Contents 1 Etymology 2 Course 2.1 Tidal lagoon 2.2 Discharge 3 Geology 4 Watershed 4.1 Geography 4.2 Bacterial pollution 4.3 Other pollutants 4.4 Recreation 5 Wildlife 5.1 Historic 5.2 Human impact 6 History 6.1 First inhabitants 6.2 Spanish explorers and missionaries 6.3 The Mexican period 6.4 Statehood 6.5 Urbanization and development 6.5.1 Cities and protected areas timeline 6.6 Flooding and mitigation 7 Along the creek 7.1 Crossings 7.2 Tributaries 8 See also 9 References 10 External links

Etymology[edit] The Native American name for Aliso Creek has almost certainly been lost. The current name of Aliso Creek was given by Spanish conquistadors sometime between the 1750s and the 1800s.[8] The word aliso means "alder tree" in Spanish, and likely refers to the riparian vegetation that lines the creek especially near its mouth. The California sycamore, Platanus racemosa, is also known as aliso in Spanish, and is common in the area around the creek. According to the Geographic Names Information System of the United States Geological Survey, there are now 46 places in California that use the name,[3] as well as five other streams in California that use the name, including as a variant name.[9] Other derivatives for Aliso Creek's name have arisen since then—including "Los Alisos Creek" and "Alisos Creek".[3] Several nearby geographical features also are named for the creek, including Aliso Peak, a 683-foot (208 m) headland. A middle school in the Saddleback Valley Unified School District, Los Alisos Intermediate School, borders the creek. The creek is also the namesake of Aliso Creek Road, which crosses the creek once and only parallels it for a short length. The city of Aliso Viejo and several other communities that lie near the stream also share their name with the creek.[10]

Course[edit] Aliso Creek rises in the foothills of the Santa Ana Mountains, near the community of Portola Hills, part of Lake Forest, and at the boundary of the Cleveland National Forest. The Loma Ridge rises about 1,500 feet (460 m) above the creek's headwaters, which are at an elevation of 2,300 feet (700 m).[2] There is no pond, lake or spring at the creek's ultimate source; it starts out as a small seasonal gully that courses southwards through a small valley with relatively little development. The creek then continues generally southwest for 19 miles (31 km) to the Pacific Ocean at Laguna Beach, collecting water from seven major tributaries and over forty minor drains and streams. For much of its course, the creek is channelized and confined by urban development. It only flows freely in several stretches in its far upper and lower course.[11] Passing south of several residential areas on the foothills to the north, Aliso Creek and El Toro Road run parallel for much of the creek's length upstream from Interstate 5. Flowing southwest in a small ravine along the right side of the road, the creek soon passes underneath the twin bridges of California State Route 241, and receives from the right an unnamed northern fork. At this confluence, the creek turns more to the south, then crosses under El Toro Road and bisects another residential area. As it enters the city of Lake Forest, it receives from the right Munger Creek and from the left English Canyon Creek, a larger tributary which drains part of the city of Mission Viejo, 16 miles (26 km) from the mouth.[2][11][12][13] The upstream portions of Aliso Creek (here shown while flowing) are relatively pristine in comparison with the downstream segments. The creek crosses under Trabuco Road and Jeronimo Road; the latter was once the site of a stream gauge. It makes a bend to the southeast then veers back south, entering a large gulch and crossing beneath Interstate 5. The creek then enters a culvert beneath Paseo de Valencia, then crosses under Laguna Hills Drive and cascades under Moulton Parkway, through the community of Laguna Hills. It then swings to the southeast and receives the Aliso Hills Channel, which enters from the left, 13 miles (21 km) from the mouth. The Aliso Hills Channel drains much of eastern Laguna Hills, western Mission Viejo, and southeastern Lake Forest.