and the Conversion of Armenia ^ Agathangelos, History of the Armenians, Robert W. Thomson, State University of New York Press, 1974 ^ "A Migrating Catholicosate". Archived from the original on 3 April 2008. Retrieved 27 February 2007.  ^ "Two Catholicosates within the Armenian Church". Archived from the original on 24 May 2008. Retrieved 27 February 2007.  ^ Sacred Geometry and Armenian Architecture | Armenia Travel, History, Archeology & Ecology | TourArmenia | Travel Guide to Armenia ^ Armenia, Past and Present; Elisabeth Bauer, Jacob Schmidheiny, Frederick Leist, 1981 ^ "Sport in Armenia". Retrieved 2007-02-27.  ^ Hakobyan, Hravard H. (1990). The Medieval Art of Artsakh. Yerevan, Armenian SSR: Parberakan. p. 84. ISBN 978-5-8079-0195-8.  ^ a b c Hakobyan. Medieval Art of Artsakh, p. 84. ^ (in Armenian) Kirakos Gandzaketsi. Պատմություն Հայոց (History of Armenia). Yerevan, Armenian SSR: Armenian Academy of Sciences, 1961, p. 216, as cited in Hakobyan. Medieval Art of Artsakh, p. 84, note 18. ^ Ulubabyan, Bagrat A. (1975). Խաչենի իշխանությունը, X-XVI դարերում (The Principality of Khachen, From the 10th to 16th Centuries) (in Armenian). Yerevan, Armenian SSR: Armenian Academy of Sciences. p. 267.  ^ http://www.armeniapedia.org/wiki/Ghapama General  This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook website https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html.  This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Department of State website http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/index.htm (Background Notes). The categorization of Armenian churches in Los Angeles used information from Sacred Transformation: Armenian Churches in Los Angeles a project of the USC School of Policy, Planning, and Development. Some of the information about the history of the Armenians comes from the multi-volume History of the Armenian People, Yerevan, Armenia, 1971.


Further reading Wikimedia Commons has media related to Armenians. I. M. Diakonoff, The Pre-History of the Armenian People (revised, trans. Lori Jennings), Caravan Books, New York (1984), ISBN 978-0-88206-039-2. George A. Bournoutian, A History of the Armenian People, 2 vol. (1994) Hovannisian, Richard G., ed. (September 1997), The Armenian People From Ancient to Modern Times, Volume I – The Dynastic Periods: From Antiquity to the Fourteenth Century, New York: St. Martin's Press, ISBN 0-312-10169-4  Hovannisian, Richard G., ed. (September 1997),  The Armenian People From Ancient to Modern Times , Volume II - Foreign Dominion to Statehood: The Fifteenth Century to the Twentieth Century , New York: St. Martin's Press , ISBN 0-312-10168-6  Redgate, Anne Elizabeth (1999), The Armenians (1st ed.), Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishers, ISBN 0-631-22037-2  Aleksandra Ziolkowska-Boehm, The Polish Experience through World War II: A Better Day Has Not Come, Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2013, ISBN 978-0-7391-7819-5 Russell D. Gray and Quentin D. Atkinson, "Language-tree divergence times support the Anatolian theory of Indo-European origin", Nature, 426, 435–439 (2003) George A. Bournoutian, A Concise History of the Armenian People (Mazda, 2003, 2004). Ayvazyan, Hovhannes (2003). Հայ Սփյուռք հանրագիտարան [Encyclopedia of Armenian Diaspora] (in Armenian). 1. Yerevan: Armenian Encyclopedia publishing. ISBN 5-89700-020-4.  