Contents 1 Etymology 2 History 2.1 Antiquity 2.2 Middle Ages 2.3 Early Modern era 2.4 World War I and the Armenian Genocide 2.5 First Republic of Armenia 2.6 Soviet Armenia 2.7 Restoration of independence 3 Geography 3.1 Topography 3.2 Environment 3.3 Climate 4 Government and politics 4.1 Foreign relations 4.2 Human rights 4.3 Military 4.4 Administrative divisions 5 Economy 5.1 Exports and imports 6 Science and technology 7 Demographics 7.1 Ethnic groups 7.2 Languages 7.3 Cities 7.4 Religion 7.5 Health 7.6 Education 8 Culture 8.1 Media 8.2 Music and dance 8.3 Art 8.4 Cinema 8.5 Sport 8.6 Cuisine 9 See also 10 Notes 11 Sources 12 References 13 External links

Etymology Main article: Name of Armenia The original native Armenian name for the country was Հայք (Hayk’), however it is currently rarely used. The contemporary name Հայաստան (Hayastan) became popular in the Middle Ages by addition of the Persian suffix -stan (place).[citation needed]. However the origins of the name Hayastan trace back to much earlier dates and were first attested in circa 5th century in the works of Agathangelos[31][32], Faustus of Byzantium[33] [34], Ghazar Parpetsi[35], Koryun[36], and Sebeos[37]. The name has traditionally been derived from Hayk (Հայկ), the legendary patriarch of the Armenians and a great-great-grandson of Noah, who, according to the 5th-century AD author Moses of Chorene, defeated the Babylonian king Bel in 2492 BC and established his nation in the Ararat region.[38] The further origin of the name is uncertain. It is also further postulated[39][40] that the name Hay comes from one of the two confederated, Hittite vassal states—the Ḫayaša-Azzi (1600–1200 BC). The exonym Armenia is attested in the Old Persian Behistun Inscription (515 BC) as Armina ( ). The ancient Greek terms Ἀρμενία (Armenía) and Ἀρμένιοι (Arménioi, "Armenians") are first mentioned by Hecataeus of Miletus (c. 550 BC – c. 476 BC).[41] Xenophon, a Greek general serving in some of the Persian expeditions, describes many aspects of Armenian village life and hospitality in around 401 BC. He relates that the people spoke a language that to his ear sounded like the language of the Persians.[42] According to the histories of both Moses of Chorene and Michael Chamchian, Armenia derives from the name of Aram, a lineal descendant of Hayk.[43][44] The Table of Nations lists Aram as the son of Shem, to whom the Book of Jubilees attests, "And for Aram there came forth the fourth portion, all the land of Mesopotamia between the Tigris and the Euphrates to the north of the Chaldees to the border of the mountains of Asshur and the land of 'Arara."[45] The lands attested to Aram, in the Book of Jubilees, roughly translate to the Geographical regions of Ancient Armenia. Historian Flavius Josephus states in his Antiquities of the Jews, "Aram had the Aramites, which the Greeks called Syrians;... Of the four sons of Aram, Uz founded Trachonitis and Damascus: this country lies between Palestine and Celesyria. Ul founded Armenia; and Gather the Bactrians; and Mesa the Mesaneans; it is now called Charax Spasini."[46] Historical Armenia, 150 BC

History Main article: History of Armenia Antiquity Main articles: Prehistoric Armenia, Prehistory of the Armenians, Satrapy of Armenia, Kingdom of Armenia (antiquity), Roman Armenia, Sasanian Armenia, and Lesser Armenia A reconstruction of Herodotus' world map c. 450 BC, with Armenia shown in the centre The Kingdom of Armenia at its greatest extent under Tigranes the Great, who reigned between 95 and 66 BC Armenia lies in the highlands surrounding the mountains of Ararat. There is evidence of an early civilisation in Armenia in the Bronze Age and earlier, dating to about 4000 BC. Archaeological surveys in 2010 and 2011 at the Areni-1 cave complex have resulted in the discovery of the world's earliest known leather shoe,[47] skirt,[48] and wine-producing facility.[49] Several Bronze Age states flourished in the area of Greater Armenia, including the Hittites (at the height of their power), Mitanni (southwestern historical Armenia), and Hayasa-Azzi (1500–1200 BC). The Nairi people (12th to 9th centuries BC) and Urartu (1000–600 BC) successively established their sovereignty over the Armenian Highlands. Each of the aforementioned nations and tribes participated in the ethnogenesis of the Armenians.[50][51][52][53] A large cuneiform lapidary inscription found in Yerevan established that the modern capital of Armenia was founded in the summer of 782 BC by King Argishti I. Yerevan is the world's oldest city to have documented the exact date of its foundation. During the late 6th century BC, the first geographical entity that was called Armenia by neighbouring populations was established under the Orontid Dynasty within the Achaemenid Empire, as part of the latters' territories. The kingdom became fully sovereign from the sphere of influence of the Seleucid Empire in 190 BC under King Artaxias I and begun the rule of the Artaxiad dynasty. Armenia reached its height between 95 and 66 BC under Tigranes the Great, becoming the most powerful kingdom of its time east of the Roman Republic. In the next centuries, Armenia was in the Persian Empire's sphere of influence during the reign of Tiridates I, the founder of the Arsacid dynasty of Armenia, which itself was a branch of the Parthian Empire. Throughout its history, the kingdom of Armenia enjoyed both periods of independence and periods of autonomy subject to contemporary empires. Its strategic location between two continents has subjected it to invasions by many peoples, including Assyria (under Ashurbanipal, at around 669–627 BC, the boundaries of Assyria reached as far as Armenia and the Caucasus Mountains),[54] Medes, Achaemenid Empire, Greeks, Parthians, Romans, Sasanian Empire, Byzantine Empire, Arabs, Seljuk Empire, Mongols, Ottoman Empire, the successive Safavid, Afsharid, and Qajar dynasties of Iran, and the Russians. The pagan Garni Temple, probably built in the first century, is the only "Greco-Roman colonnaded building" in the post-Soviet states.[55] Religion in ancient Armenia was historically related to a set of beliefs which, in Persia, led to the emergence of Zoroastrianism. It particularly focused on the worship of Mithra and also included a pantheon of gods such as Aramazd, Vahagn, Anahit, and Astghik. The country used the solar Armenian calendar, which consisted of 12 months. Christianity spread into the country as early as AD 40. Tiridates III of Armenia (238–314) made Christianity the state religion in 301,[56][57] partly, in defiance of the Sasanian Empire, it seems,[58] becoming the first officially Christian state, ten years before the Roman Empire granted Christianity an official toleration under Galerius, and 36 years before Constantine the Great was baptised. Prior to this, during the latter part of the Parthian period, Armenia was a predominantly Zoroastrian.[58] After the fall of the Kingdom of Armenia in 428, most of Armenia was incorporated as a marzpanate within the Sasanian Empire. Following the Battle of Avarayr in 451, Christian Armenians maintained their religion and Armenia gained autonomy. Middle Ages This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (September 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Main article: Medieval Armenia The Etchmiadzin Cathedral, Armenia's Mother Church traditionally dated 303 AD, is considered the oldest cathedral in the world.[59][60][61] After the Sasanian period (428–636), Armenia emerged as Arminiya, an autonomous principality under the Umayyad Caliphate, reuniting Armenian lands previously taken by the Byzantine Empire as well. The principality was ruled by the Prince of Armenia, and recognised by the Caliph and the Byzantine Emperor. It was part of the administrative division/emirate Arminiya created by the Arabs, which also included parts of Georgia and Caucasian Albania, and had its centre in the Armenian city, Dvin. Arminiya lasted until 884, when it regained its independence from the weakened Abbasid Caliphate under Ashot I of Armenia. The reemergent Armenian kingdom was ruled by the Bagratuni dynasty and lasted until 1045. In time, several areas of the Bagratid Armenia separated as independent kingdoms and principalities such as the Kingdom of Vaspurakan ruled by the House of Artsruni in the south, Kingdom of Syunik in the east, or Kingdom of Artsakh on the territory of modern Nagorno-Karabakh, while still recognising the supremacy of the Bagratid kings. The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, 1198–1375 In 1045, the Byzantine Empire conquered Bagratid Armenia. Soon, the other Armenian states fell under Byzantine control as well. The Byzantine rule was short lived, as in 1071 the Seljuk Empire defeated the Byzantines and conquered Armenia at the Battle of Manzikert, establishing the Seljuk Empire.[62] To escape death or servitude at the hands of those who had assassinated his relative, Gagik II of Armenia, King of Ani, an Armenian named Ruben I, Prince of Armenia, went with some of his countrymen into the gorges of the Taurus Mountains and then into Tarsus of Cilicia. The Byzantine governor of the palace gave them shelter where the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia was eventually established on 6 January 1198 under Leo I, King of Armenia, a descendant of Prince Ruben. Cilicia was a strong ally of the European Crusaders, and saw itself as a bastion of Christendom in the East. Cilicia's significance in Armenian history and statehood is also attested by the transfer of the seat of the Catholicos of the Armenian Apostolic Church, the spiritual leader of the Armenian people, to the region. The Seljuk Empire soon started to collapse. In the early 12th century, Armenian princes of the Zakarid family drove out the Seljuk Turks and established a semi-independent principality in northern and eastern Armenia known as Zakarid Armenia, which lasted under the patronage of the Georgian Kingdom. The Orbelian Dynasty shared control with the Zakarids in various parts of the country, especially in Syunik and Vayots Dzor, while the House of Hasan-Jalalyan controlled provinces of Artsakh and Utik as the Kingdom of Artsakh. Early Modern era Further information: Iranian Armenia (1502–1828), Armenians in the Ottoman Empire, and Russian Armenia During the 1230s, the Mongol Empire conquered Zakarid Armenia and then the remainder of Armenia. The Mongolian invasions were soon followed by those of other Central Asian tribes such as the Kara Koyunlu, Timurid dynasty and Ağ Qoyunlu, which continued from the 13th century until the 15th century. After incessant invasions, each bringing destruction to the country, with time Armenia became weakened. In the 16th century, the Ottoman Empire and the Safavid dynasty of Iran divided Armenia. From the early 16th century, both Western Armenia and Eastern Armenia fell to the Safavid Empire.[63][64] Owing to the century long Turco-Iranian geopolitical rivalry that would last in Western Asia, significant parts of the region were frequently fought over between the two rivalling empires. From the mid 16th century with the Peace of Amasya, and decisively from the first half of the 17th century with the Treaty of Zuhab until the first half of the 19th century,[65] Eastern Armenia was ruled by the successive Safavid, Afsharid and Qajar empires, while Western Armenia remained under Ottoman rule. From 1604 Abbas I of Iran implemented a "scorched earth" policy in the region to protect his north-western frontier against any invading Ottoman forces, a policy which involved a forced resettlement of masses of Armenians outside of their homelands.[66] Capture of Erivan fortress by Russian troops in 1827 during the Russo-Persian War (1826–28) by Franz Roubaud In the 1813 Treaty of Gulistan and the 1828 Treaty of Turkmenchay, following the Russo-Persian War (1804–13) and the Russo-Persian War (1826–28), respectively, the Qajar dynasty of Iran was forced to irrevocably cede Eastern Armenia, consisting of the Erivan and Karabakh Khanates, to Imperial Russia.[67][68] While Western Armenia still remained under Ottoman rule, the Armenians were granted considerable autonomy within their own enclaves and lived in relative harmony with other groups in the empire (including the ruling Turks). However, as Christians under a strict Muslim social structure, Armenians faced pervasive discrimination. When they began pushing for more rights within the Ottoman Empire, Sultan Abdul Hamid II, in response, organised state-sponsored massacres against the Armenians between 1894 and 1896, resulting in an estimated death toll of 80,000 to 300,000 people. The Hamidian massacres, as they came to be known, gave Hamid international infamy as the "Red Sultan" or "Bloody Sultan."[69] This period is known as Russian Armenia. During the 1890s, the Armenian Revolutionary Federation, commonly known as Dashnaktsutyun, became active within the Ottoman Empire with the aim of unifying the various small groups in the empire that were advocating for reform and defending Armenian villages from massacres that were widespread in some of the Armenian-populated areas of the empire. Dashnaktsutyun members also formed Armenian fedayi groups that defended Armenian civilians through armed resistance. The Dashnaks also worked for the wider goal of creating a "free, independent and unified" Armenia, although they sometimes set aside this goal in favour of a more realistic approach, such as advocating autonomy. The Ottoman Empire began to collapse, and in 1908, the Young Turk Revolution overthrew the government of Sultan Hamid. In April 1909, the Adana massacre occurred in the Adana Vilayet of the Ottoman Empire resulting in the deaths of as many as 20,000–30,000 Armenians. The Armenians living in the empire hoped that the Committee of Union and Progress would change their second-class status. Armenian reform package (1914) was presented as a solution by appointing an inspector general over Armenian issues.[70] World War I and the Armenian Genocide Main article: Armenian Genocide Armenian Genocide victims in 1915 When World War I broke out leading to confrontation between the Ottoman Empire and the Russian Empire in the Caucasus and Persian Campaigns, the new government in Istanbul began to look on the Armenians with distrust and suspicion. This was because the Imperial Russian Army contained a contingent of Armenian volunteers. On 24 April 1915, Armenian intellectuals were arrested by Ottoman authorities and, with the Tehcir Law (29 May 1915), eventually a large proportion of Armenians living in Anatolia perished in what has become known as the Armenian Genocide. The genocide was implemented in two phases: the wholesale killing of the able-bodied male population through massacre and subjection of army conscripts to forced labour, followed by the deportation of women, children, the elderly and infirm on death marches leading to the Syrian desert. Driven forward by military escorts, the deportees were deprived of food and water and subjected to periodic robbery, rape, and massacre.