[2][11][12][13] From the confluence, the gradient of the creek flattens sharply and the stream enters a broad and shallow valley that runs between Aliso Creek Road on the west and Alicia Parkway on the east. It passes under California State Route 73, which crosses the valley on an earthfill and a bridge segment. The creek receives from the right the Dairy Fork, 9 miles (14 km) from the mouth, which drains parts of southern Laguna Hills and northeastern Aliso Viejo. The southwest-flowing Dairy Fork once flowed in a prominent canyon that was filled in the 1960s and 1970s to build the city of Aliso Viejo; State Route 73 now runs above the former canyon.[2][11][12][13] After receiving the fork, Aliso Creek passes into three massive culverts that cross under Pacific Park Drive, which crosses also on an earthfill. Flowing past several sports complexes, it begins to form the boundary of Aliso Viejo and Laguna Niguel, then crosses under Aliso Creek Road into Aliso and Wood Canyons Wilderness Park. Here, it receives from the left its largest tributary, Sulphur Creek. This creek is about 4.5 miles (7.2 km) long and drains a fair portion of northern Laguna Niguel, 7 miles (11 km) from the mouth. From there, Aliso Creek bends west and enters Aliso Canyon, which cuts through the San Joaquin Hills on the creek's final run to the sea.[2][11][12][13] About 1 mile (1.6 km) downstream of the Sulphur Creek confluence, the creek is briefly impounded behind a small dam, and receives the south-flowing Wood Canyon Creek, the second largest tributary, 5 miles (8.0 km) from the mouth. Wood Canyon Creek drains the largest arm of Aliso Canyon and most of eastern Aliso Viejo. Flowing almost due south through a valley with slopes dissected by many deep side canyons, Aliso Creek turns sharply west as it enters private property less than 1 mile (1.6 km) from the mouth. This section of the canyon is known for flooding frequently. The creek then enters a reserved size lagoon, crosses under the Pacific Coast Highway and enters the Pacific Ocean.[2][11][12][13] Tidal lagoon[edit] Aerial photograph of the emptied lagoon At Aliso Beach, the mouth of Aliso Creek, lies a freshwater pond that changes frequently in elevation and extent. Tidal activity at the creek's mouth results in sediment building gradually up into a sandbar, impounding it in a small lake about 0.2 miles (0.3 km) long at its fullest extent. Afterwards, the water level rises upstream of the sandbar until one of two factors causes it to breach: either waves at high tide wash away the top of the sandbar, or the lagoon rises enough to overtop the sandbar by itself. Once the water level rises above the sandbar, rapid erosion quickly cuts through the sand and drains the approximately 3–5-foot (0.9–1.5 m)-deep lake in a matter of minutes. Peak flows through the sandbar can reach 500 cubic feet per second (14 m3/s), even if the incoming flow of the creek is nowhere near that size.[14][15] Because of the raised flow of the creek and the construction of a parking lot in the lagoon area since the 1960s, the lagoon has never been able to fill to its much larger, historic extent without breaching. Species such as the tidewater goby have suffered because of loss of their habitat this way.[16] Discharge[edit] Aliso Creek is known to have historically contained water for most of the year, averaging 6.7 cubic feet per second (0.19 m3/s) in the wet season;[2] urban runoff has raised the creek's year-round base flow to close to 9.2 cubic feet per second (0.26 m3/s) at the mouth, with routine surges of more than 700 cubic feet per second (20 m3/s) in the winter. The United States Geological Survey had two stream gauges on the creek—one at the mouth in Laguna Beach, and one at the El Toro Road bridge near Mission Viejo. The Laguna Beach gauge was in operation from 1983 to 1986, and the El Toro gauge was operational from 1931 to 1980. The former received runoff from about 95 percent of the watershed, while the latter received runoff from 7.91 square miles (20.49 km2), or 26 percent of the watershed area.[17][18] Aliso Creek empties into a sandy lagoon at its mouth in Laguna Beach. Due to tides and erosion, its mouth is ever-changing. The largest flow recorded at the Laguna Beach streamflow gauge was 5,400 cubic feet per second (150 m3/s) with a water depth of 11.3 feet (3.4 m) on March 1, 1983.[17] The 1983 flood was caused by an El Niño event causing heavy runoff from the overdeveloped watershed. Damage was worst at the mouth of Aliso Canyon, which contains the Aliso Creek Inn and several other structures.