UCLA conference series proceedings The UCLA conference series titled "Historic Armenian Cities and Provinces" is organized by the Holder of the Armenian Educational Foundation Chair in Modern Armenian History. The conference proceedings are edited by Richard G. Hovannisian. Published in Costa Mesa, CA, by Mazda Publishers, they are: Armenian Van/Vaspurakan (2000) OCLC 44774992 Armenian Baghesh/Bitlis and Taron/Mush (2001) OCLC 48223061 Armenian Tsopk/Kharpert (2002) OCLC 50478560 Armenian Karin/Erzerum (2003) OCLC 52540130 Armenian Sebastia/Sivas and Lesser Armenia (2004) OCLC 56414051 Armenian Tigranakert/Diarbekir and Edessa/Urfa (2006) OCLC 67361643 Armenian Cilicia (2008) OCLC 185095701 Armenian Pontus: the Trebizond-Black Sea communities (2009) OCLC 272307784 v t e Armenian diaspora Population by country Largest communities Ethnic enclaves Traditional areas of Armenian settlement Artsakh (Nagorno-Karabakh) Javakhk Nakhichevan Western Armenia Cilicia Caucasus Azerbaijan (Baku) Georgia Tbilisi Abkhazia Former Soviet Union Russia Circassia Ukraine Crimea Belarus Moldova Baltic states Central Asia Americas Argentina Brazil Canada Chile Mexico United States Los Angeles Uruguay Venezuela Europe Austria Bulgaria Belgium Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark France Germany Greece Hayhurum Hungary Italy Malta The Netherlands Poland Romania Serbia Spain Sweden Switzerland United Kingdom Middle East Bahrain Egypt Iran Iraq Israel Jordan Kuwait Lebanon Qatar Syria Turkey Istanbul Hidden Armenians United Arab Emirates Asia Afghanistan Bangladesh China India Indonesia Myanmar Pakistan Singapore Africa Ethiopia Sudan Oceania Australia v t e Armenia articles History  (timeline) Early Origins Name Kura–Araxes culture Hayk Hayasa-Azzi Mitanni Nairi Kingdom of Urartu Median kingdom Orontid dynasty Achaemenid Empire Satrapy of Armenia Kingdom of Armenia Roman Armenia Parthian Empire Byzantine Armenia Sasanian Armenia Middle Emirate of Armenia Sajids Bagratuni Armenia Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia Sallarids Ilkhanate Chobanids Ag Qoyunlu Kara Koyunlu Ottoman Armenia 1508–1828 Persian Armenia Safavid Iran Afsharid Iran Qajar Iran Erivan Khanate Karabakh Khanate Treaty of Turkmenchay Russian Armenia Modern First Republic of Armenia Soviet Armenia Independent Armenia By topic Armenian Genocide Nagorno-Karabakh conflict Armenian national liberation movement more... Geography Ararat Plain Armenian Highlands Cities Earthquakes Extreme points Lake Sevan Mountains Rivers and lakes Shikahogh State Reserve Shirak Plain more... Politics Administrative divisions Constitution Corruption Elections Foreign relations Government Human rights Military National Assembly National Security Service Police Political parties President Prime Minister President of the National Assembly more on government on politics Economy Agriculture Armex (stock exchange) Central Bank Dram (currency) Energy Mining Pension reform Telecommunications Tourism Transport Waste management Culture Alphabet Architecture Art Cinema Cuisine Dance Language Eastern Western Literature Music Sport Theatre more... Demographics Census Crime Education Ethnic minorities Health People diaspora Social issues Women more... Religion Armenian Apostolic Church Armenian Catholic Church Armenian Evangelical Church Armenian Brotherhood Church Judaism Islam more... Symbols Armenian Cross Armenian eternity sign Coat of arms Flag Mount Ararat National anthem Apricot Grape Pomegranate Outline Index Book Category Portal v t e Eastern Christianity Cultural sphere