[71][72] There was local Armenian resistance in the region, developed against the activities of the Ottoman Empire. The events of 1915 to 1917 are regarded by Armenians and the vast majority of Western historians to have been state-sponsored mass killings, or genocide.[73] Turkish authorities deny the genocide took place to this day. The Armenian Genocide is acknowledged to have been one of the first modern genocides.[74][75] According to the research conducted by Arnold J. Toynbee, an estimated 600,000 Armenians died during deportation from 1915–16. This figure, however, accounts for solely the first year of the Genocide and does not take into account those who died or were killed after the report was compiled on 24 May 1916.[76] The International Association of Genocide Scholars places the death toll at "more than a million".[77] The total number of people killed has been most widely estimated at between 1 and 1.5 million.[78] Armenia and the Armenian diaspora have been campaigning for official recognition of the events as genocide for over 30 years. These events are traditionally commemorated yearly on 24 April, the Armenian Martyr Day, or the Day of the Armenian Genocide. First Republic of Armenia Main article: First Republic of Armenia The Government house of the First Republic of Armenia (1918–1920) Although the Russian Caucasus Army of Imperial forces commanded by Nikolai Yudenich and Armenians in volunteer units and Armenian militia led by Andranik Ozanian and Tovmas Nazarbekian succeeded in gaining most of Ottoman Armenia during World War I, their gains were lost with the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917.[citation needed] At the time, Russian-controlled Eastern Armenia, Georgia, and Azerbaijan attempted to bond together in the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic. This federation, however, lasted from only February to May 1918, when all three parties decided to dissolve it. As a result, the Dashnaktsutyun government of Eastern Armenia declared its independence on 28 May as the First Republic of Armenia under the leadership of Aram Manukian. The First Republic's short-lived independence was fraught with war, territorial disputes, and a mass influx of refugees from Ottoman Armenia, bringing with them disease and starvation. The Entente Powers, appalled by the actions of the Ottoman government, sought to help the newly founded Armenian state through relief funds and other forms of support. At the end of the war, the victorious powers sought to divide up the Ottoman Empire. Signed between the Allied and Associated Powers and Ottoman Empire at Sèvres on 10 August 1920, the Treaty of Sèvres promised to maintain the existence of the Armenian republic and to attach the former territories of Ottoman Armenia to it. Because the new borders of Armenia were to be drawn by United States President Woodrow Wilson, Ottoman Armenia was also referred to as "Wilsonian Armenia." In addition, just days prior, on 5 August 1920, Mihran Damadian of the Armenian National Union, the de facto Armenian administration in Cilicia, declared the independence of Cilicia as an Armenian autonomous republic under French protectorate.[79] There was even consideration of possibly making Armenia a mandate under the protection of the United States. The treaty, however, was rejected by the Turkish National Movement, and never came into effect. The movement used the treaty as the occasion to declare itself the rightful government of Turkey, replacing the monarchy based in Istanbul with a republic based in Ankara. Advance of the 11th Red Army into the city of Yerevan In 1920, Turkish nationalist forces invaded the fledgling Armenian republic from the east. Turkish forces under the command of Kazım Karabekir captured Armenian territories that Russia had annexed in the aftermath of the 1877–1878 Russo-Turkish War and occupied the old city of Alexandropol (present-day Gyumri). The violent conflict finally concluded with the Treaty of Alexandropol on 2 December 1920. The treaty forced Armenia to disarm most of its military forces, cede all former Ottoman territory granted to it by the Treaty of Sèvres, and to give up all the "Wilsonian Armenia" granted to it at the Sèvres treaty. Simultaneously, the Soviet Eleventh Army, under the command of Grigoriy Ordzhonikidze, invaded Armenia at Karavansarai (present-day Ijevan) on 29 November. By 4 December, Ordzhonikidze's forces entered Yerevan and the short-lived Armenian republic collapsed. After the fall of the republic, the February Uprising soon took place in 1921, and led to the establishment of the Republic of Mountainous Armenia by Armenian forces under command of Garegin Nzhdeh on 26 April, which fought off both Soviet and Turkish intrusions in the Zangezur region of southern Armenia. After Soviet agreements to include the Syunik Province in Armenia's borders, the rebellion ended and the Red Army took control of the region on 13 July. Soviet Armenia Main article: Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic The coat of arms of Soviet Armenia depicting Mount Ararat in the centre Armenia was annexed by Bolshevist Russia and along with Georgia and Azerbaijan, it was incorporated into the Soviet Union as part of the Transcaucasian SFSR (TSFSR) on 4 March 1922.[80][81] With this annexation, the Treaty of Alexandropol was superseded by the Turkish-Soviet Treaty of Kars. In the agreement, Turkey allowed the Soviet Union to assume control over Adjara with the port city of Batumi in return for sovereignty over the cities of Kars, Ardahan, and Iğdır, all of which were part of Russian Armenia.[80][81] The TSFSR existed from 1922 to 1936, when it was divided up into three separate entities (Armenian SSR, Azerbaijan SSR, and Georgian SSR). Armenians enjoyed a period of relative stability under Soviet rule. They received medicine, food, and other provisions from Moscow, and communist rule proved to be a soothing balm in contrast to the turbulent final years of the Ottoman Empire. The situation was difficult for the church, which struggled under Soviet rule. After the death of Vladimir Lenin, Joseph Stalin took the reins of power and began an era of renewed fear and terror for Armenians.[82] Armenia was not the scene of any battles in World War II. An estimated 500,000 Armenians (nearly a third of the population) served in the military during the war, and 175,000 died.[83] Fears decreased when Stalin died in 1953 and Nikita Khruschev emerged as the Soviet Union's new leader. Soon, life in Soviet Armenia began to see rapid improvement. The church, which suffered greatly under Stalin, was revived when Catholicos Vazgen I assumed the duties of his office in 1955. In 1967, a memorial to the victims of the Armenian Genocide was built at the Tsitsernakaberd hill above the Hrazdan gorge in Yerevan. This occurred after mass demonstrations took place on the tragic event's fiftieth anniversary in 1965. Armenians gather at Theater Square in central Yerevan to claim unification of Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast with the Armenian SSR. During the Gorbachev era of the 1980s, with the reforms of Glasnost and Perestroika, Armenians began to demand better environmental care for their country, opposing the pollution that Soviet-built factories brought. Tensions also developed between Soviet Azerbaijan and its autonomous district of Nagorno-Karabakh, a majority-Armenian region. About 484,000 Armenians lived in Azerbaijan in 1970.[84] The Armenians of Karabakh demanded unification with Soviet Armenia. Peaceful protests in Yerevan supporting the Karabakh Armenians were met with anti-Armenian pogroms in the Azerbaijani city of Sumgait. Compounding Armenia's problems was a devastating earthquake in 1988 with a moment magnitude of 7.2.[85] Gorbachev's inability to alleviate any of Armenia's problems created disillusionment among the Armenians and fed a growing hunger for independence. In May 1990, the New Armenian Army (NAA) was established, serving as a defence force separate from the Soviet Red Army. Clashes soon broke out between the NAA and Soviet Internal Security Forces (MVD) troops based in Yerevan when Armenians decided to commemorate the establishment of the 1918 First Republic of Armenia. The violence resulted in the deaths of five Armenians killed in a shootout with the MVD at the railway station. Witnesses there claimed that the MVD used excessive force and that they had instigated the fighting. Further firefights between Armenian militiamen and Soviet troops occurred in Sovetashen, near the capital and resulted in the deaths of over 26 people, mostly Armenians. The pogrom of Armenians in Baku in January 1990 forced almost all of the 200,000 Armenians in the Azerbaijani capital Baku to flee to Armenia.[86] On 23 August 1990, Armenia declared its sovereignty on its territory. On 17 March 1991, Armenia, along with the Baltic states, Georgia and Moldova, boycotted a nationwide referendum in which 78% of all voters voted for the retention of the Soviet Union in a reformed form.[87] Restoration of independence Main article: History of Armenia § Independent Armenia (1991-today) Armenian soldiers during the Nagorno-Karabakh War On 21 September 1991, Armenia officially declared its independence after the failed August coup in Moscow. Levon Ter-Petrosyan was popularly elected the first President of the newly independent Republic of Armenia on 16 October 1991. He had risen to prominence by leading the Karabakh movement for the unification of the Armenian-populated Nagorno-Karabakh.[88] On 26 December 1991, the Soviet Union ceased to exist and Armenia's independence was recognised. Ter-Petrosyan led Armenia alongside Defense Minister Vazgen Sargsyan through the Nagorno-Karabakh War with neighbouring Azerbaijan. The initial post-Soviet years were marred by economic difficulties, which had their roots early in the Karabakh conflict when the Azerbaijani Popular Front managed to pressure the Azerbaijan SSR to instigate a railway and air blockade against Armenia. This move effectively crippled Armenia's economy as 85% of its cargo and goods arrived through rail traffic.[88] In 1993, Turkey joined the blockade against Armenia in support of Azerbaijan.[89] The 21 September 2011 parade in Yerevan, marking the 20th anniversary of Armenia's re-independence The Karabakh war ended after a Russian-brokered cease-fire was put in place in 1994. The war was a success for the Karabakh Armenian forces who managed to capture 16% of Azerbaijan's internationally recognised territory including Nagorno-Karabakh itself.[90] Since then, Armenia and Azerbaijan have held peace talks, mediated by the Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE). The status of Karabakh has yet to be determined. The economies of both countries have been hurt in the absence of a complete resolution and Armenia's borders with Turkey and Azerbaijan remain closed. By the time both Azerbaijan and Armenia had finally agreed to a ceasefire in 1994, an estimated 30,000 people had been killed and over a million had been displaced.[91] As it enters the 21st century, Armenia faces many hardships. It has made a full switch to a market economy. One study ranks it the 41st most "economically free" nation in the world, as of 2014[update].[92] Its relations with Europe, the Middle East, and the Commonwealth of Independent States have allowed Armenia to increase trade.[93][94] Gas, oil, and other supplies come through two vital routes: Iran and Georgia. Armenia maintains cordial relations with both countries.[95] Armenia and neighbouring countries

Geography Main article: Geography of Armenia Armenia is a landlocked country in the geopolitical Transcaucasus (South Caucasus) region, that is located in the Southern Caucasus Mountains and their lowlands between the Black Sea and Caspian Sea, and northeast of the Armenian Highlands. Armenia is bordered on the north by Georgia, the east by Azerbaijan; the south by Iran; and the southwest and west by Turkey. Armenia lies between latitudes 38° and 42° N, and meridians 43° and 47° E. Topography Armenia's mountainous and volcanic topography The Republic of Armenia has a territorial area of 29,743 square kilometres (11,484 sq mi). The terrain is mostly mountainous, with fast flowing rivers, and few forests. The climate is highland continental, which means that Armenia is subjected to hot summers and cold winters. The land rises to 4,090 metres (13,419 feet) above sea level at Mount Aragats, and no point is below 390 metres (1,280 ft) above sea level.[96] Mount Ararat Mount Ararat, which was historically part of Armenia, is the highest mountain in the region. Now located in Turkey, but clearly visible from Armenia, it is regarded by the Armenians as a symbol of their land. Because of this, the mountain is present on the Armenian national emblem today.[97][98][99] Environment Armenia has established a Ministry of Nature Protection and introduced taxes for air and water pollution and solid-waste disposal, whose revenues are used for environmental protection activities. Waste management in Armenia is underdeveloped, as no waste sorting or recycling takes place at Armenia's 60 landfills. Despite the availability of abundant renewable energy sources in Armenia (especially hydroelectric and wind power), the Armenian Government is working toward building a new nuclear power plant at Metsamor near Yerevan.[100] Climate Main article: Climate of Armenia The climate in Armenia is markedly continental. Summers are dry and sunny, lasting from June to mid-September. The temperature fluctuates between 22 and 36 °C (72 and 97 °F). However, the low humidity level mitigates the effect of high temperatures. Evening breezes blowing down the mountains provide a welcome refreshing and cooling effect. Springs are short, while autumns are long. Autumns are known for their vibrant and colourful foliage. Winters are quite cold with plenty of snow, with temperatures ranging between −10 and −5 °C (14 and 23 °F). Winter sports enthusiasts enjoy skiing down the hills of Tsakhkadzor, located thirty minutes outside Yerevan. Lake Sevan, nestled up in the Armenian highlands, is the second largest lake in the world relative to its altitude, at 1,900 metres (6,234 ft) above sea level.