[19] On February 16, 1986, 2,880 cubic feet per second (82 m3/s) was recorded, and 2,870 cubic feet per second (81 m3/s) was recorded on October 1, 1983.[17] The largest flow recorded at El Toro was 2,500 cubic feet per second (71 m3/s) on February 24, 1969, with a water depth of 11 feet (3.4 m). On January 5, 1979, the second largest flow, 2,450 cubic feet per second (69 m3/s), was recorded, and 1,950 cubic feet per second (55 m3/s) on February 6, 1937.[18] There was another nearby gauge—now out of service—at the Jeronimo Road crossing just downstream of El Toro. Before it was taken out of service in the 1980s, it frequently recorded periods of extremely low or nonexistent flow for most of the year.[20] The dramatic change in Aliso Creek flows from the 1960s onwards can be seen in streamflow data from the El Toro gauge. From 1931 to 1960, the average peak flow was 511 cubic feet per second (14.5 m3/s)—though peaks recorded ranged from zero to 1,950 cubic feet per second (55 m3/s). Between 1960 and 1980, the average peak flow was 1,178 cubic feet per second (33.4 m3/s), nearly twice the average before 1960.[18] Urban runoff now constitutes nearly 80 percent of the creek's dry season flow—7.2 cubic feet per second (0.20 m3/s)—and natural runoff, including springs in the Santa Ana Mountains, now supply a negligible amount of the creek's water.[14][15]

Geology[edit] Aerial view of the mouth of Aliso Creek, Aliso Beach is in foreground, Aliso Canyon behind. The Pacific Coast Highway crosses the creek just above its mouth. Most of Southern California, including all of Orange County, was periodically part of the Pacific Ocean; the most recent epoch was approximately 10 million years ago (MYA). The Santa Ana Mountains, which now border the creek to the north and east, began their uplift about 5.5 million years ago along the Elsinore Fault.[21] Aliso Creek formed about this time, running from the mountains across the broad coastal plain to the Pacific. Relief map of Aliso Creek watershed and surrounding cities About 1.22 million years ago, the San Joaquin Hills along the Orange County coast began their uplift along a blind thrust fault (the San Joaquin Hills blind thrust) extending south from the Los Angeles Basin.[22] As Aliso Creek was an antecedent stream, or one that had formed prior to the mountains' uplift, it cut a water gap through the rising mountains that today is Aliso Canyon. The same phenomenon occurred to the north with Laguna Canyon and San Diego Creek, and to the south at San Juan Creek. The uplift also caused Aliso Creek's largest tributary, Sulphur Creek, to turn north to join Aliso Creek instead of flowing south to Salt Creek.[5] The Wisconsinian era was responsible for shaping the watershed to its present-day form, with deep side canyons and broad alluvial valleys.[5] During the last glacial period (110,000 to 10,000 years ago), especially in the Wisconsinian glaciation (31,000 to 10,000 years ago), the climate of Southern California changed radically from arid to wet, to a climate likely similar to the present-day Pacific Northwest. Prodigious rainfall gradually turned the small streams of the region into large and powerful rivers.[23][24] It was this surge in volume that allowed Aliso Creek and other rivers to cut through the San Joaquin Hills. A 400-foot (120 m) drop in sea level escalated the process, allowing the rivers to flow more rapidly and have more erosive power. As sea levels rose after the Wisconsinian glaciation, the water gaps the rivers had cut through the San Joaquin Hills, including Aliso Canyon, became fjord-like inlets. Aliso Creek and these other streams deposited sediments into the inlets, turning them into flat-floored alluvial valleys with an elevation very close to sea level. Eventually, the sediment deposited met the coastline. By then, the rivers and streams had diminished to their original flow before the glaciation.[23] In the wake of the periodic inundation of Southern California by the ocean, most of the Aliso Creek watershed is underlain by several layers of marine sedimentary strata, the oldest dating from the Eocene (55.8–33.9 MYA) and the most recent, the Pliocene (5.33–2.59 MYA).[25] These alluvial sediments range from 13 to 36 feet (4.0 to 11.0 m) in depth. Generally throughout the watershed, there are five major soil and rock outcrop types—Capistrano sandy loam, Cieneba sandy loam, Marina loamy sand, Myford sandy loam, and Cieneba-rock outcrop. The water table ranges from 6 to 20 feet (1.8 to 6.1 m) deep.[25]