of Christian traditions that developed since Early Christianity in the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Eastern Africa, Asia Minor, Southern India, and parts of the Far East. Communions Eastern Orthodox Church Oriental Orthodoxy Eastern Catholic Churches Assyrian Church of the East Ancient Church of the East History Eastern Orthodox Church Byzantine Empire Ecumenical council Church of the East Council of Chalcedon Iconoclastic controversy St Thomas Christians Christianization of Bulgaria Christianization of Kievan Rus' East–West Schism Scriptures Books Canon Old Testament New Testament Theology Hesychasm Icon Apophaticism Filioque clause Miaphysitism Dyophysitism Nestorianism Theosis Theoria Phronema Philokalia Praxis Theotokos Hypostasis Ousia Essence–energies distinction Metousiosis¨ Worship Sign of the cross Divine Liturgy Iconography Asceticism Omophorion Ethnic groups with significant adherence Majorities Indo-European Armenians Aromanians Belarusians Bulgarians Greeks including Greek Cypriots Macedonians Megleno-Romanians Moldovans Montenegrins Ossetians Romanians Russians Serbs Ukrainians Afro-Asiatic Agaw Amhara Assyrians Copts Chaldean Catholics Maronites Tigrayans Turkic Chuvash Dolgans Gagauz Khakas Kryashens Yakuts Kartvelian Georgians including Svans and Mingrelians Finno-Ugric Izhorians Karelians Khanty Komi Mansi Mari Mordvins Setos Udmurts Vepsians Votes Samoyedic Enets Nenets Nganasans Selkups Chukotko-Kamchatkan Alyutors Itelmens Kereks Koryaks Dené–Yeniseian Kets Tlingits Eskimo–Aleut Aleuts Yupiks Northwest Caucasian Abkhazians Nakh Batsbi Minorities Adyghe Kabardians Kists Albanians Altai Arabs Buryats Chukchi Finns Inuit Malayali Oromos Romani Rusyns Saami Eastern Christianity portal v t e Ethnic groups in Armenia Armenians Armeno-Tats Assyrians Azerbaijanis Greeks Kurds Yazidis Russians Udis Ukrainians v t e Peoples of the Caucasus Caucasian Caspian Avar–Andic Andi Akhvakh Bagvalals–Tindis Botlix–Godoberi Chamalals Karata Avars Didoic Bezhta Hinukh Hunzibs Khwarshi Tsez Lezgic Aguls Archin Budukh Jek Kryts Lezgians Rutuls Tabasarans Tsakhurs Udin Nakh Bats Chechens including Kists Ingush Other Dargin Khinalug Laks Kartvelian Georgians including Lazs Pontic Abkhaz–Abaza Circassians Indo-European Armenian Armenians Hellenic Caucasus Greeks including Urums Pontic Greeks Iranic Northern Ossetians Western Talysh Tats Kurds Slavic Cossacks Kuban Cossacks Terek Cossacks Russians Ukrainians Semitic Georgian Jews Mountain Jews Mongolic Kalmyks Turkic Kipchak–Cuman Karachay–Balkars Kumyks Kipchak–Nogai Nogai Oghuz Azerbaijanis Meskhetian Turks Turkmens  Ethnic minorities in Armenia  Ethnic minorities in Azerbaijan  Ethnic minorities in Georgia  Ethnic minorities in Russia Authority control LCCN: sh85007306 GND: 4085933-2 NDL: 00575411 Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Armenians&oldid=819346311" Categories: Armenian peopleEthnic groups in ArmeniaPeoples of the CaucasusAncient peoples of the Near EastHidden categories: CS1 Russian-language sources (ru)CS1 uses Russian-language script (ru)CS1 uses Armenian-language script (hy)CS1 Armenian-language sources (hy)Pages with URL errorsAll articles with dead external linksArticles with dead external links from December 2017Articles with permanently dead external linksArticles containing Ancient Greek-language textArticles with Armenian-language external linksUse dmy dates from August 2017Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages"Related