Contents 1 Usage 2 Phonology 2.1 Consonants 2.2 Vowels 2.3 Diphthongs 2.4 Comparison to other Romance languages 3 Orthography 3.1 Diagraphs 3.2 Vowels 4 Loanwords 5 Regulation 6 Written publications 6.1 Grammar 6.2 Dictionaries 6.3 Periodicals and commercial publications 7 See also 8 References 9 Bibliography 10 External links

Usage[edit] According to a 2001 linguistic census by the Aranese government, about 90% of the inhabitants of Val d'Aran can understand the language, with those between 25 and 34 years old having the lowest rate, at around 80% (excluding those under the age of 4). Between 60 and 65% of the population can speak it; however, only 26% reported being able to write in Aranese.[1] Knowledge of Aranese in the Val d'Aran among People 2+ Years Old 1996 2001 Total Percentage Total Percentage Can understand 6,295 90.05% 6,712 88.88% Can speak 4,534 64.85% 4,700 62.24% Can read 4,145 59.29% 4,413 58.44% Can write 1,746 24.97% 2,016 26.69% Source : IDESCAT, Cens lingüístic de l'aranès de 2001[1] In 2008, the Generalitat of Catalonia surveyed the population (15 years old or older) in the Val d'Aran. The survey reported that 78.2% of the population could understand Aranese, 56.8% could speak it, 59.4% could read it, and 34.8% could write the language.[4] Once considered to be an endangered language[5] spoken mainly by older people, it is now experiencing a renaissance; it enjoys co-official status with Catalan and Spanish within Val d'Aran, and since 1984 has been taught bilingually alongside Castilian in schools.[6] Students in the Val d'Aran are required to have 2 hours of each Spanish, Catalan, and Aranese each week. At some levels of education, a foreign language is added to the three official languages—usually French due to proximity—and sometimes even 2 additional hours of English.