Government and politics Main articles: Government of Armenia and Politics of Armenia The National Assembly in Yerevan Politics of Armenia takes place in a framework of a semi-presidential representative democratic republic. According to the Constitution of Armenia, the President is the head of state and the Prime Minister is the head of government of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the President and the Government. Legislative power is vested in both the Government and the Parliament.[5][6][7] The unicameral parliament (also called the Azgayin Zhoghov or National Assembly) is controlled by a coalition of four political parties: the conservative Republican party, the Prosperous Armenia party, the Rule of Law party and the Armenian Revolutionary Federation. The main opposition party is Raffi Hovannisian's Heritage party, which favours eventual Armenian membership in the European Union and NATO. The Armenian government's stated aim is to build a Western-style parliamentary democracy as the basis of its form of government. It has universal suffrage above the age of eighteen. International observers of Council of Europe and US Department of State have questioned the fairness of Armenia's parliamentary and presidential elections and constitutional referendum since 1995, citing polling deficiencies, lack of co-operation by the Electoral Commission, and poor maintenance of electoral lists and polling places. Freedom House categorised Armenia in its 2008 report as a "Semi-consolidated Authoritarian Regime" (along with Moldova, Kosovo, Kyrgyzstan, and Russia) and ranked Armenia 20th among 29 nations in transition, with a Democracy Score of 5.21 out of 7 (7 represents the lowest democratic progress).[101] Since 1999, Freedom House's Democracy Score for Armenia has been steadily on the decline (from 4.79 to 5.21).[102] Furthermore, Freedom House ranked Armenia as "partly free" in its 2007 report, though it did not categorise Armenia as an "electoral democracy", indicating an absence of relatively free and competitive elections.[103] However, significant progress seems to have been made and the 2008 Armenian presidential election was hailed as largely democratic by OSCE and Western monitors.[104] Foreign relations Main articles: Foreign relations of Armenia, Armenia and the European Union, and Armenia–Turkey relations Embassy of Armenia in Moscow Armenia presently maintains positive relations with almost every country in the world, with two major exceptions being its immediate neighbours, Turkey and Azerbaijan. Tensions were running high between Armenians and Azerbaijanis during the final years of the Soviet Union. The Nagorno-Karabakh War dominated the region's politics throughout the 1990s.[105] To this day, Armenia's borders with Turkey and Azerbaijan are under severe blockade. In addition, a permanent solution for the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict has not been reached despite the mediation provided by organizations such as the OSCE. Armenia is a member of more than 40 international organisations, including the United Nations; the Council of Europe; the Asian Development Bank; the Commonwealth of Independent States; the World Trade Organization; World Customs Organization; the Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation; and La Francophonie. It is a member of the CSTO military alliance, and also participates in NATO's Partnership for Peace program. Turkey also has a long history of poor relations with Armenia over its refusal to acknowledge the Armenian Genocide, although Turkey was one of the first countries to recognize the Republic of Armenia (the 3rd republic) after its independence from the USSR in 1991. Despite this, for most of the 20th century and early 21st century, relations remain tense and there are no formal diplomatic relations between the two countries due to Turkey's refusal to establish them for numerous reasons. During the Nagorno-Karabakh War and citing it as the reason, Turkey illegally closed its border with Armenia in 1993. It has not lifted its blockade despite pressure from the powerful Turkish business lobby interested in Armenian markets.[105] On 10 October 2009, Armenia and Turkey signed protocols on normalisation of relations, which set a timetable for restoring diplomatic ties and reopening their joint border.[106] The ratification of those had to be made in the national parliaments. In Armenia it passed through the legislatively required approval of the Constitutional Court and was sent to parliament for final ratification. The President had made multiple public announcements, both in Armenia and abroad, that as the leader of the political majority of Armenia he assured the ratification of the protocols if Turkey also ratified them. Despite this, the process stopped, as Turkey continuously added more preconditions to its ratification and also "delayed it beyond any reasonable time-period". Due to its position between two unfriendly neighbours, Armenia has close security ties with Russia. At the request of the government of Armenia, Russia maintains a military base in the city of Gyumri located in Northwestern Armenia.[107] as a deterrent against Turkey.[citation needed] Despite this, Armenia has also been looking toward Euro-Atlantic structures in recent years. It maintains good relations with the United States especially through its Armenian diaspora. According to the US Census Bureau, there are 427,822 Armenians living in the country.[108] Because of the illicit border blockades by Azerbaijan and Turkey, Armenia continues to maintain solid relations with its southern neighbour Iran especially in the economic sector. Economic projects such a gas pipeline going from Iran to Armenia are being developed. Russian President Dmitry Medvedev at Armenian Genocide memorial in Yerevan Armenia is also a member of the Council of Europe, maintaining friendly relations with the European Union, especially with its member states such as France and Greece. A 2005 survey reported that 64% of Armenia's population would be in favour of joining the EU.[109] Several Armenian officials have also expressed the desire for their country to eventually become an EU member state,[110] some[who?] predicting that it will make an official bid for membership in a few years.[citation needed] In 2004 its forces joined KFOR, a NATO-led international force in Kosovo. It is also an observer member of the Eurasian Economic Community and the Non-Aligned Movement. A former republic of the Soviet Union, Armenia is an emerging democracy and as of 2011[update] was negotiating with the European Union to become an associate partner. Legally speaking, it has the right to be considered as a prospective EU member provided it meets necessary standards and criteria, although officially such a plan does not exist in Brussels.[111][112][113][114] The Government of Armenia, however, has joined the Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia[115] and the Eurasian Economic Union.[116][117] Armenia is included in the European Union's European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) which aims at bringing the EU and its neighbours closer. The EU-Armenia Comprehensive and Enhanced Partnership Agreement (CEPA) was signed on 24 November 2017. Among other goals it aims at improving investment climate. [118] Human rights Main article: Human rights in Armenia Human rights in Armenia tend to be better than those in most former Soviet republics and have drawn closer to acceptable standards, especially economically.[citation needed] Still, there are several considerable problems. Overall, the country is classified "partly free" by Freedom House, which gives it a score of 46, falling two points below Bangladesh and one point above Honduras.[119] Military Main article: Armed Forces of Armenia Armenian Army BTR-80s Armenian soldiers at the 2010 Moscow Victory Day Parade The Armenian Army, Air Force, Air Defence, and Border Guard comprise the four branches of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Armenia. The Armenian military was formed after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 and with the establishment of the Ministry of Defence in 1992. The Commander-in-Chief of the military is the President of Armenia, Serzh Sargsyan. The Ministry of Defence is in charge of political leadership, currently headed by Colonel General Seyran Ohanyan, while military command remains in the hands of the General Staff, headed by the Chief of Staff, who is currently Colonel General Yuri Khatchaturov. Active forces now number about 81,000 soldiers, with an additional reserve of 32,000 troops. Armenian border guards are in charge of patrolling the country's borders with Georgia and Azerbaijan, while Russian troops continue to monitor its borders with Iran and Turkey. In the case of an attack, Armenia is able to mobilise every able-bodied man between the age of 15 and 59, with military preparedness. The Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe, which establishes comprehensive limits on key categories of military equipment, was ratified by the Armenian parliament in July 1992. In March 1993, Armenia signed the multilateral Chemical Weapons Convention, which calls for the eventual elimination of chemical weapons. Armenia acceded to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) as a non-nuclear weapons state in July 1993. Armenia is member of Collective Security Treaty Organisation (CSTO) along with Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. It participates in NATO's Partnership for Peace (PiP) program and is in a NATO organisation called Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC). Armenia has engaged in a peacekeeping mission in Kosovo as part of non-NATO KFOR troops under Greek command.[120] Armenia also had 46 members of its military peacekeeping forces as a part of the Coalition Forces in Iraq War until October 2008.[121] Administrative divisions Main article: Administrative divisions of Armenia Shirak Lori Tavush Aragatsotn Armavir Yerevan Ararat Kotayk Gegharkunik Vayots Dzor Syunik Geghard monastery, Kotayk Province Armenia is divided into ten provinces (marzer, singular marz), with the city (kaghak) of Yerevan (Երևան) having special administrative status as the country's capital. The chief executive in each of the ten provinces is the marzpet (marz governor), appointed by the government of Armenia. In Yerevan, the chief executive is the mayor, appointed by the president. Within each province are communities (hamaynkner, singular hamaynk). Each community is self-governing and consists of one or more settlements (bnakavayrer, singular bnakavayr). Settlements are classified as either towns (kaghakner, singular kaghak) or villages (gyugher, singular gyugh). As of 2007[update], Armenia includes 915 communities, of which 49 are considered urban and 866 are considered rural. The capital, Yerevan, also has the status of a community.[122] Additionally, Yerevan is divided into twelve semi-autonomous districts. Province Capital Area (km²) Population † Aragatsotn Արագածոտն Ashtarak Աշտարակ 2,756 132,925 Ararat Արարատ Artashat Արտաշատ 2,090 260,367 Armavir Արմավիր Armavir Արմավիր 1,242 265,770 Gegharkunik   Գեղարքունիք   Gavar Գավառ 5,349 235,075 Kotayk Կոտայք Hrazdan Հրազդան 2,086 254,397 Lori Լոռի Vanadzor Վանաձոր 3,799 235,537 Shirak Շիրակ Gyumri Գյումրի 2,680 251,941 Syunik Սյունիք Kapan Կապան 4,506 141,771 Tavush Տավուշ Ijevan Իջևան 2,704 128,609 Vayots Dzor Վայոց Ձոր Yeghegnadzor   Եղեգնաձոր   2,308 52,324 Yerevan Երևան – – 223 1,060,138 † 2011 census Sources: Area and population of provinces.[123]

Economy Main article: Economy of Armenia The economy relies heavily on investment and support from Armenians abroad.[124] Before independence, Armenia's economy was largely industry-based – chemicals, electronics, machinery, processed food, synthetic rubber, and textile – and highly dependent on outside resources. The republic had developed a modern industrial sector, supplying machine tools, textiles, and other manufactured goods to sister republics in exchange for raw materials and energy.[56] Recently, the Intel Corporation agreed to open a research centre in Armenia, in addition to other technology companies, signalling the growth of the technology industry in Armenia.[125] Agriculture accounted for less than 20% of both net material product and total employment before the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. After independence, the importance of agriculture in the economy increased markedly, its share at the end of the 1990s rising to more than 30% of GDP and more than 40% of total employment.[126] This increase in the importance of agriculture was attributable to food security needs of the population in the face of uncertainty during the first phases of transition and the collapse of the non-agricultural sectors of the economy in the early 1990s. As the economic situation stabilised and growth resumed, the share of agriculture in GDP dropped to slightly over 20% (2006 data), although the share of agriculture in employment remained more than 40%.[127] Yerevan is the economic and cultural centre of Armenia. Armenian mines produce copper, zinc, gold, and lead. The vast majority of energy is produced with fuel imported from Russia, including gas and nuclear fuel (for its one nuclear power plant); the main domestic energy source is hydroelectric. Small deposits of coal, gas, and petroleum exist but have not yet been developed. Like other newly independent states of the former Soviet Union, Armenia's economy suffers from the breakdown of former Soviet trading patterns. Soviet investment in and support of Armenian industry has virtually disappeared, so that few major enterprises are still able to function. In addition, the effects of the 1988 Spitak earthquake, which killed more than 25,000 people and made 500,000 homeless, are still being felt. The conflict with Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh has not been resolved. The closure of Azerbaijani and Turkish borders has devastated the economy, because Armenia depends on outside supplies of energy and most raw materials. Land routes through Georgia and Iran are inadequate or unreliable. The GDP fell nearly 60% between 1989 and 1993, but then resumed robust growth.[126] The national currency, the dram, suffered hyperinflation for the first years after its introduction in 1993. Nevertheless, the government was able to make wide-ranging economic reforms that paid off in dramatically lower inflation and steady growth. The 1994 cease-fire in the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict has also helped the economy. Armenia has had strong economic growth since 1995, building on the turnaround that began the previous year, and inflation has been negligible for the past several years. New sectors, such as precious-stone processing and jewellery making, information and communication technology, and even tourism are beginning to supplement more traditional sectors of the economy, such as agriculture. New buildings in the Ajapnyak District of Yerevan This steady economic progress has earned Armenia increasing support from international institutions. The International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), and other international financial institutions (IFIs) and foreign countries are extending considerable grants and loans. Loans to Armenia since 1993 exceed $1.1 billion. These loans are targeted at reducing the budget deficit and stabilising the currency; developing private businesses; energy; agriculture; food processing; transportation; the health and education sectors; and ongoing rehabilitation in the earthquake zone. The government joined the World Trade Organization on 5 February 2003. But one of the main sources of foreign direct investments remains the Armenian diaspora, which finances major parts of the reconstruction of infrastructure and other public projects. Being a growing democratic state, Armenia also hopes to get more financial aid from the Western World. A liberal foreign investment law was approved in June 1994, and a law on privatisation was adopted in 1997, as well as a program of state property privatisation. Continued progress will depend on the ability of the government to strengthen its macroeconomic management, including increasing revenue collection, improving the investment climate, and making strides against corruption. However, unemployment, which was 18.5% in 2015,[128] still remains a major problem due to the influx of thousands of refugees from the Karabakh conflict. Armenia ranked 85th on the 2015 UNDP Human Development Index, the lowest among the Transcaucasian republics.[129] In 2016 estimates it climbed up to 84th position surpassing Ukraine.[130] [131] Armenia ranks 47th on inequality-adjusted human development index (IHDI) in 2016 report, ahead of all its neighbouring countries with prominance of human inequality lower (i.e. better) than in these. [132] Armenia ranks 47th on Doing Business Index in 2018 with 13th rank on "starting business" sub-index. [133] In the 2015 Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI), Armenia ranked 95 of 168 countries.[134] In the 2016 Index of Economic Freedom, Armenia ranked 54th, ahead of countries like France, Portugal and Italy.[92] Exports and imports Cigarettes are ranked first among Armenia's export of finished products Exports to Imports from Country Percentage Country Percentage  Belgium 23%  Russia 15%  Russia 15%  United States 12%  United States 13%  Belgium 10%  Iran 10%  Iran 9% Others 39% Others 54%