Watershed[edit] Geography[edit] Land use 4.7% agricultural 5.7% commerce 0.5% civic 1.7% industrial 0.4% recreational 31.3% residential 2.9% transport and utilities 30% unincorporated 26.2% mixed use[26] The Aliso Creek drainage basin lies in the south central part of Orange County, roughly halfway between the Santa Ana River and the Orange–San Diego County boundary.[27] It is a roughly spoon shaped area of 30.4 square miles (79 km2),[28] comprising generally hilly and sometimes mountainous land. The watershed borders five major Orange County watersheds: Santiago Creek to the north, San Diego Creek to the west, Laguna Canyon to the southwest, Salt Creek to the southeast, and San Juan Creek to the east.[12] To be more specific, the boundary with San Diego Creek is drained to the west by two tributaries of San Diego Creek—Serrano Creek and the La Cañada Wash. Two tributaries of San Juan Creek—Oso Creek and Trabuco Creek—border Aliso Creek to the northeast and southeast.[12][29] As of 2004, the Aliso Creek watershed had a population of 149,087.[4] Nine communities were established in the creek's watershed as it was developed in the 20th century. By 2001 seven of them had become cities (from mouth to source, Laguna Beach, Laguna Niguel, Aliso Viejo, Laguna Hills, Laguna Woods, Lake Forest, and Mission Viejo), and the last two, Foothill Ranch and Portola Hills, were incorporated into the city of Lake Forest in 2000.[26] The largest urban area in the basin is in the middle, where Interstate 5 bisects the watershed east to west. The northern boundary of this urban area stretches a little beyond California State Route 241 and the southern boundary is near California State Route 73 in the south. This area consists primarily of Lake Forest, Laguna Woods, and Laguna Hills.[26] The Loma Ridge of the Santa Ana Mountains runs east to west in the far northeastern corner of the watershed, forming the water divide with Santiago Creek. The San Joaquin Hills are at the southwestern portion of the watershed, following the coastline, and subranges within form the divides with Laguna Canyon and Salt Creeks.[12] While the Santa Ana Mountains rise to 4,000 feet (1,200 m) or more, the San Joaquin Hills top out at 1,000 feet (300 m) at Temple Hill ("Top of the World"),[10] which lies to the north of Aliso Canyon—the water gap in the San Joaquin Hills through which Aliso Creek passes. Most of the hills rise to only 600 feet (180 m) or 700 feet (210 m). The largest body of water in the watershed, Sulphur Creek Reservoir, is located to the northeast of Aliso Canyon.[10][13] Bacterial pollution[edit] Overview of Aliso Creek watershed from a ridge on the San Joaquin Hills, with Santa Ana Mountains in distance Aliso Creek's watershed, as well as most of Orange County, saw a rapid jump in urban development from the 1960s onward, which introduced increased flow, non-native vegetation, and high bacterial levels to the creek, severely hurting its ecology.[4] The creek is part of the Clean Water Act list of impaired waters,[30] which is defined as "impaired by one or more pollutants that do not meet one or more water quality standards". It is said that Aliso Creek is one of the "most publicized" streams on the list.[31] As of 2001, the average annual precipitation in the San Juan Hydrological Unit, which Aliso Creek is part of, was 16.42 inches (417 mm).[32] Bacteria affecting the water quality mainly consist of different types of fecal coliforms, with a high level of E. coli bacteria. This comes from pet waste, fertilizer, manure, and other organic pollutants that are washed into the creek, raising the average bacteria level 34 percent higher than levels declared safe under California law.[33] This in turn affects recreation at popular Aliso Creek Beach at the creek's mouth, violating state swimming standards 99 percent of the time, especially during storm events, as beachgoers are warned to avoid the creek for 72 hours (3 days) after a major storm event.