Phonology[edit] General Gascon characteristics: Latin F > H: focus /ˈfokus/ (hearth) > huec /hwek/ (fire) ferrum /ˈferːum/ > hèr /heɾ/ Latin LL > TH (internal or final) or R (in intervocalic position): vitellu > vedèth /beˈdɛt(ʃ)/ (egg yolk) ille > eth /et(ʃ)/ (sing. masc. definite article) ille > er /eɾ/ (sing. masc. definite article; used before words that start with a vowel sound) illa > era /eɾa/ (sing. fem. definite article) Vocalisation of L to U in final position: malum > mau /maw/ (bad) Loss of N in intervocalic position: Latin luna > lua (moon) Latin farīna > haria (flour) Metathesis of -R: Latin ventrum > vrente (stomach) Latin vesper > vrèspe (evening) Prosthetic A- before initial R-, doubling the R: Latin recognōscō > arreconéisher (to recognize) Latin rīdēre > arríder (to laugh) Specific Aranese characteristics: Deaspiration of Gascon /h/ > Aranese ∅ (except in Bausen and Canejan, where it remains [h]) Gascon huec /hwek/ (fire) > Aranese huec /wek/ Gascon -AS pronounced and written -ES: Gascon hemnas > hemnes /ˈennes/ (women) Gascon parlas > parles /ˈpaɾles/ (you speak) Plurals of nouns ending in -A become -ES: era pèira → es pèires (the stones) Intervocalic /b/ written U and pronounced [w]: Gascon: cantava /kanˈtaba/ (he/she was singing) Aranese: cantaua /kanˈtawa/ (he/she was singing) Reduction of plural definite articles: Gascon: eths, eras Aranese: es /es/ Consonants[edit] Consonant phonemes Bilabial Labio- dental Dental/ Alveolar Post- alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal Nasal m n ɲ Stop p b1 t d1 k ɡ1 Fricative f s z ʃ ʒ ʝ (h)2 Affricate ts dz tʃ dʒ Trill r Tap ɾ3 Lateral l ʎ Notes: The voiced stops /b/, /d/, /ɡ/ are devoiced to /p/, /t/, /k/, respectively, in word-final position. /h/ is pronounced oy in the towns of Bausen and Canejan. Foreign words that have not been adopted into Aranese also retain /h/: hardware, maharajah. /ɾ/ is pronounced [ɾ], except at the end of a word, where it is generally silent, regardless of what follows. Vowels[edit] Vowel phonemes[7] Front Central Back Close i   y u Close-Mid e (o) Open-Mid ɛ ɔ Open a Diphthongs[edit] Falling Diphthongs[7] Diphthong Usual Spelling Example /aj/ ai aigua /aw/ au sau /ej/ ei1 veire /ɛj/ èi2 lèit /ew/ eu peu /ɛw/ èu mèu /iw/ iu3 hiu /oj/ oi poirir /ɔj/ òi beròi /ɔw/ òu2 pòur Rising Diphthongs[7] Diphthong Usual Spelling Example /ja/ ia istòria /je/ ie vielh /jɛ/ iè molièr /jo/ io violéncia /jɔ/ iò piòisha /wa/ oa ua empodoar quan /we/ oe ue oelha huec Notes: In practice, stressed ei tends to be pronounced [e]: trueita pronounced as trueta. Word-final èi is often pronounced [ɛ] instead of [ɛj]: cantèi pronounced as cantè. Similarly, speakers tend to say òu as ò [ɔ]: auriòu is pronounced like auriò iu can be pronounced as [iw] or [jew]: Diu [diw ~ djew] Orthographic ui historically was a diphthong, but is currently produced as [y]. Aranese orthography denotes where two consecutive vowels do not diphthongize, but rather form a hiatus.[vague] A diaereses mark over unstressed i or u: ï, ü flaüta /flaˈy.ta/ cocaïna /ku.kaˈ coïncidir /ˈdi(ɾ)/ An acute accent, which marks lexical stress, on i or u: í, ú país /paˈis/ Comparison to other Romance languages[edit] Comparison to other Romance languages Latin Aranese Castilian Catalan French Italian English fēsta /ˈfeːsta/ hèsta /ˈ(h)ɛsta/ fiesta /ˈfjesta/ festa /ˈfɛsta/ fête /fɛt/ festa /ˈfɛsta/ party lūna /ˈluːna/ lua /ˈly.a/ luna /ˈluna/ lluna /ˈʎuna/ lune /lyn/ luna /ˈluna/ moon mel /mel/ mèu /mɛw/ miel /mjel/ mel /mɛɫ/ miel /mjɛl/ miele /ˈmjɛle/ honey castellum /kasˈtelːum/ castèth /kasˈtɛt(ʃ)/ castillo /kasˈtiʎo/ castell /kasˈteʎ/ château /ʃɑto/ castello /kasˈtɛlːo/ castle illa /ˈilːa/ era /ˈeɾa/ ella /ˈeʎa/ ella /ˈeʎa/ elle /ɛl/ ella ~ lei /ˈelːa/ ~ /lɛːi/ she rīdēre /riːˈdeːre/ arrir /aˈri(ɾ)/ reír /reˈiɾ/ riure /ˈriwɾe/ rire /ʁiʁ/ ridere /ˈridere/ to laugh capra /ˈkapra/ craba /ˈkraba/ cabra /ˈkabɾa/ cabra /ˈkabɾa/ chèvre /ʃɛvʁ/ capra /ˈkapra/ goat

Orthography[edit] Diagraphs[edit] Grapheme Pronunciation Example Notes ch [tʃ] chut lh [ʎ] hilh pronounced [l] before s: hilhs [ils] ll [l] collaborar nh [ɲ] nhèu n·h, with interpunct, is pronounced [n(h)]: en·hornar rr [r] terrassa sh ish [ʃ] shada caisha * following a vowel, sh must be written ish * s·h, with interpunct, is pronounced [s(h)]: des·hèir tj tg [dʒ] hotjar hormatge * before a, o, u * before e, i th [t] [tʃ] vedèth, eth còth, poth the [tʃ] pronunciation only occurs in Bausen and Canejan tl [lː] catla ts [ts] dits word-final ts is only used for plurals of words ending in -t, otherwise it becomes written tz tz [dz] [ts] dotze prètz * between vowels * word-final Vowels[edit] Vowel Pronunciation Notes a, à stressed [a] unstressed [ɑ ~ ɔ] phrase-final e, é [e] è [ɛ] i, í [i] o, ó [u] ò [ɔ] sometimes pronounced [o] u, ú [y]

Loanwords[edit] Since the Val d'Aran is located within Spanish and Catalan territory, Aranese is subject to certain influences from Castilian Spanish and Catalan. As such, Aranese has adopted several neologisms from them: actuar (vs. agir) empresa (vs. entrepresa) increment (vs. aumentacion) laborau (vs. professionau) matrícula (vs. inscripcion) oficina (vs. burèu, which is a Gallicism) Spanish and Catalan have also created deformations of words such as abans > abantes or dempús > despuès. Some Hispanicisms are directly adopted into Aranese: hasta.

