Contents 1 Etymology 2 Types 2.1 Heroes and villains 2.2 Other characters 2.3 Aspects of the protagonist 2.4 Non-personal 3 Usage 4 See also 5 References


Etymology[edit] The English word antagonist comes from the Greek ἀνταγωνιστής – antagonistēs, "opponent, competitor, villain, enemy, rival," which is derived from anti- ("against") and agonizesthai ("to contend for a prize").[2][3].


Types[edit] Heroes and villains[edit] This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (September 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) In the classic style of stories where the action consists of a hero fighting a villain/enemy, the two may be regarded as protagonist and antagonist, respectively. However, the villain of the story is not always the same as the antagonist, as some narratives cast the villain in the protagonist role, with the opposing hero as the antagonist. An antagonist also may represent a threat or obstacle to the main character by its existence and not necessarily targeting him or her in a deliberate manner. Examples in both film and theatre include Sauron, the main antagonist in The Lord of the Rings, who constantly battles the series' protagonists, and Tybalt, an antagonist in Romeo and Juliet, who slays Mercutio and whose later death results in the exiling of one of the play's protagonists, Romeo. In stories, a convention of antagonists is that their moral choices are less savory than those of protagonists. This is often used by an author to create conflict within a story. However, this is merely a convention, and the reversal of this can be seen in the character Macduff from Macbeth, who is arguably morally correct in his desire to fight the tyrant Macbeth. Examples from television include J.R. Ewing (Larry Hagman) from Dallas and Alexis Colby (Joan Collins) from Dynasty. Both became breakout characters used as a device to increase their shows' ratings. Other characters[edit] Characters may be antagonists without being evil – they may simply be injudicious and unlikeable for the audience. In some stories, such as The Catcher in the Rye, almost every character other than the protagonist may be an antagonist.[4] Aspects of the protagonist[edit] An aspect or trait of the protagonist may be considered an antagonist, such as morality or indecisiveness.[4] Non-personal[edit] An antagonist may not always be a person or persons. In some cases, an antagonist may be a force, such as a tidal wave that destroys a city; a storm that causes havoc; or even a certain area's conditions that are the root cause of a problem. An antagonist also may or may not create obstacles for the protagonist.[5] Societal norms or other rules also may be antagonists.[4]


Usage[edit] An antagonist is used as a plot device, to set up conflicts, obstacles, or challenges for the protagonist.[4][6] Though not every story requires an antagonist, it often is used in plays to increase the level of drama. In tragedies, antagonists are often the cause of the protagonist's main problem, or lead a group of characters against the protagonist; in comedies, they are usually responsible for involving the protagonist in comedic situations.[6]


See also[edit] Fictional characters portal Literature portal Archenemy Villain


References[edit] ^ About.com, Literature: Contemporary "Antagonist." Online. 18 October 2007. "Protagonist and Antagonist definition". Grammarist.com.  Retrieved 25 March 2015. "Glossary of Literary Terms". Archived from the original on 26 March 2015.  Retrieved on 27 March 2015. "Glossary of Drama Terms". Online Learning Center.  Retrieved on 27 March 2015. "Antagonist - Definition for Fiction Writers". About.com.  Retrieved on 27 March 2015. ^ "Antagonist". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 28 November 2010.  ^ "antagonist". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) ^ a b c d Bulman, Colin (2007). Creative Writing: A Guide and Glossary to Fiction Writing. Polity Press. p. 17. ISBN 9780745636870 – via Google Books.  ^ "The Elements of Literature". roanestate.edu.  ^ a b Smiley, Sam (2005) [First published 1971 by Prentice-Hall]. Playwriting: The Structure of Action. Yale University Press. pp. 133–134. ISBN 0300107242 – via Google Books.  v t e Narrative Character Antagonist Antihero Archenemy Character arc Characterization Deuteragonist False protagonist Focal character Foil Protagonist Stock character Supporting character Tritagonist Narrator Tragic hero Plot Action Backstory Cliché Climax Cliffhanger Conflict Deus ex machina Dialogue Dramatic structure Exposition Eucatastrophe Foreshadowing Flashback Flashforward Frame story In medias res Pace Plot device Plot twist Poetic justice Reveal Self-fulfilling prophecy Subplot Trope Kishōtenketsu Setting Backstory Utopia Dystopia Alternate history Fictional location city country universe Theme Leitmotif Metaphor Moral Motif Irony Style Allegory Bathos Diction Figure of speech Imagery Narrative techniques Narration Stylistic device Suspension of disbelief Symbolism Tone Mode Mood Structure Linear narrative Nonlinear narrative films television series Types of fiction with multiple endings Form Comics Epic Fable Fabliau Fairy tale Folktale Flash fiction Legend Novella Novel Parable Play Poem Screenplay Short story Genre Action fiction Adventure Comic Crime Docufiction Epistolary Erotic Fiction Fantasy Gothic Historical Horror Magic realism Mystery Nautical Paranoid Philosophical Picaresque Political Psychological Romance Saga Satire Science Speculative Superhero Thriller Urban Western List of writing genres Narration First-person Multiple narrators Stream of consciousness Stream of unconsciousness Unreliable Tense Past Present Future Related Audience Author Creative nonfiction Fiction writing Literary theory Literary science Narratology Monomyth Rhetoric Screenwriting Storytelling Tellability Literature portal Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Antagonist&oldid=824477418" Categories: Antagonists by roleCounterparts to the protagonistHidden categories: Use dmy dates from March 2015Articles needing additional references from September 2017All articles needing additional references