ethnic groups" needing confirmationArticles using infobox ethnic group with image parametersArticles containing Armenian-language textAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from January 2013Articles with unsourced statements from August 2013Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the World FactbookWikipedia articles incorporating text from the United States Department of State Background NotesWikipedia articles with LCCN identifiersWikipedia articles with GND identifiers


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This Article Is Semi-protected.Flag Of ArmeniaCircaArmeniaRepublic Of ArtsakhArmenian LanguageArmenian Apostolic ChurchArmenian Catholic ChurchArmenian Evangelical ChurchHemshin PeoplesCherkesogaiArmenian LanguageRomanization Of ArmenianHelp:IPA/ArmenianEthnic GroupArmenian HighlandsArmeniaRepublic Of ArtsakhArmenian DiasporaArmenians In RussiaArmenian AmericanArmenians In FranceArmenians In GeorgiaArmenians In IranArmenians In UkraineArmenians In LebanonArmenians In BrazilArmenians In SyriaArmenian GenocideArmenian Apostolic ChurchNon-ChalcedonianSt. ThaddeusSt. BartholomewKingdom Of Armenia (antiquity)Armenian LanguageIndo-European LanguagesEastern ArmenianArmeniaRepublic Of ArtsakhIranWestern ArmenianWestern ArmeniaArmenian GenocideArmenian AlphabetMesrop MashtotsName Of ArmeniaEnlargeHaykMkrtum HovnatanianArmeniaExonym And EndonymBehistun InscriptionDarius I The GreatAchaemenid EmpireUrartuBabyloniaOld Persian LanguageAncient Greek LanguageHecataeus Of MiletusXenophonPersian PeopleHaykNoahMoses Of ChoreneList Of Kings Of Babylon3rd Millennium BCArarat, ArmeniaHittitesHayasaMovses KhorenatsiAram (given Name)HaykHistory Of ArmeniaCategory:Indo-EuropeanCategory:Indo-EuropeanFile:Indo-European Migrations.gifIndo-European LanguagesList Of Indo-European LanguagesAlbanian LanguageArmenian LanguageBalto-Slavic LanguagesBaltic LanguagesSlavic LanguagesCeltic LanguagesGermanic LanguagesHellenic LanguagesGreek LanguageIndo-Iranian LanguagesIndo-Aryan LanguagesIranian LanguagesItalic LanguagesRomance LanguagesAnatolian LanguagesTocharian LanguagesPaleo-Balkan LanguagesDacian LanguageIllyrian LanguagesLiburnian LanguageMessapian LanguageMysian LanguagePaeonian LanguagePhrygian LanguageThracian LanguageProto-Indo-European LanguageProto-Indo-European PhonologyIndo-European Sound LawsProto-Indo-European AccentIndo-European AblautDaco-ThracianGraeco-ArmenianGraeco-AryanGraeco-PhrygianIndo-HittiteItalo-CelticThraco-IllyrianIndo-European VocabularyProto-Indo-European RootProto-Indo-European VerbProto-Indo-European NominalsProto-Indo-European PronounsProto-Indo-European NumeralsProto-Indo-European ParticlesProto-AnatolianProto-ArmenianProto-GermanicProto-NorseProto-CelticProto-ItalicProto-GreekProto-Balto-Slavic LanguageProto-SlavicProto-Indo-Iranian LanguageProto-Iranian LanguageHittite TextsHieroglyphic LuwianLinear BRigvedaAvestaHomerBehistun InscriptionGaulish LanguageOld LatinRunic InscriptionsOgamGothic BibleArmenian BibleSlanting BrahmiOld IrishProto-Indo-European Urheimat HypothesesProto-Indo-EuropeansProto-Indo-European SocietyProto-Indo-European ReligionKurgan HypothesisIndo-European MigrationsEurasian NomadsAnatolian HypothesisArmenian HypothesisIndigenous AryansProto-Indo-European HomelandPaleolithic Continuity TheoryChalcolithicDomestication Of The HorseKurganKurgan CultureThe Horse, The Wheel And LanguageBug-Dniester CultureSredny Stog CultureDnieper-Donets