Regulation[edit] Aranese is regulated under classic unifying standards of Occitan, defined initially by Loís Alibèrt. These standards of the Conselh de la Lenga Occitana (Occitan Language Council) have officially been recognized by the Conselh Generau d'Aran (General Council of Aran) since 1999. In practice, several details standards diverge due to the popular or preferred usage of Aranese, in relation to other Gascon varieties. For instance: the form of the feminine plural -AS in general Gascon is replaced with -ES in Aranese. Ex: hemnes araneses (Aranese women) in place of general Gascon hemnas aranesas the use of U in place of V. Ex: auer instead of aver

Written publications[edit] Grammar[edit] A reference on usage and conjugation of Aranese verbs entitled Es Vèrbs conjugadi : morfologia verbau aranesa was written by Verònica Barés Moga and published in 2003. A descriptive and normative reference grammar book, written in Aranese by Aitor Carrera, was published in March 2007. It includes a detailed breakdown of phonological and grammatical differences between varieties of Aranese in different villages in the valley. Dictionaries[edit] A dictionary of Aranese was written by the Catalan linguist Joan Coromines as his doctoral thesis. A simple four-language Spanish–Aranese–Catalan–French dictionary exists, written by Frederic Vergés Bartau (see Bibliography). An Aranese-English and English–Aranese dictionary was published in 2006. It was written by Ryan Furness, a young man from Minnesota, after he became curious about the language when he traveled to Val d'Aran.[8][9] A detailed one-volume Catalan–Occitan and Occitan–Catalan dictionary was published under the auspices of the governments of Catalonia (Generalitat de Catalunya) and Val d'Aran (Conselh Generau d'Aran). Although it calls the language "Occitan", it uses Aranese spelling and its preface says that special attention is given to the Aranese variety. Periodicals and commercial publications[edit] A local monthly magazine Toti and local newspapers are published partly in the language.

See also[edit] Occitan language Languages of Spain

References[edit] ^ a b c Conselh Generau d'Aran. "Cens lingüistic del aranès de 2001". 2001. Retrieved on 22 August 2014. (in Catalan) ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Aranese". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ "El aranés se convierte en la tercera lengua oficial de Cataluña", El País, Barcelona, 22 September 2010. Retrieved on 22 August 2014. (in Spanish) ^ Enquesta d'usos lingüístics de la població 2008 (EULP 2008), Generalitat de Catalunya, 29 June 2009. Retrieved 25 August 2014. (in Catalan) ^ "Aranese language becomes the 3rd co-official language in Catalonia", Catalan News Agency, 2010. Retrieved on 22 August 2014. ^ "Curriculum der Aranés", "Conselh Generau d'Aran", 12 February 1998. Retrieved on 24 August 2014. (Aranese) ^ a b c Conselh Generau d'Aran. "Normes Ortografiques der Aranés", 1999. Retrieved on 23 August 2014 (Aranese) ^ "Presenten el primer diccionari aranès-anglès", Agència Catalana de Notícies, 05 April 2006. Retrieved 23 August 2014. (in Catalan) ^ "Un jove de Minnesota prepara el primer diccionari aranès-anglès", 324, Vielha, 09 November 2006. Retrieved 23 August 2014. (in Catalan)

Bibliography[edit] Barés Moga, Verònica (2003). Es vèrbs conjugadi: morfologia verbau aranesa. Barcelona: Llibres de l'Index. ISBN 84-95317-47-8.  Carrera, Aitor (2007). Gramatica Aranesa (in Occitan). Lleida: Pagès Editors. ISBN 978-84-9779-484-8.  Furness, Ryan C. (2006). Diccionari Occitan (aranés) - Anglés/English-Occitan (Aranese) Dictionary. Pages Editors. ISBN 978-84-9779-362-9.  Leclerc, Jean-Marc (2004). Le Gascon de poche (in French). France: Assimil. ISBN 2-7005-0345-7.  Vergés Bartau, Frederic (1991). Petit diccionari: castelhan-aranés (occitan)-catalan-francés, aranés (occitan)-castelhan-catalan-francés. Vielha, Vall dʾAran, Lhèida : Conselh Comarcau dera Val DʾAran. ISBN 84-606-0175-7. 