[34][35] According to the county health department, the number of bacteria in the creek, especially at the freshwater lagoon at its mouth, frequently exceeds limits set by California law.[32] A large storm drain flows into Aliso Creek on the right bank, shortly downstream from Aliso Creek Road. This drain and over 40 others are responsible for the poor water quality of Aliso Creek. According to the Los Angeles Times, "County health officials acknowledge that the bacterial count at the mouth of the creek—which curls into a warm-water stagnant pond that flushes out onto the beach—is at times alarmingly high, often surpassing the legal limit for California. As a result, the area where the creek meets the sea, and the creek itself, are considered permanently off limits to swimmers and bear prominent signs that warn of the dangers of trespassing into such toxic waters. Nevertheless, people do, almost daily. Officials from the Orange County Environmental Health Department say that skin rashes, infections, "pink eye" and other assorted ailments are not uncommon to those who use Aliso Beach and, unwittingly, come in contact with the creek and its invisible bacteria...".[36] The problems facing the creeks are blamed on urbanization, which has deprived the creeks of needed sediment while increasing pollution.[32] Other pollutants[edit] Chlorine is responsible for the degradation of fish and shrimp in the creek. The sources for chlorine in urban runoff include irrigation and car washing. The only remaining fish species in the creek is carp, which can withstand high amounts of chlorine. Carp up to 18 inches (1.5 feet / 45 cm) long have been found in Aliso Creek near the mouth. Temperatures of the creek near the mouth have been known to exceed 90 °F (32 °C), although the temperature at the outflow is often much colder because it has been mixed with seawater.[36] Changes of sediment patterns in the creek have also created another problem. Stemming from the construction of structures interfering with stream flow, and increased runoff from the urban areas adjoining the creek, excessive erosion has created problems not limited to just the creek. The creek is eroding material from its bed and transporting it to the ocean, but naturally, sediment from the whole watershed flowed towards the main stem via a complex network of tributaries. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers warned in a 1997 study that up to $4.2 million in damage occurs per year as a result of the pollution of Aliso Creek and its neighbor San Juan Creek. This includes physical damage to creek banks, bridges, pipes and other creekside structures. In the upper portion of the watershed, spectacular erosion-related events have occurred at English Canyon Creek, where water flowing at high velocity around a bend during a flood caused several landslides in the 1990s.[37] Recreation[edit] Laguna Niguel Lake (otherwise known as Sulphur Creek Reservoir), here seen near the dam, is a major recreation and flood-control feature on Sulphur Creek. The Aliso Creek watershed includes portions of the Cleveland National Forest in the upper watershed, and two major regional parks—the 3,879-acre (1,570 ha) Aliso and Wood Canyons Wilderness Park and its adjoining Aliso Creek Beach, one of the county's most popular beaches with over one million annual visitors;[38] and the 236-acre (96 ha) Laguna Niguel Regional Park, which borders Sulphur Creek. Because of its shallowness and erratic flow, Aliso Creek is not navigable even in the winter and spring (rainy season); the only spot in the entire watershed where boating is possible is Sulphur Creek Reservoir. A mostly paved trail, the Aliso Creek Trail, follows the creek from Aliso Canyon to the Cleveland National Forest.[39] The only major fishing spot in the Aliso Creek's watershed is the 44-acre (18 ha) Sulphur Creek Reservoir, formed by a large earthfill dam across Sulphur Creek inside Laguna Niguel Regional Park. The lake is regularly stocked with catfish, bass, bluegill, and trout during the winter months.[40] Any other location in the watershed will probably yield only the bottom-dweller carp. Most of the trails in the watershed are biking and equestrian trails located in the lower portion of the watershed, in the immensely popular Aliso Canyon and its tributary, Wood Canyon. Aside from the main Aliso Creek Trail, the Wood Canyon Trail parallels a tributary of Aliso Creek (Wood Canyon Creek). There is also a bikeway along Sulphur Creek and along parts of English Canyon.[39]