CultureSamara CultureKhvalynsk CultureYamna CultureMikhaylovka CultureMaykop CultureAfanasevo CultureUsatovo CultureCernavodă CultureCucuteni-Trypillian CultureCorded Ware CultureBaden CultureMiddle Dnieper CultureBronze AgeChariotYamna CultureCatacomb CultureMulti-cordoned Ware CulturePoltavka CultureSrubna CultureAbashevo CultureAndronovo CultureSintashta CultureGlobular Amphora CultureCorded Ware CultureBeaker CultureUnetice CultureTrzciniec CultureNordic Bronze AgeTerramare CultureTumulus CultureUrnfield CultureLusatian CultureBactria–Margiana Archaeological ComplexYaz CultureGandhara Grave CultureIron AgeChernoles CultureThraco-CimmerianHallstatt CultureJastorf CultureColchian CulturePainted Grey Ware CultureNorthern Black Polished WareBronze AgeAncient AnatoliansMycenaeansIndo-IraniansIron AgeIndo-Aryan PeoplesIranian PeoplesScythiansPersian PeopleMedesCeltsGaulsCeltiberiansInsular CeltsGreeksItalic PeoplesGermanic PeoplesPaleo-Balkan LanguagesIron Age AnatoliaThraciansDaciansIllyriansPhrygiansMiddle AgesTochariansBaltsEarly SlavsOrigin Of The AlbaniansMedieval EuropeMedieval IndiaGreater PersiaProto-Indo-European ReligionProto-Indo-Iranian ReligionHittite MythologyHistorical Vedic ReligionHinduismBuddhismJainismPersian MythologyZoroastrianismKurdish MythologyYazidisYarsanismScythian ReligionOssetian MythologyArmenian MythologyPaleo-Balkan MythologyAncient Greek ReligionReligion In Ancient RomeCeltic PolytheismIrish MythologyScottish MythologyBreton MythologyWelsh MythologyCornish MythologyGermanic PaganismAnglo-Saxon PaganismContinental Germanic MythologyNorse ReligionBaltic MythologyLatvian MythologyLithuanian MythologySlavic MythologyAlbanian MythologyFire WorshipHorse SacrificeSati (practice)Winter SolsticeYuleIndo-European StudiesMarija GimbutasJ.P. MalloryCopenhagen Studies In Indo-EuropeanEncyclopedia Of Indo-European CultureThe Horse, The Wheel And LanguageJournal Of Indo-European StudiesIndogermanisches Etymologisches WörterbuchIndo-European Etymological DictionaryTemplate:Indo-European TopicsTemplate Talk:Indo-European TopicsArmenian HighlandMount AraratBronze AgeHittite EmpireMitanniHayasa-AzziShupriaNairi PeopleKingdom Of UrartuArmenian HighlandAshurbanipalAssyrian EmpireCaucasus MountainsArmeniaAzerbaijanYerevanArgishti IIndo-European OriginsArmenian HighlandEric P. HampIndo-European LanguagesArmenian LanguageGreek LanguageAncient Macedonian LanguageGraeco-ArmenianBatumiEnlargeKingdom Of Armenia (Antiquity)Tigranes The GreatEnlargeEnlargeSatrapy Of ArmeniaHecataeus Of MiletusBehistun InscriptionOrontid DynastyAchaemenid EmpireKingdom Of Armenia (antiquity)TurkeyLebanonIranTigranes The GreatArsacid ArmeniaArsacid Dynasty Of ParthiaArmenian PaganismZoroastrianismGreek MythologySassanidsArmenian PaganismMesrop MashtotsArmenian AlphabetGolden Age Of ArmeniaByzantine EmpireSassanid EmpireMuslim Conquest Of PersiaEnlargeCathedral Of AniAshot I Of ArmeniaBagratuni DynastySeljuk TurksCiliciaArmenian Kingdom Of CiliciaCrusader StatesMamlukDjenghis KhanTimuridsAk KoyunluKara KoyunluWestern ArmeniaEastern ArmeniaSafavid DynastyPeace Of AmasyaTreaty Of ZuhabAfsharid DynastyQajar DynastyOttoman TurkeyYerevanLake SevanRussian EmpireQajar DynastyRusso-Persian War (1826-1828)Treaty Of TurkmenchayEnlargeArmenian GenocideEthnic CleansingGenocideArmenian GenocideWorld War IImperial RussiaRecognition Of The Armenian GenocideAftermath Of World War IDemocratic Republic Of ArmeniaCommunistRed ArmyTranscaucasian SFSRSoviet