External links[edit] Aranese in Catalonia, Spain—Database for the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages Aranese Training with the Conselh generau d'Aran (in English) (in Spanish) (in Catalan) (in Occitan) Es vèrbs der aranés—Aranese verb conjugation guide (in Occitan) Lectures basiques—Manuel Naranjo i Teixido and Frederic Vergés i Bartau (in Occitan) A University Phrasebook (English-Catalan-Aranese)—University of Barcelona (with recordings) (in English) (in Catalan) (in Occitan) Rebrembes d'ua garia—a story in Aranese (in Occitan) Stories in Aranese (in Catalan) (in Occitan) Vocabulari basic v t e Languages of Spain Official / national Spanish (aka Castilian) Regional / minority languages Co-official Basque Catalan / Valencian Galician Occitan Aranese Recognised Aragonese Asturian / Leonese Unrecognised languages Gomeran whistled language Hispano-Arabic Hispano-Berber Ibero-Romani Caló Erromintxela Judaeo-Spanish Varieties of the Spanish languages Cultural languages Classical Greek & Latin English French German Immigrant / expatriate languages Arabic Bulgarian Chinese English Italian French German Portuguese Romanian Russian Ukrainian, etc. Standard forms Castilian Spanish Asturian Basque Catalan / Valencian Galician Sign languages Spanish Sign Language Catalan Sign Language Valencian Sign Language v t e Romance languages (Classification) Western Ibero-Romance Galician-Portuguese Portuguese dialects European Brazilian Uruguayan African Asian Creoles Galician Eonavian/Galician-Asturian Fala Judaeo-Portuguese Caló Astur-Leonese Asturian Cantabrian Extremaduran Leonese Mirandese Spanish Spanish dialects Latin American Philippine Equatoguinean European Creoles Old Spanish Judaeo-Spanish Caló Others Navarro-Aragonese Aragonese Judaeo-Aragonese Mozarabic Occitano- Romance Catalan dialects Eastern Catalan Alguerese Balearic Central Northern Western Catalan North-Western Valencian Judaeo-Catalan Caló Occitan Auvergnat Gascon Aranese Languedocien Limousin Provençal Niçard Mentonasc Vivaro-Alpine Old Provençal Judaeo-Provençal Caló Gallo-Romance Langues d'oïl Burgundian Champenois Franc-Comtois French dialects Standard African Aostan Belgian Cambodian Canadian Indian Laotian Swiss Vietnamese Old French Middle French Judaeo-French Creoles Gallo Lorrain Norman Anglo-Norman Picard Poitevin Saintongeais Walloon Moselle Romance British Latin Others Arpitan/Franco-Provençal Valdôtain Savoyard North Italian dialects Gallo-Italic Ligurian Brigasc Genoese Intemelio Monégasque Lombard Western Eastern Emilian-Romagnol Emilian Bolognese Parmigiano Romagnol Piedmontese Judaeo-Piedmontese Gallo-Italic of Sicily Gallo-Italic of Basilicata Others Venetian Fiuman Talian Triestine Mediterranean Lingua Franca Rhaeto-Romance Rhaeto-Romance Friulian Ladin Romansh Central, Sardinian and Eastern Italo-Dalmatian Central Italian dialects Central Tuscan Corsican Gallurese Sassarese Judaeo-Italian Southern Neapolitan Northern Calabrese Sicilian Southern Calabrese Others Dalmatian Istriot Sardinian Sardinian Sardinian Campidanese Logudorese Eastern Romanian Romanian Moldovan Vlach Others Aromanian Istro-Romanian Megleno-Romanian North African North African African Romance Italics indicate extinct languages Bold indicates languages with more than 5 million speakers Languages between parentheses are varieties of the language on their left. v t e Occitano-Romance languages and dialects Arverno-Mediterranean Auvergnat Limousin Provençal (including Niçard and Mentonasc) Vivaro-Alpine Central Occitan Languedocien (excepting Southern Languedocien) Aquitano-Pyrenean Catalan Gascon (including Aranese) Southern Languedocien Other varieties Old Provençal† Judaeo-Provençal† Judaeo-Catalan† Catalan Caló Authority control GND: 4198613-1 BNF: cb12000352h (data) Retrieved from "" Categories: Gascon languageLanguages of CataloniaOccitan languageHidden categories: Articles with Catalan-language external linksArticles with Spanish-language external linksDialects of languages with ISO 639-3 codeLanguages without ISO 639-3 code but with Glottolog codeArticles containing Occitan-language textAll Wikipedia articles needing clarificationWikipedia articles needing clarification from October 2017CS1 Occitan-language sources (oc)CS1 French-language sources (fr)Articles with Occitan-language external linksWikipedia articles with GND identifiersWikipedia articles with BNF identifiers

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