Wildlife[edit] Historic[edit] Steelhead trout existed in Aliso Creek and likely inhabited the creek within recorded history, as recently as 1972. Before agricultural and later urban development of the watershed, live oak, sycamore, and alder trees lined the banks of Aliso Creek and its major tributaries, specifically Wood Canyon, Sulphur and English Canyon creeks, in a rich riparian zone.[37] Coyotes, mountain lions, and other large mammals were found throughout the Aliso Creek watershed, especially in the mountainous areas in the San Joaquin Hills and Santa Ana Mountains. These animals can still be found in some number, but they are mostly confined to the wilderness areas that are surrounded by residential development. These "islands" of native vegetation and wildlife still support many native Southern California organisms. As the creek was perennial, the riparian zone surrounding the creek likely was similar to that of San Juan Creek to the south.[4] Researchers and long-time residents of the lower Aliso Creek watershed have argued for many years over the presence of steelhead trout in Aliso Creek. Up until 2006 the National Marine Fisheries Service stated that Aliso Creek is a "[coastal basin] with no evidence of historical or extant of O. mykiss in anadromous waters." Contrary to that, a 1998 major study co-authored by the US Army Corps of Engineer and US Fish & Wildlife Service declared that steelhead had inhabited the creek until around 1972 when increased density (urbanization) resulted in poor water quality conditions (pollutants and low oxygen levels) that drove the migrational fish out. On February 20, 2009, in a written rebuke, chastising an Aliso Creek water rights applicant (South Coast Water District) a formal letter sent by NOAA Regional Manager Rodney McGinnis to Antonio Barrales of the State Water Resources Control Board, Water Rights Division, revised that 2006 assessment. Carbon copied was California Fish & Game (Mary Larson) plus US Fish & Wildlife Service (Christine Medak). This was due to 9 years of constant petitioning by the South Orange County environmental protectionist group Clean Water Now (CWN) led by Founder and Executive Director Roger E. Bütow, Board member Michael Hazzard, Joanne Sutch (Laguna Beach Beautification Committee) and Devora Hertz (Planet Laguna). Frank Selby, owner of His & Hers Fly Shop in Costa Mesa, was interviewed by Oc Register and lA Times reporters, he confirmed his own steelhead takings from the 1950s and 60s, last sighting in 1972. Frank then sent a letter to CEMARS (June 2008) titled "Regarding Aliso Creek Steelhead." He was also personally interviewed by the CWN Board to confirm actual sightings and taking. NMFS then reversed itself and declared that there was sufficient, credible information to declare that Aliso Creek had been steelhead habitat and was added to the Distinct Population Segment List under the jurisdictional domain of NOAA. It is now considered a candidate for re-colonization. During the prolonged 9-year dispute that began in 2000, Bütow and his working group "Friends of the Aliso Creek Steelhead" provided authentic Native American (Juañeno) anecdotes of takings, pictures by upstream fishermen with their catches and other personal accounts by longtime local residents that helped convince the State. It was a negotiated truce between Bütow and NOAA: Only the lower 7 miles of the creek was eventually listed because its conditions were amenable to historical populations. The habitat "termination line" was drawn at about Aliso Creek where it crosses an arterial road: Pacific Parkway in Aliso Viejo. In fact, Mary Larson (steelhead restoration coordinator for CF&G), declared to reporters when the ruling was reversed that it was obviously true, its historical presence a "duh, no-brainer moment." [41] Many anglers in the 1960s and 1970s reported taking tens or even hundreds of steelhead trout from Aliso Creek's estuary and Aliso Creek Canyon (approximately 4 miles) before suburban development began.[42][43][44][45][46] This indicates that there was a "possible run or population" of steelhead in Aliso Creek at some point.