UnionArmenian SSRUSSREnlargeEnlargeArmenian DiasporaArmenian HighlandHaykBelus (Assyrian)BabylonRepublic Of ArtsakhArmenian DiasporaHoly LandOld City (Jerusalem)JerusalemArmenian QuarterSan Lazzaro Degli ArmeniVenice, ItalyArmenians In IndiaArmenians In MyanmarThailandBelgiumPortugalPolandAustriaHungaryBulgariaRomaniaSerbiaEthiopiaSudanEgyptWikipedia:Citation NeededArmenian DiasporaTbilisiSyriaIranAncient HistoryWikipedia:Citation NeededArmenian-IranianArmenians In LebanonGeorgia (country)Samtskhe-JavakhetiEnlargeTraditional DressCulture Of ArmeniaEnlargeYerevanEnlargeEtchmiadzin CathedralArmenian Apostolic ChurchEnlargeTatev MonasteryArmenian Apostolic ChurchReligion In ArmeniaArmenian MythologyArmenian PaganismUrartuAgathangelosAgathangelosTrdat IIIGregory The IlluminatorRoman CatholicismEastern OrthodoxCouncil Of ChalcedonArmenian Apostolic ChurchOriental OrthodoxEastern OrthodoxCiliciaHoly See Of CiliciaMuslimHamshenisHistory Of The Jews In ArmeniaArmenian Kingdom Of CiliciaCrusader StatesArmenian Catholic ChurchRoman CatholicismArmenian Evangelical ChurchArmenian Brotherhood ChurchPauliciansTondrakiansEastern Orthodox ChurchGregory PakourianosHayhurumEnlargeArmenian LanguageArmenian LiteratureIndo-European LanguagesAlbanian LanguageGreek LanguageGraeco-ArmenianArmenian DiasporaHaitian CreoleNavajo LanguageArmenian AlphabetGolden AgeMoses Of ChoreneThe History Of ArmeniaConstantinopleTiflisHamidian MassacresParuyr SevakGevork EminSilva KaputikyanHovhannes ShirazArmenian ArchitectureEnlargeKhachkarGoshavankSt. Gregory The IlluminatorBasilicaBagratuni DynastyLake VanKhachkarsLake VanAkdamar IslandCathedral Of AniHaghpat MonasteryHaritchavank MonasteryGreat Seljuq EmpireSport In ArmeniaEnlargeAssociation FootballChessBoxingBasketballHockeySambo (martial Art)WrestlingOlympic WeightliftingVolleyballUSSRHrant Shahinyan1952 Summer OlympicsFC Ararat YerevanFC Bayern MunichTigran PetrosianLevon AronianGarry KasparovArmen NazaryanWikipedia:Citation NeededFootballHenrikh MkhitaryanBoxingArthur AbrahamVic DarchinyanMusic Of ArmeniaArmenian DanceFile:Armenian Folk Music 3.JPGFile:Armeniapedia Dance2.jpgDjivan GasparyanDudukChristian MusicDholZurnaQanun (instrument)Sayat NovaArmenian ChantAram KhatchaturianSabre DanceGayane (ballet)Western ArmeniaRichard HagopianBig BandAdiss HarmandianHarout PamboukjianSirushoList Of French-ArmeniansCharles AznavourSahan ArzruniHasmik PapianIsabel BayrakdarianAnna KasyanSystem Of A DownCherArmenian Revolutionary SongsWikipedia:Citation NeededArmenian CarpetEnlargeOttoman EmpireArmenian CarpetArtsakh (historic Province)Karabakh CarpetGandzak, ArmeniaIlluminated ManuscriptsKirakos GandzaketsiAl-MasudiArmenian CuisineEnlargeKhorovatsKhorovatsLavashKabobPilafGhapamaApricotsArmenian PlumPeachFigsPomegranateArmenian Apostolic ChurchArmenian General Benevolent UnionArmenian Revolutionary FederationRepublic Of ArmeniaHamazkayinCairoArmenian Catholic ChurchVeniceViennaHomenetmenArmenian ScoutingArmenian Relief SocietyLists Of ArmeniansPortal:ArmeniaPeoples Of The CaucasusHemshin PeoplesHaykHidden ArmeniansAbkhaziaInternational Recognition Of Abkhazia And South OssetiaGeorgia (country)De JureAutonomous RepublicGovernment Of The Autonomous Republic Of AbkhaziaTbilisiAzerbaijanSyrian Civil WarLebanonArmeniaInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9781134145713International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9781606237946International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9780821365908International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9781440529122International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9781845452575International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9781404218253International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9781851099085International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9780810854758International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9781412958783International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9780810874602Russian Federal State Statistics ServiceInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-8108-5475-8Armenian National Committee Of AmericaThe Armenian WeeklyReutersInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-3-643-90226-9International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-522-85482-4Delfi (web Portal)International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-57607-796-2Noravank FoundationHelp:CS1 ErrorsArmenian DiasporaWikipedia:Link RotO GloboRadio Free Europe/Radio LibertyToday's ZamanRichard G. HovannisianInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-8028-4875-8ChalybesRoutledgeInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-7007-1452-9XenophonAnabasis (Xenophon)Columbia University PressInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-231-13926-7Thomas GamkrelidzeVyacheslav Ivanov (philologist)BioRxivDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0415239028Mikayel ChamchianInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0415239028International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/1920382372International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/1136902473International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/1780230702International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/1626160325International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/1598849484International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/1920382372International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-5-8079-0195-8Kirakos GandzaketsiArmenian Academy Of SciencesBagrat UlubabyanCopyright Status Of Work By The U.S. GovernmentThe World FactbookCopyright Status Of Work By The U.S. GovernmentUnited States Department Of StateBackground NotesUniversity Of Southern CaliforniaInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-88206-039-2Richard G. HovannisianInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-312-10169-4Richard G. HovannisianInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-312-10168-6Elizabeth RedgateInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-631-22037-2Aleksandra Ziolkowska-BoehmInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-7391-7819-5International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/5-89700-020-4UCLARichard G. HovannisianOCLCOCLCOCLCOCLCOCLCOCLCOCLCOCLCTemplate:Armenian DiasporaTemplate Talk:Armenian DiasporaArmeniaArmenian DiasporaArmenian DiasporaLargest Armenian Diaspora CommunitiesList Of Armenian Ethnic EnclavesArmenian Population By Country.Republic Of ArtsakhNagorno-KarabakhArmenians In Samtskhe-JavakhetiArmenians In NakhchivanWestern ArmeniaCiliciaArmenians In AzerbaijanArmenians In BakuArmenians In GeorgiaArmenians In TbilisiArmenians In AbkhaziaArmenians In RussiaCherkesogaiArmenians In UkraineArmenians In CrimeaArmenians In BelarusArmenians In MoldovaArmenians In