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Receptor AntagonistAntagonist (disambiguation)InstitutionProtagonistGreek LanguageWikipedia:VerifiabilityHelp:Introduction To Referencing With Wiki Markup/1Help:Maintenance Template RemovalHeroVillainEnemySauronThe Lord Of The RingsTybaltRomeo And JulietMercutioRomeoMacduff (Macbeth)MacbethMacbeth (Macbeth)TelevisionJ.R. EwingLarry HagmanDallas (1978 TV Series)Alexis ColbyJoan CollinsDynasty (1981 TV Series)Breakout CharactersThe Catcher In The RyePortal:Fictional CharactersPortal:LiteratureArchenemyVillainOxford English DictionaryOxford University PressInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9780745636870International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0300107242Template:NarrativeTemplate Talk:NarrativeNarrativeCharacter (arts)AntiheroArchenemyCharacter ArcCharacterizationDeuteragonistFalse ProtagonistFocal CharacterFoil (literature)ProtagonistStock CharacterSupporting CharacterTritagonistNarrationTragic HeroPlot (narrative)Action (narrative)BackstoryClichéClimax (narrative)CliffhangerConflict (narrative)Deus Ex MachinaDialogue In WritingDramatic StructureExposition (narrative)EucatastropheForeshadowingFlashback (narrative)FlashforwardFrame StoryIn Medias ResPace (narrative)Plot DevicePlot TwistPoetic JusticeReveal (narrative)Self-fulfilling ProphecySubplotTrope (literature)KishōtenketsuSetting (narrative)BackstoryUtopiaDystopiaAlternate HistoryFictional LocationFictional CityFictional CountryFictional UniverseTheme (narrative)LeitmotifMetaphorMoralMotif (narrative)IronyWriting StyleAllegoryBathosDictionFigure Of SpeechImageryList Of Narrative TechniquesNarrationStylistic DeviceSuspension Of DisbeliefSymbolism (arts)Tone (literature)Mode (literature)Mood (literature)Narrative StructureNarrative StructureNonlinear NarrativeList Of Nonlinear Narrative FilmsList Of Nonlinear Narrative Television SeriesTypes Of Fiction With Multiple EndingsList Of Narrative FormsComicsEpic (genre)FableFabliauFairy TaleFolkloreFlash FictionLegendNovellaNovelParablePlay (theatre)PoetryScreenplayShort StoryLiterary GenreAction FictionAdventure FictionComic NovelCrime FictionDocufictionEpistolary NovelErotic LiteratureNon-fiction NovelFantasyGothic FictionHistorical FictionHorror FictionMagic RealismMystery FictionNautical FictionParanoid FictionPhilosophical FictionPicaresque NovelPolitical FictionPsychological NovelRomance NovelSagaSatireScience FictionSpeculative FictionSuperhero FictionThriller (genre)Urban FictionWestern FictionList Of Writing GenresNarrationFirst-person NarrativeMultiperspectivityStream Of Consciousness (narrative Mode)Stream Of Unconsciousness (narrative Mode)Unreliable NarratorGrammatical TensePast TensePresent TenseFuture TenseAudienceAuthorCreative NonfictionFiction WritingLiterary TheoryLiterary ScienceNarratologyHero's JourneyRhetoricScreenwritingStorytellingTellabilityPortal:LiteratureHelp:CategoryCategory:Antagonists By RoleCategory:Counterparts To The ProtagonistCategory:Use Dmy Dates From March 2015Category:Articles Needing Additional References From September 2017Category:All Articles Needing Additional ReferencesDiscussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer



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