[47] The creek is also inhabited by bottom-dwellers such as carp, and historically shrimp and other benthic organisms were found throughout perennial pools in the Aliso Creek watershed. Historically, a large population of tidewater goby (10,000–15,000) was documented at the creek's mouth by Swift et al.. (1989), from a study period that ranged from March 1973 to January 1977. The tidewater goby, which depended on the transient lagoon at the mouth for survival, has declined in number because of modifications to its habitat.[48] Human impact[edit] Since urbanization began in the 1960s, sudden high and sediment-lacking flows of polluted water began to destroy the native riparian vegetation once found along much of the creek. Exotic plants, including tobacco tree, castor bean, pampas grass, periwinkle, and Artichoke thistle, but most notably the giant reed, then replaced the historic live oaks, sycamores and alders as riparian vegetation.[37] These plants have crowded out native vegetation, and in the case of giant reed, crowded out native animals—giant reed does not provide habitat for any native Southern California animals.[37] These invasive species are most prevalent along upper Sulphur Creek (Sulphur Creek Reservoir prevents these plants from spreading downstream), much of the Aliso Creek mainstem, and some parts of Wood Canyon Creek. Many of the trees in Aliso Creek's riparian zone were cut down in the Spanish Mission period to construct buildings, ships, and other projects. According to the Flood Protection Corridor Program of the Costa Machado Water Act of 2000, "Aliso Creek was one of the few streams that contained water most of the year, even during the pre-development period. There are documents describing explorers mooring their ships outside the mouth of the river and harvesting large timbers from the river area. Such large timbers could only be available from a relatively lush environment in which water was somewhat plentiful."[4] Some trees survived into the early 20th century, then a second decline of unknown cause began—either erosion or floods in the creek were responsible for their destruction, or the water table has lowered out of reach of the trees' roots. The water table began a drastic decline in the 1960s, after the watershed began to become urbanized.[37] White heron and ducklings in Aliso Creek Although historically many fish species used Aliso Creek, the only remaining one is carp, which is known to survive in areas with high toxicity. Bird life was also abundant in the watershed—and 137 species remain in the less developed areas of the watershed. Some of these birds include California least tern, least Bell's vireo, southwestern willow flycatcher, California gnatcatcher, and western snowy plover.[4] Remaining habitat for native wildlife is now primarily along Wood Canyon Creek, in the upper reaches of Aliso Creek, and along some parts of English Canyon.[25] Aside from carp, several species of fish and amphibians still inhabited the creek up to the 1980s, when floods destroyed much of the remaining riparian habitat. These included the mosquito fish, bluegill, bass, and channel catfish, as well as several species of native frogs. After the floods, most of these species were reported to have disappeared completely.[4]

History[edit] First inhabitants[edit] It is believed that in Native American times, Aliso Creek served as part of an important tribal boundary—between the Tongva in the north and the Acjachemen (or Juaneño) tribe in the south.[49] The Tongva's territory extended north, past the Santa Ana River and San Gabriel River, into present-day Los Angeles County, while the Acjachemen's smaller territory extended from Aliso Creek south, past San Juan Creek, and to the vicinity of San Mateo Creek in present-day San Diego County.[49] The creek's perennial flow[4] made it a likely spot for Indian settlement, although the Tongva's main settlements were near the San Gabriel River and the Acjachemen mostly lived at the confluence of San Juan Creek and Trabuco Creek. Even so, some 70 major archaeological sites have been discovered along the creek,[49] and it is believed that there was once an Acjachemen Indian village near the confluence of Aliso Creek and Sulphur Creek, named Niguili, which means "a large spring" in the native Luiseño dialect. The spring still exists near the intersection of Alicia Parkway and Highlands Road in present-day Laguna Niguel, about a mile (1.6) km east of Aliso Creek's confluence with Sulphur Creek.