Science and technology Main article: Science and technology in Armenia Research spending is low in Armenia, averaging 0.25% of GDP over 2010–2013. However, the statistical record of research expenditure is incomplete, as expenditure by privately owned business enterprises is not surveyed in Armenia. The world average for domestic expenditure on research was 1.7% of GDP in 2013.[135] GERD GDP ratio for the Black Sea countries, 2001–2013. Source: UNESCO Science Report: towards 2030 (2015), Figure 12.3 The country's Strategy for the Development of Science 2011–2020 envisions that ‘by 2020, Armenia is a country with a knowledge-based economy and is competitive within the European Research Area with its level of basic and applied research.’ It fixes the following targets:[135] Creation of a system capable of sustaining the development of science and technology; Development of scientific potential, modernization of scientific infrastructure; Promotion of basic and applied research; Creation of a synergistic system of education, science and innovation; and Becoming a prime location for scientific specialization in the European Research Area. Based on this strategy, the accompanying Action Plan was approved by the government in June 2011. It defines the following targets:[135] Improve the management system for science and technology and create the requisite conditions for sustainable development; Involve more young, talented people in education and research, while upgrading research infrastructure; Create the requisite conditions for the development of an integrated national innovation system; and Enhance international co-operation in research and development. GERD in the Black Sea region by sector of performance, 2005 and 2013. Source: UNESCO Science Report: towards 2030 (2015), Figure 12.5 Although the Strategy clearly pursues a ‘science push’ approach, with public research institutes serving as the key policy target, it nevertheless mentions the goal of establishing an innovation system. However, the main driver of innovation, the business sector, is not mentioned. In between publishing the Strategy and Action Plan, the government issued a resolution in May 2010 on Science and Technology Development Priorities for 2010–2014. These priorities are:[135] Armenian studies, humanities and social sciences; Life sciences; Renewable energy, new energy sources; Advanced technologies, information technologies; Space, Earth sciences, sustainable use of natural resources; and Basic research promoting essential applied research. The Law on the National Academy of Sciences was adopted in May 2011. This law is expected to play a key role in shaping the Armenian innovation system. It allows the National Academy of Sciences to extend its business activities to the commercialization of research results and the creation of spin-offs; it also makes provision for restructuring the National Academy of Sciences by combining institutes involved in closely related research areas into a single body. Three of these new centres are particularly relevant: the Centre for Biotechnology, the Centre for Zoology and Hydro-ecology and the Centre for Organic and Pharmaceutical Chemistry.[135] The government is focusing its support on selected industrial sectors. More than 20 projects have been cofunded by the State Committee of Science in targeted branches: pharmaceuticals, medicine and biotechnology, agricultural mechanization and machine building, electronics, engineering, chemistry and, in particular, the sphere of information technology.[135] Over the past decade, the government has made an effort to encourage science–industry linkages. The Armenian information technology sector has been particularly active: a number of public–private partnerships have been established between companies and universities, in order to give students marketable skills and generate innovative ideas at the interface of science and business. Examples are Synopsys Inc. and the Enterprise Incubator Foundation.[135]

Demographics Main articles: Demographics of Armenia and Armenians Armenia has a population of 2,924,816 (2016 est.)[14] and is the second most densely populated of the former Soviet republics. There has been a problem of population decline due to elevated levels of emigration after the break-up of the USSR.[136] In the past years emigration levels have declined and there is steady population growth. The Armenian population around the world Armenia has a relatively large external diaspora (8 million by some estimates, greatly exceeding the 3 million population of Armenia itself), with communities existing across the globe. The largest Armenian communities outside of Armenia can be found in Russia, France, Iran, the United States, Georgia, Syria, Lebanon, Argentina, Australia, Canada, Greece, Cyprus, Israel, Poland, Ukraine and Brazil. 40,000 to 70,000 Armenians still live in Turkey (mostly in and around Istanbul).[137] About 1,000 Armenians reside in the Armenian Quarter in the Old City of Jerusalem, a remnant of a once-larger community.[138] Italy is home to the San Lazzaro degli Armeni, an island located in the Venetian Lagoon, which is completely occupied by a monastery run by the Mechitarists, an Armenian Catholic congregation.[139] Approximately 139,000 Armenians live in the de facto country of Artsakh where they form a majority.[140] Ethnic groups Historical and modern distribution of Armenians.Settlement area of Armenians in early 20th century:   >50%       25–50%       <25%   Armenian settlement area today. Ethnic Armenians make up 98.1% of the population. Yazidis make up 1.2%, and Russians 0.4%. Other minorities include Assyrians, Ukrainians, Greeks (usually called Caucasus Greeks), Kurds, Georgians, Belarusians, and Jews. There are also smaller communities of Vlachs, Mordvins, Ossetians, Udis, and Tats. Minorities of Poles and Caucasus Germans also exist though they are heavily Russified.[141] As of 2016[update], there are an estimated 35,000 Yazidis in Armenia.[142] During the Soviet era, Azerbaijanis were historically the second largest population in the country (forming about 2.5% in 1989).[143] However, due to the conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh, virtually all of them emigrated from Armenia to Azerbaijan. Conversely, Armenia received a large influx of Armenian refugees from Azerbaijan, thus giving Armenia a more homogeneous character. Languages Main article: Languages of Armenia Armenian is the only official language. The main foreign languages that Armenians know are Russian and English. Due to its Soviet past, most of the old population can speak Russian quite well. According to a 2013 survey, 95% of Armenians said they had some knowledge of Russian (24% advanced, 59% intermediate) compared to 40% who said they knew some English (4% advanced, 16% intermediate and 20% beginner). However, more adults (50%) think that English should be taught in public secondary schools than those who prefer Russian (44%).[144] Cities See also: List of municipalities of Armenia   v t e Largest cities or towns in Armenia Armenia 2011 census[145][146][147][148][149][150][151][152][153][154][155] Rank Name Province Pop. Rank Name Province Pop. Yerevan Gyumri 1 Yerevan Yerevan 1,060,138 11 Gavar Gegharkunik 20,765 Vanadzor Vagharshapat 2 Gyumri Shirak 121,976 12 Goris Syunik 20,591 3 Vanadzor Lori 86,199 13 Charentsavan Kotayk 20,363 4 Vagharshapat Armavir 46,540 14 Ararat Ararat 20,235 5 Abovyan Kotayk 43,495 15 Masis Ararat 20,215 6 Kapan Syunik 43,190 16 Ashtarak Aragatsotn 19,615 7 Hrazdan Kotayk 41,875 17 Artik Shirak 19,534 8 Armavir Armavir 29,319 18 Sevan Gegharkunik 19,229 9 Artashat Ararat 22,269 19 Dilijan Tavush 17,712 10 Ijevan Tavush 21,081 20 Sisian Syunik 14,894 Religion See also: Religion in Armenia The 7th-century Khor Virap monastery in the shadow of Mount Ararat, the peak on which Noah's Ark is said to have landed during the biblical flood. Armenia was the first nation to adopt Christianity as a state religion, an event traditionally dated to AD 301.[156][157][158][159] The predominant religion in Armenia is Christianity. The roots of the Armenian Church go back to the 1st century. According to tradition, the Armenian Church was founded by two of Jesus' twelve apostles – Thaddaeus and Bartholomew – who preached Christianity in Armenia between AD 40–60. Because of these two founding apostles, the official name of the Armenian Church is Armenian Apostolic Church. Over 93% of Armenian Christians belong to the Armenian Apostolic Church, a form of Oriental (Non-Chalcedonian) Orthodoxy, which is a very ritualistic, conservative church, roughly comparable to the Coptic and Syriac churches.[160] The Armenian Apostolic Church is in communion only with a group of churches within Oriental Orthodoxy. The Armenian Evangelical Church has a very sizeable and favourable presence among the life of Armenians with over several thousand members throughout the country. It traces its roots back to 1846 which was under patronage of the Armenian Patriarchate of Constantinople the aim of which was to train qualified clergy for the Armenian Apostolic Church. Other Christian denominations practising faith based on Nicene Creed in Armenia are the Pentecostal branches of Protestant community such as the Word of Life, the Armenian Brotherhood Church,[161] the Baptists which are known as of the oldest existing denominations in Armenia and were permitted by the authorities of Soviet Union,[162][163] and Presbyterians.[164] Catholics also exist in Armenia, both Latin rite and Armenian rite Catholics. The Mechitarists (also spelled "Mekhitarists" Armenian: Մխիթարեան), are a congregation of Benedictine monks of the Armenian Catholic Church founded in 1712 by Mekhitar of Sebaste. They are best known for their series of scholarly publications of ancient Armenian versions of otherwise lost ancient Greek texts. The Armenian Catholic denomination is headquartered in Bzoummar, Lebanon. Armenia is home to a Russian community of Molokans which practice a form of Spiritual Christianity originated from the Russian Orthodox Church.[165] The Yazidis, who live in the western part of the country, practice Yazidism. As of 2016[update], the world's largest Yazidi temple is under construction in the small village of Aknalish.[142] There are also Kurds who practice Sunni Islam.[citation needed] There is a Jewish community in Armenia diminished to 750 persons since independence with most emigrants leaving for Israel. There are currently two synagogues in Armenia – in the capital, Yerevan, and in the city of Sevan located near Lake Sevan. Health Life expectancy at birth was 70 for males and 76 for females in 2006.[166] Health expenditures were about 5.6% of GDP in 2004.[166] Most of those expenditures were outside the private sector.[166] Government expenditures on health were US$112 per person in 2006.[167] Vast improvements of health services occurred in the past decade. Such improvements consisted of easier accessibility to health-care services and an Open Enrollment program which allows Armenians to freely choose their healthcare service provider.[168] Education Main article: Education in Armenia In its first years of independence, Armenia made uneven progress in establishing systems to meet its national requirements in social services.[169] Education, held in particular esteem in Armenian culture, changed fastest of the social services, while health and welfare services attempted to maintain the basic state-planned structure of the Soviet era.[169] A literacy rate of 100% was reported as early as 1960.[169] In the communist era, Armenian education followed the standard Soviet model of complete state control (from Moscow) of curricula and teaching methods and close integration of education activities with other aspects of society, such as politics, culture, and the economy.[169] As in the Soviet period, primary and secondary education in Armenia is free, and completion of secondary school is compulsory.[169] Yerevan State Medical University named after Mkhitar Heratsi In the 1988–89 school year, 301 students per 10,000 population were in specialised secondary or higher education, a figure slightly lower than the Soviet average.[169] In 1989 some 58% of Armenians over age fifteen had completed their secondary education, and 14% had a higher education.[169] In the 1990–91 school year, the estimated 1,307 primary and secondary schools were attended by 608,800 students.[169] Another seventy specialised secondary institutions had 45,900 students, and 68,400 students were enrolled in a total of ten postsecondary institutions that included universities.[169] In addition, 35% of eligible children attended preschools.[169] In 1992 Armenia's largest institution of higher learning, Yerevan State University, had eighteen departments, including ones for social sciences, sciences, and law.[169] Its faculty numbered about 1,300 teachers and its student population about 10,000 students.[169] The National Polytechnic University of Armenia is operating since 1933.[169] In the early 1990s, Armenia made substantial changes to the centralised and regimented Soviet system.[169] Because at least 98% of students in higher education were Armenian, curricula began to emphasise Armenian history and culture.[169] Armenian became the dominant language of instruction, and many schools that had taught in Russian closed by the end of 1991.[169] Russian was still widely taught, however, as a second language.[169] On the basis of the expansion and development of Yerevan State University a number of higher educational independent Institutions were formed including Medical Institute separated in 1930 which was set up on the basis of medical faculty. In 1980 Yerevan State Medical University was awarded one of the main rewards of the former USSR – the Order of Labor red Banner for training qualified specialists in health care and valuable service in the development of Medical Science. In 1995 YSMI was renamed to YSMU and since 1989 it has been named after Mkhitar Heratsi, the famous medieval doctor. Mkhitar Heratsi was the founder of Armenian Medical school in Cilician Armenia. The great doctor played the same role in Armenian Medical Science as Hippocrates in Western, Galen in Roman, Ibn Sīnā in Arabic medicine. Graduates of the MAB program of the Agribusiness Teaching Center Foreign students' department for Armenian diaspora established in 1957 later was enlarged and the enrolment of foreign students began. Nowadays the YSMU is a Medical Institution corresponding to international requirements, trains medical staff for not only Armenia and neighbour countries, i.e. Iran, Syria, Lebanon, Georgia, but also many other leading countries all over the world. A great number of foreign students from India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, the USA and Russian Federation study together with Armenian students. Nowadays the university is ranked among famous higher Medical Institutions and takes its honourable place in the World Directory of Medical Schools published by the WHO. Other educational institutions in Armenia include the American University of Armenia and the QSI International School of Yerevan. The American University of Armenia has graduate programs in Business and Law, among others. The institution owes its existence to the combined efforts of the Government of Armenia, the Armenian General Benevolent Union, US Agency for International Development, and the University of California. The extension programs and the library at AUA form a new focal point for English-language intellectual life in the city. Armenia also hosts a deployment of OLPC – One Laptopschool Per child XO laptop-tablet schools.[170]