The Baltic StatesArmenians In Central AsiaArmenian ArgentineArmenian BrazilianArmenian CanadiansArmenians In ChileArmenian Immigration To MexicoArmenian AmericansHistory Of The Armenian Americans In Los AngelesArmenians In UruguayArmenians In VenezuelaArmenians In AustriaArmenians In BulgariaArmenians In BelgiumArmenians In CyprusArmenians In The Czech RepublicArmenians In DenmarkArmenians In FranceArmenians In GermanyArmenians In GreeceHayhurumArmenians In HungaryArmenians In ItalyArmenians In MaltaArmenian-DutchArmenians In PolandArmenians Of RomaniaArmenians In SerbiaArmenians In SpainArmenians In SwedenArmenians In SwitzerlandArmenians In The United KingdomArmenians In The Middle EastArmenians In BahrainArmenians In EgyptIranian ArmeniansArmenians In IraqArmenians In IsraelArmenians In JordanArmenians In KuwaitArmenians In LebanonArmenians In QatarArmenians In SyriaArmenians In TurkeyArmenians In IstanbulHidden ArmeniansArmenians In The United Arab EmiratesArmenians In AfghanistanArmenians In BangladeshArmenians In ChinaArmenians In IndiaArmenians In IndonesiaArmenians In MyanmarArmenians In PakistanArmenians In SingaporeArmenians In EthiopiaArmenians In SudanArmenian AustralianTemplate:Armenia TopicsTemplate Talk:Armenia TopicsArmeniaIndex Of Armenia-related ArticlesHistory Of ArmeniaTimeline Of Armenian HistoryOrigin Of The ArmeniansName Of ArmeniaKura–Araxes CultureHaykHayasa-AzziMitanniNairi (Armenian Usages)UrartuMedesOrontid DynastyAchaemenid EmpireSatrapy Of ArmeniaKingdom Of Armenia (antiquity)Roman ArmeniaParthian EmpireByzantine ArmeniaSasanian ArmeniaEmirate Of ArmeniaSajid DynastyBagratuni DynastyArmenian Kingdom Of CiliciaSallaridsIlkhanateChobanidsAg QoyunluKara KoyunluArmenians In The Ottoman EmpirePersian Armenia (1502-1828)Safavid IranAfsharid DynastyQajar IranErivan KhanateKarabakh KhanateTreaty Of TurkmenchayRussian ArmeniaFirst Republic Of ArmeniaArmenian Soviet Socialist RepublicHistory Of ArmeniaArmenian GenocideNagorno-Karabakh ConflictArmenian National Liberation MovementCategory:History Of ArmeniaGeography Of ArmeniaArarat PlainArmenian HighlandsList Of Municipalities Of ArmeniaList Of Earthquakes In ArmeniaExtreme Points Of ArmeniaLake SevanMountains Of ArmeniaRivers And Lakes Of ArmeniaShikahogh State ReserveShirak PlainCategory:Geography Of ArmeniaPolitics Of ArmeniaAdministrative Divisions Of ArmeniaConstitution 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PeopleMordvinsSetosUdmurt PeopleVepsiansVotesEnets PeopleNenets PeopleNganasan PeopleSelkup PeopleAlyutorsItelmensKereksKoryaksKet PeopleTlingitAleutYupikAbkhaziansBatsbiCircassiansKabardiansKistsAlbaniansAltai PeopleArab ChristiansBuryatsChukchi PeopleFinnsInuitMalayaliOromo PeopleRomani PeopleRusynsSami PeoplePortal:Eastern ChristianityTemplate:Ethnic Groups In ArmeniaTemplate Talk:Ethnic Groups In ArmeniaArmeniaEthnic Minorities In ArmeniaArmeniaArmeno-TatsAssyrians In ArmeniaAzerbaijanis In ArmeniaGreeks In ArmeniaKurds In ArmeniaYazidis In ArmeniaRussians In ArmeniaUdi PeopleUkrainians In ArmeniaTemplate:Peoples Of The CaucasusTemplate Talk:Peoples Of The CaucasusPeoples Of The CaucasusCaucasusPeoples Of The CaucasusNortheast Caucasian LanguagesAvar–Andic LanguagesAndi PeopleAkhvakh PeopleBagvalal PeopleTindi PeopleBotlikh PeopleGodoberi PeopleChamalal PeopleKarata PeopleAvars (Caucasus)Didoic LanguagesBezhta PeopleHinukh PeopleHunzib PeopleKhwarshi PeopleTsez PeopleLezgic 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