Culture Main article: Culture of Armenia Armenians have their own distinctive alphabet and language. The alphabet was invented in AD 405 by Mesrop Mashtots and consists of thirty-nine letters, three of which were added during the Cilician period. 96% of the people in the country speak Armenian, while 75.8% of the population additionally speaks Russian, although English is becoming increasingly popular. Media Main article: Media of Armenia Television, magazines, and newspapers are all operated by both state-owned and for-profit corporations which depend on advertising, subscription, and other sales-related revenues. The Constitution of Armenia guarantees freedom of speech and Armenia ranks 78th in the 2015 Press Freedom Index report compiled by Reporters Without Borders, between Lesotho and Sierra Leone.[171] As a country in transition, Armenia's media system is under transformation.[172] Frequent attacks on journalists of non-state sponsored media is a serious threat to Armenia's press freedom. The number of assaults has recently declined, but the physical integrity of journalists remain at stake.[173] Music and dance Main article: Music of Armenia Djivan Gasparyan (left), Sirusho (middle) and Charles Aznavour (right) are among most popular musicians of Armenia. Armenian music is a mix of indigenous folk music, perhaps best-represented by Djivan Gasparyan's well-known duduk music, as well as light pop, and extensive Christian music. Instruments like the duduk, the dhol, the zurna, and the kanun are commonly found in Armenian folk music. Artists such as Sayat Nova are famous due to their influence in the development of Armenian folk music. One of the oldest types of Armenian music is the Armenian chant which is the most common kind of religious music in Armenia. Many of these chants are ancient in origin, extending to pre-Christian times, while others are relatively modern, including several composed by Saint Mesrop Mashtots, the inventor of the Armenian alphabet. Whilst under Soviet rule, Armenian classical music composer Aram Khatchaturian became internationally well known for his music, for various ballets and the Sabre Dance from his composition for the ballet Gayane. Traditional Armenian dance The Armenian Genocide caused widespread emigration that led to the settlement of Armenians in various countries in the world. Armenians kept to their traditions and certain diasporans rose to fame with their music. In the post-Genocide Armenian community of the United States, the so-called "kef" style Armenian dance music, using Armenian and Middle Eastern folk instruments (often electrified/amplified) and some western instruments, was popular. This style preserved the folk songs and dances of Western Armenia, and many artists also played the contemporary popular songs of Turkey and other Middle Eastern countries from which the Armenians emigrated. Richard Hagopian is perhaps the most famous artist of the traditional "kef" style and the Vosbikian Band was notable in the 1940s and 1950s for developing their own style of "kef music" heavily influenced by the popular American Big Band Jazz of the time. Later, stemming from the Middle Eastern Armenian diaspora and influenced by Continental European (especially French) pop music, the Armenian pop music genre grew to fame in the 1960s and 1970s with artists such as Adiss Harmandian and Harout Pamboukjian performing to the Armenian diaspora and Armenia; also with artists such as Sirusho, performing pop music combined with Armenian folk music in today's entertainment industry. Other Armenian diasporans that rose to fame in classical or international music circles are world-renowned French-Armenian singer and composer Charles Aznavour, pianist Sahan Arzruni, prominent opera sopranos such as Hasmik Papian and more recently Isabel Bayrakdarian and Anna Kasyan. Certain Armenians settled to sing non-Armenian tunes such as the heavy metal band System of a Down (which nonetheless often incorporates traditional Armenian instrumentals and styling into their songs) or pop star Cher. In the Armenian diaspora, Armenian revolutionary songs are popular with the youth. These songs encourage Armenian patriotism and are generally about Armenian history and national heroes. Art Main article: Armenian art Ancient Armenian Khachkars (cross-stones) Yerevan Vernissage (arts and crafts market), close to Republic Square, bustles with hundreds of vendors selling a variety of crafts on weekends and Wednesdays (though the selection is much reduced mid-week). The market offers woodcarving, antiques, fine lace, and the hand-knotted wool carpets and kilims that are a Caucasus speciality. Obsidian, which is found locally, is crafted into assortment of jewellery and ornamental objects. Armenian gold smithery enjoys a long tradition, populating one corner of the market with a selection of gold items. Soviet relics and souvenirs of recent Russian manufacture – nesting dolls, watches, enamel boxes and so on – are also available at the Vernisage. Queen Zabel’s Return to the Palace, Vardges Sureniants, (1909) Across from the Opera House, a popular art market fills another city park on the weekends. Armenia’s long history as a crossroads of the ancient world has resulted in a landscape with innumerable fascinating archaeological sites to explore. Medieval, Iron Age, Bronze Age and even Stone Age sites are all within a few hours drive from the city. All but the most spectacular remain virtually undiscovered, allowing visitors to view churches and fortresses in their original settings. The National Art Gallery in Yerevan has more than 16,000 works that date back to the Middle Ages, which indicate Armenia's rich tales and stories of the times. It houses paintings by many European masters as well. The Modern Art Museum, the Children’s Picture Gallery, and the Martiros Saryan Museum are only a few of the other noteworthy collections of fine art on display in Yerevan. Moreover, many private galleries are in operation, with many more opening every year, featuring rotating exhibitions and sales. On 13 April 2013, the Armenian government announced a change in law to allow freedom of panorama for 3D works of art.[174] Cinema Main article: Cinema of Armenia Cinema in Armenia was born on April 16, 1923, when the Armenian State Committee of Cinema was established by a decree of the Soviet Armenian government. However, the first Armenian film with Armenian subject called "Haykakan Sinema" was produced earlier in 1912 in Cairo by Armenian-Egyptian publisher Vahan Zartarian. The film was premiered in Cairo on March 13, 1913.[175] In March 1924, the first Armenian film studio; Armenfilm (Armenian: Հայֆիլմ "Hayfilm," Russian: Арменкино "Armenkino") was established in Yerevan, starting with a documentary film called Soviet Armenia. Namus was the first Armenian silent black-and-white film, directed by Hamo Beknazarian in 1925, based on a play of Alexander Shirvanzade, describing the ill fate of two lovers, who were engaged by their families to each other since childhood, but because of violations of namus (a tradition of honor), the girl was married by her father to another person. The first sound film, Pepo was shot in 1935, director Hamo Beknazarian. Sport Main articles: Sport in Armenia and Chess in Armenia The Tsaghkadzor Olympic Sports complex The Armenia national football team in Dublin, Ireland A wide array of sports are played in Armenia, the most popular among them being wrestling, weightlifting, judo, association football, chess, and boxing. Armenia's mountainous terrain provides great opportunities for the practice of sports like skiing and climbing. Being a landlocked country, water sports can only be practised on lakes, notably Lake Sevan. Competitively, Armenia has been successful in chess, weightlifting and wrestling at the international level. Armenia is also an active member of the international sports community, with full membership in the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) and International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF). It also hosts the Pan-Armenian Games. Prior to 1992, Armenians would participate in the Olympics representing the USSR. As part of the Soviet Union, Armenia was very successful, winning plenty of medals and helping the USSR win the medal standings at the Olympics on numerous occasions. The first medal won by an Armenian in modern Olympic history was by Hrant Shahinyan (sometimes spelled as Grant Shaginyan), who won two golds and two silvers in gymnastics at the 1952 Summer Olympics in Helsinki. To highlight the level of success of Armenians in the Olympics, Shahinyan was quoted as saying: "Armenian sportsmen had to outdo their opponents by several notches for the shot at being accepted into any Soviet team. But those difficulties notwithstanding, 90 percent of Armenians athletes on Soviet Olympic teams came back with medals."[176] Armenia first participated at the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona under a unified CIS team, where it was very successful, winning three golds and one silver in weightlifting, wrestling and sharp shooting, despite only having 5 athletes. Since the 1994 Winter Olympics in Lillehammer, Armenia has participated as an independent nation. Armenia participates in the Summer Olympic Games in boxing, wrestling, weightlifting, judo, gymnastics, track and field, diving, swimming and sharp shooting. It also participates in the Winter Olympic Games in alpine skiing, cross-country skiing and figure skating. Chess Grandmaster Levon Aronian is a FIDE #2 rated player and the fourth highest rated player in history Football is also popular in Armenia. The most successful team was the FC Ararat Yerevan team of the 1970s who won the Soviet Cup in 1973 and 1975 and the Soviet Top League in 1973. The latter achievement saw FC Ararat gain entry to the European Cup where – despite a home victory in the second leg – they lost on aggregate at the quarter final stage to eventual winner FC Bayern Munich. Armenia competed internationally as part of the USSR national football team until the Armenian national football team was formed in 1992 after the split of the Soviet Union. Armenia have never qualified for a major tournament although recent improvements saw the team to achieve 44th position in the FIFA World Rankings in September 2011. The national team is controlled by the Football Federation of Armenia. The Armenian Premier League is the highest level football competition in Armenia, and has been dominated by FC Pyunik in recent seasons. The league currently consists of eight teams and relegates to the Armenian First League. Armenia and the Armenian diaspora have produced many successful footballers, including Youri Djorkaeff, Alain Boghossian, Andranik Eskandarian, Andranik Teymourian, Edgar Manucharyan and Nikita Simonyan. Djokaeff and Boghossian won the 1998 FIFA World Cup with France, Andranik Teymourian competed in the 2006 World Cup for Iran and Edgar Manucharyan played in the Dutch Eredivisie for Ajax. Wrestling has been a successful sport in the Olympics for Armenia. At the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, Armen Nazaryan won the gold in the Men's Greco-Roman Flyweight (52 kg) category and Armen Mkrtchyan won the silver in Men's Freestyle Paperweight (48 kg) category, securing Armenia's first two medals in its Olympic history. Traditional Armenian wrestling is called Kokh and practised in traditional garb; it was one of the influences included in the Soviet combat sport of Sambo, which is also very popular.[177] The government of Armenia budgets about $2.8 million annually for sports and gives it to the National Committee of Physical Education and Sports, the body that determines which programs should benefit from the funds.[178] Due to the lack of success lately on the international level, in recent years, Armenia has rebuilt 16 Soviet-era sports schools and furnished them with new equipment for a total cost of $1.9 million. The rebuilding of the regional schools was financed by the Armenian government. $9.3 million has been invested in the resort town of Tsaghkadzor to improve the winter sports infrastructure because of dismal performances at recent winter sports events. In 2005, a cycling centre was opened in Yerevan with the aim of helping produce world class Armenian cyclists. The government has also promised a cash reward of $700,000 to Armenians who win a gold medal at the Olympics.[178] Armenia has also been very successful in chess, winning the World Champion in 2011 and the World Chess Olympiad on three occasions.[179] Cuisine Main article: Armenian cuisine Armenian cuisine Armenian cuisine is closely related to eastern and Mediterranean cuisine, various spices, vegetables, fish, and fruits combine to present unique dishes. The main characteristics of Armenian cuisine are a reliance on the quality of the ingredients rather than heavily spicing food, the use of herbs, the use of wheat in a variety of forms, of legumes, nuts, and fruit (as a main ingredient as well as to sour food), and the stuffing of a wide variety of leaves. The pomegranate, with its symbolic association with fertility, represents that nation. The apricot is the national fruit.

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Retrieved 6 May 2016.  ^ "Human Development Report 2015 – "Rethinking Work for Human Development"" (PDF). HDRO (Human Development Report Office) United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 14 December 2015.  ^ "Human Development Report 2016" (PDF).  ^ "Human Development Reports". Retrieved 2018-01-16.  ^ "Human Development Reports". Retrieved 2018-01-16.  ^ "Doing Business in Armenia - World Bank Group". Retrieved 2018-01-16.  ^ "CPI 2015 table". Transparency International. Retrieved 28 January 2016.  ^ a b c d e f g Erocal, Deniz; Yegorov, Igor (2015). Countries in the Black Sea basin. In: UNESCO Science Report: towards 2030 (PDF). Paris: UNESCO. pp. 324–41. ISBN 978-92-3-100129-1.  ^ Paul, Amanda. "Armenia's disappearing population". Archived from the original on 27 July 2011. Retrieved 27 July 2011.  ^ Turay, Anna. "Tarihte Ermeniler". Bolsohays:Istanbul Armenians Like many other ethnicities Armenians in India too have played a role historically and had an impact historically. 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Caucasus Analytical Digest #51–52. Forschungsstelle Osteuropa, Bremen and Center for Security Studies, Zürich. 17 June 2013. pp. 22–23. ISSN 1867-9323. Retrieved 3 July 2013.  ^ Aragatsotn ^ Tavush ^ Kotayk ^ Vayots Dzor ^ Syunik ^ Shirak ^ Lori ^ Gegharkunik ^ Armavir ^ Ararat ^ Yerevan ^ "Armenia – Which Nation First Adopted Christianity?". 29 October 2009. Retrieved 25 January 2010.  ^ "Visit Armenia, It is Beautiful". Retrieved 25 January 2010.  ^ "Armenia Information – Welcome to Armenia". Archived from the original on 6 February 2010. Retrieved 25 January 2010.  ^ "Blog Archive " Which is the first country to adopt Christianity?". Did You Know it. Retrieved 25 January 2010.  ^ "The Armenian Apostolic Church (World Council of Churches)".  ^ "Armenian Brotherhood Church of Yerevan".  ^ "Armenian Evangelical Christian Baptist". Retrieved 28 August 2012.  ^ "Despite poverty, Baptists prosper in Armenia" (PDF). Biblical Recorder. 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Central Intelligence Agency.  Armenia at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Armenia profile from the BBC News Wikimedia Atlas of Armenia Key Development Forecasts for Armenia from International Futures Articles related to Armenia v t e Armenia articles History  (timeline) Early Origins Name Kura–Araxes culture Hayk Hayasa-Azzi Mitanni Nairi Kingdom of Urartu Median kingdom Orontid dynasty Achaemenid Empire Satrapy of Armenia Kingdom of Armenia Roman Armenia Parthian Empire Byzantine Armenia Sasanian Armenia Middle Emirate of Armenia Sajids Bagratuni Armenia Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia Sallarids Ilkhanate Chobanids Ag Qoyunlu Kara Koyunlu Ottoman Armenia 1508–1828 Persian Armenia Safavid Iran Afsharid Iran Qajar Iran Erivan Khanate Karabakh Khanate Treaty of Turkmenchay Russian Armenia Modern First Republic of Armenia Soviet Armenia Independent Armenia By topic Armenian Genocide Nagorno-Karabakh conflict Armenian national liberation movement more... 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Symbols Armenian Cross Armenian eternity sign Coat of arms Flag Mount Ararat National anthem Apricot Grape Pomegranate Outline Index Book Category Portal v t e Armenian nationalism Ideology United Armenia Armenian national awakening Tseghakronism Miatsum Organizations Active political parties Armenian Revolutionary Federation (Dashnak) Social Democrat Hunchakian Party (Hunchak) Armenian Democratic Liberal Party (Ramgavar) Defunct parties Armenakan Party National United Party Defunct militant organizations Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia Justice Commandos of the Armenian Genocide Armenian Revolutionary Army People Thinkers Khachatur Abovian Mikael Nalbandian Raffi Mkrtich Khrimian Shahan Natalie Kevork Ajemian Silva Kaputikyan Militants and commanders Arabo Aghbiur Serob Kevork Chavush Andranik Aram Manukian Armen Garo Garegin Nzhdeh Hagop Hagopian Movses Gorgisyan Monte Melkonian Vazgen Sargsyan Jirair Sefilian Historical events Armenian national liberation movement Battle of Sardarabad February Uprising Karabakh movement Nagorno-Karabakh War Political entities Provisional Republic of Van First Republic of Armenia Republic of Mountainous Armenia Armenia Artsakh v t e Administrative divisions of Armenia Provinces (մարզեր) Aragatsotn Ararat Armavir Gegharkunik Kotayk Lori Shirak Syunik Tavush Vayots Dzor City with special status Yerevan (capital) v t e Cities and towns in Armenia Aragatsotn Ashtarak Aparan Talin Ararat Artashat Ararat Masis Vedi Armavir Armavir Metsamor Vagharshapat Gegharkunik Gavar Chambarak Martuni Sevan Vardenis Kotayk Hrazdan Abovyan Byureghavan Charentsavan Nor Hachn Tsaghkadzor Yeghvard Lori Vanadzor Akhtala Alaverdi Spitak Stepanavan Tashir Tumanyan Shirak Gyumri Artik Maralik Syunik Kapan Goris Kajaran Meghri Sisian Tavush Ijevan Ayrum Berd Dilijan Noyemberyan Vayots Dzor Yeghegnadzor Jermuk Vayk Capital city Yerevan v t e World Heritage Sites in Armenia Monasteries of Haghpat and Sanahin Monastery of Geghard and the Upper Azat Valley Cathedral and Churches of Echmiatsin Saint Hripsime Saint Gayane Shoghakat the Archaeological Site of Zvartnots Sites on the Tentative List The archaeological site of the city of Dvin The basilica and archaeological site of Yererouk The monastery of Noravank and the upper Amaghou Valley The monasteries of Tatev and Tatevi Anapat The adjacent areas of the Vorotan Valley  Geographic locale v t e Countries and regions of the Caucasus      Abkhazia1  Adjara  Adygea  Armenia  Artsakh1  Azerbaijan  Chechnya  Dagestan  Georgia  Ingushetia  Kabardino-Balkaria  Karachay-Cherkessia  Krasnodar Krai Nakhchivan  North Ossetia-Alania  South Ossetia1  Stavropol Krai 1 Partially-recognized states v t e Sovereign states and dependencies of Europe Sovereign states Albania Andorra Armenia2 Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus2 Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland1 Ireland Italy Kazakhstan Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom Vatican City States with limited recognition Abkhazia2 Artsakh2 Kosovo Northern Cyprus2 South Ossetia2 Transnistria Dependencies Denmark Faroe Islands1 autonomous country of the Kingdom of Denmark United Kingdom Akrotiri and Dhekelia2 Sovereign Base Areas Gibraltar British Overseas Territory Guernsey Isle of Man Jersey Crown dependencies Special areas of internal sovereignty Finland Åland Islands autonomous region subject to the Åland Convention of 1921 Norway Svalbard unincorporated area subject to the Svalbard Treaty United Kingdom Northern Ireland country of the United Kingdom subject to the British-Irish Agreement 1 Oceanic islands within the vicinity of Europe are usually grouped with the continent even though they are not situated on its continental shelf. 2 Some countries completely outside the conventional geographical boundaries of Europe are commonly associated with the continent due to ethnological links. International membership v t e International organizations with Armenia as member ADB BSEC CE CIS CSTO EAPC EBRD ECE EAEC UNESCAP FAO IAEA IBRD ICAO ICFTU ICRM IDA IFAD IFC IFRCS ILO IMF Interpol IOC IOM ISO ITU OIF EAPC NAM OPCW OSCE PACE PFP UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNIDO UPU UNWTO WHO WIPO WMO WNO WTO Italics indicates observer status v t e Council of Europe Institutions Secretary General Committee of Ministers Parliamentary Assembly Congress Court of Human Rights Commissioner for Human Rights Commission for the Efficiency of Justice Commission against Racism and Intolerance Members Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia1 Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom Observers Canada Holy See Israel Japan Mexico United States Sovereign Military Order of Malta Former members Czechoslovakia (1991–1992) Saar (assoc. 1950–1956) 1 Provisionally referred to by the Council of Europe as "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia"; see Macedonia naming dispute. v t e Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia Eurasian Economic Union Union State Membership Members Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Moldova Russia Tajikistan Uzbekistan Associate members Turkmenistan Ukraine Former members Georgia (1993–2009) History Russian Empire Soviet Union Dissolution of the Soviet Union Union of Sovereign States Belavezha Accords (Near abroad) Alma-Ata Protocol Sports Unified Team at the Olympics Unified Team at the Paralympics CIS national bandy team CIS national football team CIS national ice hockey team CIS national rugby team CIS Cup (football) Military Collective Security Treaty Organization Collective Rapid Reaction Force Joint CIS Air Defense System Economics Economic Court CISFTA Eurasian Economic Community Eurasian Patent Convention Eurasian Patent Organization EU Technical Aid Organization Interstate Aviation Committee Council of Ministers of Defense of the CIS Category v t e Eurasian Economic Union Member states Armenia Belarus Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Russia Observer members Moldova Prospective members Mongolia Syria Tajikistan v t e La Francophonie Membership Members Albania Andorra Armenia Belgium French Community Benin Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada New Brunswick Quebec Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Comoros Cyprus1 Democratic Republic of the Congo Republic of the Congo Djibouti Dominica Egypt Equatorial Guinea France French Guiana Guadeloupe Martinique St. Pierre and Miquelon Gabon Ghana1 Greece Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti Ivory Coast Laos Luxembourg Lebanon Macedonia2 Madagascar Mali Mauritania Mauritius Moldova Monaco Morocco Niger Qatar Romania Rwanda St. Lucia São Tomé and Príncipe Senegal Seychelles Switzerland Togo Tunisia Vanuatu Vietnam Observers Austria Bosnia and Herzegovina Croatia Czech Republic Dominican Republic Georgia Hungary Kosovo Latvia Lithuania Montenegro Mozambique Ontario Poland Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Thailand Ukraine United Arab Emirates Uruguay 1 Associate member. 2 Provisionally referred to by the Francophonie as the "former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia"; see Macedonia naming dispute. Organization Agence de Coopération Culturelle et Technique Agence universitaire de la Francophonie Secretaries-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali Abdou Diouf Michaëlle Jean Culture French language UN French Language Day International Francophonie Day Jeux de la Francophonie Prix des cinq continents de la francophonie Senghor University AFFOI TV5Monde LGBT rights Category v t e Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC)      Albania  Armenia  Azerbaijan  Bulgaria  Georgia  Greece  Moldova  Romania  Russia  Serbia  Turkey  Ukraine v t e World Trade Organization System Accession and membership Appellate Body Dispute Settlement Body International Trade Centre Chronology of key events Issues Criticism Doha Development Round Singapore issues Quota Elimination Peace Clause Agreements General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade Agriculture Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures Technical Barriers to Trade Trade Related Investment Measures Trade in Services Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights Government Procurement Information Technology Marrakech Agreement Doha Declaration Bali Package Ministerial Conferences 1st (1996) 2nd (1998) 3rd (1999) 4th (2001) 5th (2003) 6th (2005) 7th (2009) 8th (2011) 9th (2013) 10th (2015) People Roberto Azevêdo (Director-General) Pascal Lamy Supachai Panitchpakdi Alejandro Jara Rufus Yerxa Members Afghanistan Albania Algeria Angola Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Australia Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belize Benin Bolivia Botswana Brazil Brunei Burkina Faso Burma Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Chile China Colombia Democratic Republic of the Congo Republic of the Congo Costa Rica Côte d'Ivoire Cuba Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Fiji Gabon The Gambia Georgia Ghana Grenada Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Honduras Hong Kong1 Iceland India Indonesia Israel Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya South Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Laos Lesotho Liberia Liechtenstein Macau1 Macedonia Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Moldova Mongolia Montenegro Morocco Mozambique Namibia Nepal New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Norway Oman Pakistan Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Qatar Russia Rwanda St. Kitts and Nevis St. Lucia St. Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa Saudi Arabia Senegal Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Solomon Islands South Africa Sri Lanka Suriname Swaziland Switzerland Tajikistan Taiwan2 Tanzania Thailand Togo Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United States Uruguay Venezuela Vietnam Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe European Union Austria Belgium Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Ireland Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Netherlands Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden United Kingdom Special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China, participates as "Hong Kong, China" and "Macao China". Officially the Republic of China, participates as "Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu", and "Chinese Taipei" in short. v t e National personifications Argentina Effigies of Argentina Armenia Mother Armenia Australia Boxing kangaroo Little Boy from Manly Bangladesh Mother Bengal Belgium Leo Belgicus Brazil Efígie da República Cambodia Preah Thong and Neang Neak Canada Johnny Canuck China Yanhuang Czech Republic Čechie Czech Vašek Švejk Denmark Holger Danske Finland Finnish Maiden France Marianne Georgia Kartvlis Deda Germany Deutscher Michel Germania Greece Hellas Hungary Lady of Hungaria Iceland Lady of the Mountain India Bharat Mata Indonesia Ibu Pertiwi Ireland Ériu Hibernia Kathleen Ni Houlihan Israel Srulik Italy Italia turrita Japan Amaterasu Kenya Wanjiku Korea Dangun Ungnyeo Malta Melita Montenegro Fairy of Lovćen Netherlands Dutch Maiden New Zealand Zealandia Norway Ola Nordmann Philippines Juan dela Cruz Maria Clara Poland Polonia Portugal Efígie da República Zé Povinho Russia Mother Russia Serbia Mother Serbia Kosovo Maiden Spain Hispania Sweden Mother Svea Switzerland Helvetia Ukraine Cossack Mamay United Kingdom Britannia John Bull Dame Wales United States Brother Jonathan Columbia Lady Liberty Uncle Sam Billy Yank Northern states Johnny Reb Southern states Other symbols of Liberty v t e States with limited recognition Details concerning international recognition and foreign relations provided by the articles linked in parenthesis UN member states Partially unrecognised Armenia relations China relations Cyprus relations Israel recognition relations North Korea relations South Korea relations Non-UN member states Recognised by at least one UN member Abkhazia recognition relations Kosovo recognition relations Northern Cyprus relations Palestine recognition relations Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic recognition relations South Ossetia recognition relations Taiwan relations Recognised only by non-UN members Artsakh recognition relations Transnistria recognition relations Unrecognised Somaliland relations Authority control WorldCat Identities VIAF: 138518304 LCCN: n92057129 GND: 4085931-9 HDS: 25005 NDL: 00560353 Retrieved from "" Categories: ArmeniaTranscaucasiaEastern European countriesWestern Asian countriesLandlocked countriesLiberal democraciesRepublicsMember states of the Commonwealth of Independent StatesMember states of the Council of EuropeMember states of the United NationsMembers of the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples OrganizationStates and territories established in 1918States and territories disestablished in 19201918 establishments in Asia1918 establishments in Europe1920 disestablishments in Asia1920 disestablishments in EuropeStates and territories established in 19911991 establishments in Asia1991 establishments in EuropeArmenian-speaking countries and territoriesRussian-speaking countries and territoriesCountries in AsiaCountries in EuropeChristian statesHidden categories: CS1 Italian-language sources (it)Pages with DOIs inactive since 2017CS1 maint: Extra text: editors listArticles containing Ancient Greek-language textArticles with Russian-language external linksArticles containing Armenian-language textCS1 Armenian-language sources (hy)CS1 German-language sources (de)CS1 Russian-language sources (ru)Webarchive template wayback linksCS1 maint: Extra text: authors listWikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pagesWikipedia indefinitely move-protected pagesEngvarB from November 2016Coordinates on WikidataArticles with hAudio microformatsArticles including recorded pronunciations (English)All articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from March 2017Articles needing additional references from September 2016All articles needing additional referencesArticles with unsourced statements from July 2009Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2014All articles containing potentially dated statementsArticles with unsourced statements from April 2008All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrasesArticles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from January 2016Articles with unsourced statements from January 2016Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2011Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2007Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2016Articles with unsourced statements from August 2009Articles containing Russian-language textFree-content attributionFree content from UNESCO PublishingArticles with DMOZ linksUse dmy dates from October 2016Wikipedia articles with VIAF identifiersWikipedia articles with LCCN identifiersWikipedia articles with GND identifiers

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This Article Is Semi-protected.Armenia (disambiguation)Hayastan (disambiguation)Geographic Coordinate SystemArmenian LanguageFlag Of ArmeniaFlag Of ArmeniaCoat Of Arms Of ArmeniaCoat Of Arms Of ArmeniaMer HayrenikLocation Of ArmeniaYerevanArmenian LanguageEthnic GroupsArmeniansYazidis In ArmeniaRussians In ArmeniaArmenian Apostolic ChurchDemonymArmeniansPolitics Of ArmeniaUnitary StateSemi-presidential SystemRepublicPresident Of ArmeniaSerzh SargsyanPresident Of The National Assembly Of ArmeniaAra BabloyanPrime Minister Of ArmeniaKaren KarapetyanNational Assembly (Armenia)Hayasa-AzziShupriaUrartuOrontid DynastyKingdom Of Armenia (antiquity)Artaxiad DynastyArsacid Dynasty Of ArmeniaBagratid ArmeniaArmenian Kingdom Of CiliciaFirst Republic Of ArmeniaDeclaration Of Independence Of Armenia (1918)Soviet UnionAlma-Ata ProtocolUnited Nations Security Council Resolution 735United NationsGeography Of ArmeniaList Of Countries And Dependencies By AreaDemographics Of ArmeniaList Of Countries And Dependencies By PopulationList Of Countries And Territories By Population DensityGross Domestic ProductPurchasing Power ParityGross Domestic ProductGini CoefficientHuman Development IndexList Of Countries By Human Development IndexArmenian DramArmenian Dram SignISO 4217Armenia TimeCoordinated Universal TimeRight- And Left-hand TrafficTelephone Numbers In ArmeniaTelephone Numbers In ArmeniaPatron SaintGregory The IlluminatorISO 3166ISO 3166-2:AMCountry Code Top-levelհայArmenian Orthography ReformArmenian Independence Referendum, 1991Dissolution Of The Soviet UnionConstitution Of ArmeniaHelp:IPA/EnglishAbout This SoundArmenian LanguageRomanization Of ArmenianHelp:IPA/ArmenianArmenian LanguageRomanization Of ArmenianHelp:IPA/ArmenianCountrySouth CaucasusEurasiaArmenian HighlandsTurkeyGeorgia (country)Republic Of ArtsakhAzerbaijanIranExclaveNakhchivan Autonomous RepublicNation StateUrartuSatrapy Of ArmeniaKingdom Of Armenia (antiquity)Tigranes The GreatChristianityState ReligionByzantine EmpireSasanian EmpireBagratuni DynastyBagratid Kingdom Of ArmeniaSeljuk EmpireArmenian Kingdom Of CiliciaMediterranean SeaEastern ArmeniaWestern ArmeniaOttoman EmpirePersian EmpireRussian EmpireWorld War IArmenian GenocideRussian RevolutionFirst Republic Of ArmeniaTranscaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet RepublicSoviet UnionArmenian Soviet Socialist RepublicRepublics Of The Soviet UnionDissolution Of The Soviet UnionArmenian Apostolic ChurchArmenian AlphabetMesrop MashtotsEurasian Economic UnionCouncil Of EuropeCollective Security Treaty OrganizationRepublic Of ArtsakhName Of ArmeniaArmenian LanguageMiddle AgesPersian Language-stanWikipedia:Citation NeededAgathangelosFaustus Of ByzantiumGhazar ParpetsiKoryunSebeosHaykArmeniansNoahMoses Of ChoreneList Of Kings Of Babylon3rd Millennium BCArarat, ArmeniaHayasaExonym And EndonymOld PersianBehistun InscriptionAncient GreekHecataeus Of MiletusXenophonPersian PeopleAram (given Name)Table Of NationsAram, Son Of ShemShemBook Of JubileesAram, Son Of ShemAncient ArmeniaAntiquities Of The JewsSyriansTrachonitisDamascusPalestinian TerritoriesCelesyriaBactriansCharax SpasiniEnlargeHistory Of ArmeniaPrehistoric ArmeniaPrehistory Of The ArmeniansSatrapy Of ArmeniaKingdom Of Armenia (antiquity)Roman ArmeniaSasanian ArmeniaLesser ArmeniaEnlargeHerodotusEnlargeKingdom Of Armenia (Antiquity)Tigranes The GreatMount AraratBronze AgeAreni-1 Cave ComplexAreni-1 ShoeAreni-1 WineryBronze AgeHittitesMitanniHayasa-AzziNairiUrartuArmenian HighlandsArmeniansYerevanArgishti I Of UrartuSatrapy Of ArmeniaOrontid DynastyAchaemenid EmpireSeleucid EmpireArtaxias IArtaxiad DynastyTigranes The GreatRoman RepublicPersian EmpireTiridates I Of ArmeniaArsacid Dynasty Of ArmeniaParthian EmpireAssyriaAshurbanipalCaucasus MountainsMedesAchaemenid EmpireGreeksParthian EmpireAncient RomeSasanian EmpireByzantine EmpireArabsSeljuk EmpireMongolsOttoman EmpireSafavid DynastyAfsharid DynastyQajar DynastyRussiansEnlargeGarni TempleColonnadePost-Soviet StatesZoroastrianismMithraAramazdVahagnAnahitAstghikArmenian CalendarTiridates III Of ArmeniaState ReligionSasanian EmpireRoman EmpireGaleriusConstantine The GreatSasanian ArmeniaBattle Of AvarayrWikipedia:VerifiabilityHelp:Introduction To Referencing With Wiki Markup/1Help:Maintenance Template RemovalMedieval ArmeniaEnlargeEtchmiadzin CathedralSasanian ArmeniaArminiyaUmayyad CaliphateByzantine EmpireCaliphateList Of Byzantine EmperorsArminiyaCaucasian AlbaniaDvin (ancient City)Abbasid CaliphateAshot I Of ArmeniaBagratuni DynastyVaspurakanArtsruniSyunik ProvinceKingdom Of ArtsakhNagorno-KarabakhEnlargeArmenian Kingdom Of CiliciaSeljuk EmpireBattle Of ManzikertGagik II Of ArmeniaAniRuben I, Prince Of ArmeniaTaurus MountainsTarsus, MersinCiliciaArmenian Kingdom Of CiliciaLeo I, King Of ArmeniaCrusadesZakarid ArmeniaHistory Of Georgia (country)Orbelian DynastyVayots Dzor ProvinceHouse Of Hasan-JalalyanArtsakh (historic Province)UtikIranian Armenia (1502–1828)Armenians In The Ottoman EmpireRussian ArmeniaMongol EmpireKara KoyunluTimurid DynastyAğ QoyunluOttoman EmpireSafavid DynastyWestern ArmeniaEastern ArmeniaWestern AsiaPeace Of AmasyaTreaty Of ZuhabAfsharid DynastyQajar DynastyOttoman TurkeyAbbas I Of PersiaScorched EarthHistory Of ArmeniaEnlargeCapture Of ErivanRusso-Persian War (1826–28)Franz RoubaudTreaty Of GulistanTreaty Of TurkmenchayRusso-Persian War (1804–13)Russo-Persian War (1826–28)Qajar DynastyEastern ArmeniaErivan KhanateKarabakh KhanateImperial RussiaEnclaveSocial StructureAbdul Hamid IIHamidian MassacresRussian ArmeniaArmenian Revolutionary FederationOttoman EmpireArmenian FedayiYoung Turk RevolutionAdana MassacreAdana VilayetCommittee Of Union And ProgressArmenian Reform PackageInspector GeneralArmenian GenocideEnlargeArmenian GenocideOttoman EmpireRussian EmpireCaucasus CampaignPersian CampaignIstanbulImperial Russian ArmyArmenian Volunteer UnitsDeportation Of Armenian Intellectuals On 24 April 1915Tehcir LawAnatoliaArmenian GenocideDeath MarchSyrian DesertArmenian Resistance During The Armenian GenocideGenocideArnold J. ToynbeeInternational Association Of Genocide ScholarsRecognition Of The Armenian GenocideFirst Republic Of ArmeniaEnlargeFirst Republic Of ArmeniaRussian Caucasus Army (World War I)Nikolai YudenichAndranik OzanianTovmas NazarbekianOctober RevolutionWikipedia:Citation NeededEastern ArmeniaAzerbaijanTranscaucasian Democratic Federative RepublicFirst Republic Of ArmeniaAram ManukianTerritorial DisputeAllies Of World War IAllies Of World War IOttoman EmpireSèvresTreaty Of SèvresWoodrow WilsonWilsonian ArmeniaMihran DamadianCiliciaTurkish National MovementPolitics Of TurkeyIstanbulAnkaraEnlarge11th Army (Soviet Union)Kâzım KarabekirRusso-Turkish War (1877–78)GyumriTreaty Of AlexandropolArmed ForcesTreaty Of Sèvres11th Army (Soviet Union)Grigoriy OrdzhonikidzeIjevanFebruary UprisingRepublic Of Mountainous ArmeniaGaregin NzhdehSyunik ProvinceArmenian Soviet Socialist RepublicEnlargeArmenian Soviet Socialist RepublicMount AraratRussian Soviet Federative Socialist RepublicDemocratic Republic Of GeorgiaAzerbaijan Democratic RepublicSoviet UnionTranscaucasian SFSRTreaty Of KarsAdjaraBatumiKarsArdahanIğdırArmenian Soviet Socialist RepublicAzerbaijan Soviet Socialist RepublicGeorgian Soviet Socialist RepublicVladimir LeninJoseph StalinNikita KhrushchevCatholicos Of All ArmeniansVazgen ITsitsernakaberdHrazdanCanyonYerevan1965 Yerevan DemonstrationsEnlargeFreedom Square, YerevanYerevanNagorno-Karabakh Autonomous OblastArmenian SSRMikhail GorbachevGlasnostPerestroikaNagorno-KarabakhArmenians In AzerbaijanSumgait PogromSumgait1988 Armenian EarthquakeMoment Magnitude ScaleArmenian ArmyRed ArmyRussian Ministry Of Internal AffairsNubarashenPogrom Of Armenians In BakuBakuBaltic StatesMoldavian Soviet Socialist RepublicSoviet Union Referendum, 1991History Of ArmeniaEnlargeNagorno-Karabakh War1991 Soviet Coup D'état AttemptLevon Ter-PetrosyanKarabakh MovementNagorno-KarabakhVazgen SargsyanNagorno-Karabakh WarAzerbaijani Popular Front PartyBlockadeEnlargeCeasefireOrganization For Security And Co-operation In EuropeMarket EconomyCommonwealth Of Independent StatesEnlargeGeography Of ArmeniaLandlocked CountryGeopoliticalTranscaucasusCaucasus MountainsBlack SeaCaspian SeaArmenian HighlandGeorgia (country)AzerbaijanIranTurkey38th Parallel North42nd Parallel North43rd Meridian East47th Meridian EastEnlargeTopographyContinental ClimateMetres Above Sea LevelMount AragatsMetres Above Sea LevelMount AraratCoat Of Arms Of ArmeniaWaste Management In ArmeniaHydroelectricityWind PowerMetsamor Nuclear Power PlantYerevanClimate Of ArmeniaWinter SportTsakhkadzorLake SevanMetres Above Sea LevelGovernment Of ArmeniaPolitics Of ArmeniaEnlargeNational Assembly (Armenia)YerevanPolitics Of ArmeniaSemi-presidential SystemRepresentative DemocracyConstitution Of ArmeniaPresident Of ArmeniaHead Of StatePrime Minister Of ArmeniaHead Of GovernmentMulti-party SystemExecutive (government)LegislatureUnicameral ParliamentNational Assembly Of ArmeniaNational Assembly Of ArmeniaRepublican Party Of ArmeniaProsperous ArmeniaRule Of Law (Armenia)Armenian Revolutionary FederationOpposition (parliamentary)Raffi HovannisianHeritage (Armenia)NATOParliamentary DemocracyCouncil Of EuropeUnited States Department Of StateElectionElectoral Affairs CommissionFreedom HouseMoldovaKyrgyzstanTransition CountryFreedom In The World (report)Armenian Presidential Election, 2008Organization For Security And Co-operation In EuropeForeign Relations Of ArmeniaArmenia And The European UnionArmenia–Turkey RelationsEnlargeEmbassy Of Armenia In MoscowSoviet UnionNagorno-Karabakh WarOrganization For Security And Co-operation In EuropeCouncil Of EuropeAsian Development BankCommonwealth Of Independent StatesWorld Trade OrganizationWorld Customs OrganizationOrganization Of The Black Sea Economic CooperationOrganisation Internationale De La FrancophonieCollective Security Treaty OrganisationPartnership For PeaceArmenian GenocideRussian 102nd Military BaseGyumriWikipedia:Citation NeededArmenian DiasporaUnited States CensusEnlargeDmitry MedvedevTsitsernakaberdWikipedia:Manual Of Style/Words To WatchWikipedia:Citation NeededKosovo ForceKosovoEurasian Economic CommunityNon-Aligned MovementArmenian SSRSoviet UnionEmergent DemocracyEuropean UnionCustoms Union Of Belarus, Kazakhstan And RussiaEurasian UnionEuropean Neighbourhood PolicyHuman Rights In ArmeniaPost-Soviet StatesWikipedia:Citation NeededFreedom HouseBangladeshHondurasArmed Forces Of ArmeniaEnlargeArmenian ArmyBTR-80Enlarge2010 Moscow Victory Day ParadeArmenian ArmyArmenian Air ForceArmenian Air ForceArmenian Border GuardHistory Of The Soviet Union (1985–91)Commander-in-chiefPresident Of ArmeniaSerzh SargsyanMinistry (collective Executive)Colonel GeneralSeyran OhanyanStaff (military)Yuri KhatchaturovMilitary Reserve ForceGeorgia (country)AzerbaijanIranTurkeyTreaty On Conventional Armed Forces In EuropeChemical Weapons ConventionNuclear Non-Proliferation TreatyCollective Security Treaty OrganisationBelarusKazakhstanKyrgyzstanRussiaTajikistanUzbekistanPartnership For PeaceEuro-Atlantic Partnership CouncilKosovoKosovo ForcePeacekeepingInternational Security Assistance ForceIraq WarAdministrative Divisions Of ArmeniaShirak ProvinceLori ProvinceTavushAragatsotnArmavir ProvinceYerevanArarat ProvinceKotayk ProvinceGegharkunik ProvinceVayots DzorSyunik ProvinceEnlargeGeghardKotayk ProvinceAdministrative Divisions Of ArmeniaYerevanList Of Municipalities Of ArmeniaAragatsotn ProvinceAshtarakArarat ProvinceArtashat, ArmeniaArmavir ProvinceArmavir, ArmeniaGegharkunik ProvinceGavarKotayk ProvinceHrazdanLori ProvinceVanadzorShirak ProvinceGyumriSyunik ProvinceKapanTavushIjevanVayots DzorYeghegnadzorYerevanEconomy Of ArmeniaChemical SubstanceElectronicsFood ProcessingSynthetic RubberSecondary Sector Of The EconomyMachine ToolFinal GoodsIntel CorporationNet Material ProductFull EmploymentHistory Of The Soviet Union (1985–1991)Transition EconomyEnlargeYerevanPost-Soviet States1988 Armenian EarthquakeEnlargeAjapnyak DistrictInternational Monetary FundWorld BankEuropean Bank For Reconstruction And DevelopmentGlobal Financial SystemUnited Nations Development ProgrammeHuman Development IndexSouth CaucasusUkraineList Of Countries By Inequality-adjusted HDIEase Of Doing Business IndexTransparency InternationalCorruption Perceptions IndexIndex Of Economic FreedomEnlargeBelgiumRussiaRussiaUnited StatesUnited StatesBelgiumIranIranScience And Technology In ArmeniaEnlargeEnlargeDemographics Of ArmeniaArmeniansPopulation DeclineEmigrationUSSREnlargeArmenian DiasporaArmenian DiasporaRussiaFranceIranUnited StatesGeorgia (country)SyriaLebanonArgentinaAustraliaCanadaGreeceCyprusIsraelPolandUkraineBrazilTurkeyIstanbulArmenian QuarterOld City (Jerusalem)JerusalemSan Lazzaro Degli ArmeniVenetian LagoonMechitaristsRepublic Of ArtsakhEnlargeArmeniansYazidiRussiansAssyrian PeopleUkrainiansPontic GreeksCaucasus GreeksKurdish PeopleGeorgiansBelarusiansHistory Of The Jews In ArmeniaVlachsMordvinsOssetiansUdi PeopleTat People (Caucasus)PolesCaucasus GermansRussificationSoviet EraAzerbaijanisNagorno-KarabakhLanguages Of ArmeniaArmenian LanguageList Of Municipalities Of ArmeniaTemplate:List Of Municipalities Of ArmeniaTemplate Talk:List Of Municipalities Of ArmeniaList Of Cities In Armenia By PopulationList Of Cities In ArmeniaProvinces Of ArmeniaList Of Cities In Armenia By PopulationList Of Cities In Armenia By PopulationList Of Cities In ArmeniaProvinces Of ArmeniaList Of Cities In Armenia By PopulationYerevanYerevanGyumriGyumriYerevanYerevanGavarGegharkunik ProvinceVanadzorVanadzorVagharshapatVagharshapat, ArmeniaGyumriShirak ProvinceGorisSyunik ProvinceVanadzorLori ProvinceCharentsavanKotayk ProvinceVagharshapat, ArmeniaArmavir ProvinceArarat, ArmeniaArarat ProvinceAbovyanKotayk ProvinceMasis, ArmeniaArarat ProvinceKapanSyunik ProvinceAshtarakAragatsotn ProvinceHrazdanKotayk ProvinceArtikShirak ProvinceArmavir, ArmeniaArmavir ProvinceSevan, ArmeniaGegharkunik ProvinceArtashat, ArmeniaArarat ProvinceDilijanTavush ProvinceIjevanTavush ProvinceSisianSyunik ProvinceReligion In ArmeniaEnlargeKhor VirapMount AraratNoah's ArkGenesis Flood NarrativeReligion In ArmeniaArmenian Apostolic ChurchTwelve ApostlesJude The ApostleBartholomew The ApostleArmenian Apostolic ChurchChalcedonian ChristianityCoptic Orthodox Church Of AlexandriaSyriac Orthodox ChurchOriental OrthodoxyArmenian Evangelical ChurchArmenian Patriarchate Of ConstantinopleArmenian Brotherhood ChurchBaptistsPresbyteriansLatin ChurchArmenian RiteMechitaristsArmenian LanguageOrder Of Saint BenedictArmenian Catholic ChurchMekhitar Of SebasteArmeniansArmenian Catholic ChurchBzoummarLebanonRussians In ArmeniaMolokanYazidismSunni IslamWikipedia:Citation NeededHistory Of The Jews In ArmeniaSevan (city)Lake SevanEducation In ArmeniaHistory Of ArmeniaCulture Of ArmeniaArmenian Soviet Socialist RepublicCurriculumEnlargeYerevan State Medical UniversityMkhitar HeratsiPreschool EducationYerevan State UniversityNational Polytechnic University Of ArmeniaHistory Of ArmeniaArmenian LanguageMkhitar HeratsiMkhitar HeratsiHippocratesGalenAvicennaEnlargeAmerican University Of ArmeniaQSI International School Of YerevanAmerican University Of ArmeniaGraduate SchoolArmenian General Benevolent UnionUnited States Agency For International DevelopmentUniversity Of CaliforniaOLPCCulture Of ArmeniaArmenian AlphabetArmenian LanguageMesrop MashtotsKingdom Of CiliciaMedia Of ArmeniaAdvertisingSubscriptionConstitution Of ArmeniaPress Freedom IndexReporters Without BordersLesothoSierra LeoneTransition EconomyMusic Of ArmeniaDjivan GasparyanSirushoCharles AznavourDjivan GasparyanDudukChristian MusicDholZurnaKanun (instrument)Sayat NovaArmenian ChantSoviet UnionAram KhatchaturianSabre DanceGayane (ballet)EnlargeArmenian DanceWestern ArmeniaRichard HagopianBig BandAdiss HarmandianHarout PamboukjianSirushoList Of French-ArmeniansCharles AznavourSahan ArzruniHasmik PapianIsabel BayrakdarianAnna KasyanSystem Of A DownCherArmenian Revolutionary SongsArmenian ArtEnlargeKhachkarYerevan VernissageObsidianEnlargeVardges SureniantsAncient HistoryArchaeological SiteMiddle AgesIron AgeBronze AgeStone AgeMiddle AgesEthnic Groups In EuropeMartiros SaryanFreedom Of PanoramaCinema Of ArmeniaCairoArmenfilmArmenian LanguageRussian LanguageDocumentary FilmNamus (film)Silent FilmBlack-and-whiteHamo BeknazarianAlexander ShirvanzadeNamusSound FilmPepo (film)Hamo BeknazarianSport In ArmeniaChess In ArmeniaEnlargeEnlargeArmenia National Football TeamLake SevanUEFAIIHFPan-Armenian GamesHrant Shahinyan1952 Summer Olympics1992 Summer Olympics1994 Winter OlympicsLillehammerEnlargeLevon AronianFIDEComparison Of Top Chess Players Throughout HistoryFootball In ArmeniaFC Ararat YerevanSoviet CupSoviet Top League 1973European Cup 1974–75FC Bayern MunichUSSR National Football TeamArmenian National Football TeamFIFA World RankingsFootball Federation Of ArmeniaArmenian Premier LeagueFC PyunikArmenian First LeagueYouri DjorkaeffAlain BoghossianAndranik EskandarianAndranik TeymourianEdgar ManucharyanNikita Simonyan1998 FIFA World CupFrance National Football Team2006 FIFA World CupIran National Football TeamEredivisieAFC AjaxWrestlingArmenia At The 1996 Summer OlympicsAtlantaArmen NazaryanGreco-Roman WrestlingArmen MkrtchyanFreestyle WrestlingSambo (martial Art)Politics Of ArmeniaTsaghkadzorWinter SportsWinter SportsYerevanWorld Team Chess ChampionshipChess OlympiadArmenian CuisineEnlargeMediterranean CuisineSpicesVegetablesFishFruitPomegranateApricotPortal:ArmeniaPortal:AsiaPortal:EuropeOutline Of ArmeniaIndex Of Armenia-related ArticlesBook:ArmeniaWikipedia:BooksFree ContentOrganization For Security And Co-operation In EuropeWebCiteMatthew Søberg ShugartGraduate School Of International Relations And Pacific StudiesUniversity Of California, San DiegoMatthew Søberg ShugartGraduate School Of International Relations And Pacific StudiesUniversity Of California, San DiegoPalgrave MacmillanDigital Object IdentifierInternational Standard Serial NumberOCLCRobert Elgie (academic)Sophia MoestrupPalgrave MacmillanDigital Object IdentifierInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-137-38780-6Library Of Congress Control NumberOCLCDavid Marshall LangInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-04-956007-7International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-631-22037-2International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-631-22037-2International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9789231028120Scholastic Library PublishingUnited Nations Department Of Economic And Social AffairsWorld Economic OutlookInternational Monetary FundWorld BankInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9789027238146International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/1-62914-903-9UNCentral Intelligence AgencyThe World FactbookCIANational Geographic SocietyEncyclopædia BritannicaInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9788851124908Digital Object IdentifierInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-19-510507-0Palgrave MacmillanCategory:CS1 Maint: Extra Text: Editors ListInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-521-81955-5OsroeneSiluresSan MarinoTimeline Of Official Adoptions Of ChristianitySeparation Of Church And StateColumbia University PressInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-231-13926-7ChalybesRoutledgeInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-7007-1452-0XenophonAnabasis (Xenophon)Aram (given Name)National Geographic SocietyArmenian General Benevolent UnionArmenian Soviet EncyclopediaMartiros KavoukjianInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-107-01652-1Central Intelligence AgencyInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-933405-49-0International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-415-23902-8Infobase PublishingInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-4381-2676-0OCLCÉdouard UtudjianOCLCInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-78023-070-2International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-62616-032-3International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-135-79837-6Alexander MikaberidzeInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-59884-337-8International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-59884-948-6International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-313-34497-3International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/3-0340-0561-XNiall FergusonInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/1-59420-100-5Armenian Genocide Museum-InstituteGreat Soviet EncyclopediaLibrary Of CongressTaylor And FrancisInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-275-96241-8Global Heritage FundInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-8147-1945-9The Heritage FoundationInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-549-53005-3International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-8108-7450-3International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-313-30610-5Radio Free Europe/Radio LibertyRadio Free Europe/Radio LibertyHuman Development ReportUnited Nations Development ProgrammeInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-92-3-100129-1Armenians In IndiaKolkataJewish Virtual LibraryRoutledgeOrganization For Security And Co-operation In EuropeWayback MachineInternational Standard Serial NumberBiblical RecorderThe Armenian ReporterInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-87395-327-4International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9400725698Library Of CongressFederal Research DivisionFreedom HouseCouncil Of EuropeAssociation Of European JournalistsArtsvi BakhchinyanInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-57607-150-2Category:CS1 Maint: Extra Text: Authors ListWikipedia:Wikimedia Sister ProjectsTwitterThe World FactbookCentral Intelligence AgencyDMOZBBC NewsInternational FuturesTemplate:Armenia TopicsTemplate Talk:Armenia TopicsIndex Of Armenia-related ArticlesHistory Of ArmeniaTimeline Of Armenian HistoryOrigin Of The ArmeniansName Of ArmeniaKura–Araxes CultureHaykHayasa-AzziMitanniNairi (Armenian Usages)UrartuMedesOrontid DynastyAchaemenid EmpireSatrapy Of ArmeniaKingdom Of Armenia (antiquity)Roman ArmeniaParthian EmpireByzantine ArmeniaSasanian ArmeniaEmirate Of ArmeniaSajid DynastyBagratuni DynastyArmenian Kingdom Of CiliciaSallaridsIlkhanateChobanidsAg QoyunluKara KoyunluArmenians In The Ottoman EmpirePersian Armenia (1502-1828)Safavid IranAfsharid DynastyQajar IranErivan KhanateKarabakh KhanateTreaty Of TurkmenchayRussian ArmeniaFirst Republic Of ArmeniaArmenian Soviet Socialist RepublicHistory Of ArmeniaArmenian GenocideNagorno-Karabakh ConflictArmenian National Liberation MovementCategory:History Of ArmeniaGeography Of ArmeniaArarat PlainArmenian HighlandsList Of Municipalities Of ArmeniaList Of Earthquakes In ArmeniaExtreme Points Of ArmeniaLake SevanMountains Of ArmeniaRivers And Lakes Of ArmeniaShikahogh State ReserveShirak PlainCategory:Geography Of ArmeniaPolitics Of ArmeniaAdministrative Divisions Of ArmeniaConstitution Of ArmeniaCorruption In ArmeniaElections In ArmeniaForeign Relations Of ArmeniaGovernment Of ArmeniaHuman Rights In ArmeniaArmed Forces Of ArmeniaNational Assembly (Armenia)National Security Service (Armenia)Police Of The Republic Of ArmeniaList Of Political Parties In ArmeniaPresident Of ArmeniaPrime Minister Of ArmeniaPresident Of The National Assembly Of ArmeniaCategory:Government Of ArmeniaCategory:Politics Of ArmeniaEconomy Of ArmeniaAgriculture In ArmeniaArmenian Stock ExchangeCentral Bank Of ArmeniaArmenian DramEnergy In ArmeniaMineral Industry Of ArmeniaPension Reforms In ArmeniaTelecommunications In ArmeniaTourism In ArmeniaTransport In ArmeniaWaste Management In ArmeniaCulture Of ArmeniaArmenian AlphabetArmenian ArchitectureArmenian ArtCinema Of ArmeniaArmenian CuisineArmenian DanceArmenian LanguageEastern ArmenianWestern ArmenianArmenian LiteratureMusic Of ArmeniaSport In ArmeniaTheater Of ArmeniaCategory:Armenian CultureDemographics Of ArmeniaCensus In ArmeniaCrime In ArmeniaEducation In ArmeniaEthnic Minorities In ArmeniaHealth In ArmeniaArmeniansArmenian DiasporaSocial Issues In ArmeniaWomen In ArmeniaCategory:Demographics Of ArmeniaReligion In ArmeniaArmenian Apostolic ChurchArmenian Catholic ChurchArmenian Evangelical ChurchArmenian Brotherhood ChurchHistory Of The Jews In ArmeniaIslam In ArmeniaCategory:Religion In ArmeniaNational Symbols Of ArmeniaArmenian CrossArmenian Eternity SignCoat Of Arms Of ArmeniaFlag Of ArmeniaMount AraratMer HayrenikApricotGrapePomegranateOutline Of ArmeniaIndex Of Armenia-related ArticlesBook:ArmeniaCategory:ArmeniaPortal:ArmeniaTemplate:Armenian NationalismTemplate Talk:Armenian NationalismArmenian NationalismUnited ArmeniaArmenian National AwakeningTseghakronismMiatsumArmenian Revolutionary FederationSocial Democrat Hunchakian PartyArmenian Democratic Liberal PartyArmenakan PartyNational United Party (Armenia)Armenian Secret Army For The Liberation Of ArmeniaJustice Commandos Of The Armenian GenocideArmenian Revolutionary ArmyKhachatur AbovianMikael NalbandianRaffi (novelist)Mkrtich KhrimianShahan NatalieKevork AjemianSilva KaputikyanAraboAghbiur SerobKevork ChavushAndranikAram ManukianArmen GaroGaregin NzhdehHagop Hagopian (guerilla)Movses GorgisyanMonte MelkonianVazgen SargsyanJirair SefilianArmenian National Liberation MovementBattle Of SardarabadFebruary UprisingKarabakh MovementNagorno-Karabakh WarOccupation Of Turkish ArmeniaFirst Republic Of ArmeniaRepublic Of Mountainous ArmeniaRepublic Of ArtsakhTemplate:Administrative Divisions Of ArmeniaTemplate Talk:Administrative Divisions Of ArmeniaAdministrative Divisions Of ArmeniaAragatsotn ProvinceArarat ProvinceArmavir ProvinceGegharkunik ProvinceKotayk ProvinceLori ProvinceShirak ProvinceSyunik ProvinceTavush ProvinceVayots Dzor ProvinceArmeniaYerevanTemplate:Cities And Towns In ArmeniaTemplate Talk:Cities And Towns In ArmeniaList Of Cities And Towns In ArmeniaAragatsotn ProvinceAshtarakAparanTalin, ArmeniaFlag Of ArmeniaCoat Of Arms Of ArmeniaArarat ProvinceArtashat, ArmeniaArarat, ArmeniaMasis, ArmeniaVediArmavir ProvinceArmavir, ArmeniaMetsamorVagharshapatGegharkunik ProvinceGavarChambarakMartuni, ArmeniaSevan, ArmeniaVardenisKotayk ProvinceHrazdanAbovyanByureghavanCharentsavanNor HachnTsaghkadzorYeghvardLori ProvinceVanadzorAkhtalaAlaverdi, ArmeniaSpitakStepanavanTashirTumanyan, ArmeniaShirak ProvinceGyumriArtikMaralikSyunik ProvinceKapanGorisKajaranMeghriSisianTavush ProvinceIjevanAyrumBerdDilijanNoyemberyanVayots Dzor ProvinceYeghegnadzorJermukVaykYerevanTemplate:World Heritage Sites In ArmeniaTemplate Talk:World Heritage Sites In ArmeniaWorld Heritage SiteHaghpat MonasterySanahin MonasteryGeghardEtchmiadzin CathedralVagharshapatSaint Hripsime ChurchSaint Gayane ChurchShoghakatZvartnots CathedralWorld Heritage SiteDvin (ancient City)YereroukNoravankTatev MonasteryTatevi AnapatArmeniaTemplate:Countries And Regions Of The CaucasusTemplate Talk:Countries And Regions Of The CaucasusCaucasusSoviet CaucasiaAbkhaziaAdjaraAdygeaRepublic Of ArtsakhAzerbaijanChechnyaDagestanGeorgia (country)IngushetiaKabardino-BalkariaKarachay-CherkessiaKrasnodar KraiNakhchivan Autonomous RepublicNorth Ossetia-AlaniaSouth OssetiaStavropol KraiImperial Russian CaucasiaTemplate:Sovereign States Of EuropeTemplate Talk:Sovereign States Of EuropeList Of Sovereign States And Dependent Territories In EuropeList Of Sovereign StatesAlbaniaAndorraAustriaAzerbaijanBelarusBelgiumBosnia And HerzegovinaBulgariaCroatiaCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkEstoniaFinlandFranceGeorgia (country)GermanyGreeceHungaryIcelandRepublic Of IrelandItalyKazakhstanLatviaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgRepublic Of MacedoniaMaltaMoldovaMonacoMontenegroKingdom Of The NetherlandsNorwayPolandPortugalRomaniaRussiaSan MarinoSerbiaSlovakiaSloveniaSpainSwedenSwitzerlandTurkeyUkraineUnited KingdomVatican CityEuropeList Of States With Limited RecognitionAbkhaziaRepublic Of ArtsakhKosovoNorthern CyprusSouth OssetiaTransnistriaDependent TerritoryFaroe IslandsDenmarkAkrotiri And DhekeliaGibraltarBritish Overseas TerritoriesBailiwick Of GuernseyIsle Of ManJerseyCrown DependenciesÅland IslandsAutonomous Administrative DivisionÅland ConventionSvalbardUnincorporated AreaSvalbard TreatyNorthern IrelandCountries Of The United KingdomGood Friday AgreementIslandTemplate:Armenia TiesTemplate Talk:Armenia TiesAsian Development BankOrganization Of The Black Sea Economic CooperationCouncil Of EuropeCommonwealth Of Independent StatesCollective Security Treaty OrganizationEuro-Atlantic Partnership CouncilEuropean Bank For Reconstruction And DevelopmentUnited Nations Economic Commission For EuropeEurasian Economic CommunityUnited Nations Economic And Social Commission For 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