[50] The creek's use as a tribal boundary is disputed. As other southern California Native Americans have done, a tribe typically claimed both sides of a stream or river—and used drainage divides as boundaries instead. However, the presence of Aliso Canyon, a steep and difficult-to-traverse gorge, suggests the opposite.[49] Kroeber (1907) was the first to support this theory, and many other archaeologists have followed as well. The Juaneño disagree, arguing that their boundary stretches north to the northern drainage divide of the Aliso Creek watershed, which supports the practice of claiming both sides of a stream.[51] Spanish explorers and missionaries[edit] In 1769, the Portola expedition camped near Aliso Creek on July 24–25, having come north from the San Juan Capistrano area along the route of today's Interstate 5.[52] These first Spanish explorers were accompanied by Franciscan missionaries who took control over nearly all of the coastal Native American groups. They later established Mission San Gabriel Arcángel and Mission San Juan Capistrano near the main native population centers, seeking to convert them to Christianity. Most of the native population was moved to these two missions—the Spanish called the Tongva Gabrielinos[53] and the Acjachemen, the Juaneño,[54] after these two missions. The Spanish began farming and ranching practices on many of the fertile floodplains surrounding the only perennial streams in the area—San Juan and Trabuco Creek, Aliso Creek, and the Santa Ana, San Gabriel and Los Angeles rivers to the north. Many of the trees in the riparian zones surrounding these creeks—specifically Aliso Creek—were cut down, and it was said that the trees near the "river['s]"[4] mouth were especially tall and there were written accounts of Spanish ships mooring in the large bay at the outlet of Aliso Canyon and men going ashore to chop down and take away these trees for constructing mission buildings, ships and other structures.[4][37] The Mexican period[edit] Mexico won independence from Spain in 1822, keeping the Alta California province, and secularized the missions in the 1830s. Former mission lands were divided into private land grants. In 1842, Juan Avila received the 13,316-acre (53.89 km2) Rancho Niguel grant. The name of the rancho was partially derived from a corruption of the original name of the village, Niguili. (The rancho name later became part of the name of the city of Laguna Niguel.) Statehood[edit] Following the Mexican–American War, California was annexed by the United States, becoming the 31st state in 1850. In 1871, the first white settler along Aliso Creek, Eugene Salter, claimed 152 acres (0.62 km2) along the lower creek, inside Aliso Canyon.[5] The following year the 152 acres (0.62 km2) were acquired by George and Sarah Thurston, homesteaders who converted the mouth of the creek into an orchard irrigated by its waters for roughly the next half century.[5] Urbanization and development[edit] View of the proposed Aliso Reservoir site (below, in canyon) from the San Joaquin Hills See also: Orange County, California § History In 1895, Rancho Niguel was acquired by rancher Lewis Moulton (1854–1938) and his partner, Jean Pierre Daguerre (1856–1911). The rancho remained under their ownership for approximately thirty-eight years, and the rancho continued to be owned by the Moulton family until the 1960s. Rancho Niguel was eventually assimilated into Laguna Niguel, Aliso Viejo, Laguna Hills, and Aliso and Wood Canyons Wilderness Park.[4][55][56] By the 1920s, Aliso Creek was already being experimented with as a municipal water source. In 1924, the City of Laguna Beach drilled wells into gravel deposits near the mouth of the creek, in order to provide drinking water. Just four years later, the unusually high and unexplained presence of chloride in the water prompted the city to abandon Aliso Creek as a water source.[2] Taking advantage of the creek's high winter surges, ranging from 0 to 404 acre feet (0 to 498,327 m3) monthly, local resident A. J. Stead proposed in 1934 to build a dam very near the mouth of the creek, forming a reservoir with a capacity of 2,650 acre feet (3,270,000 m3) and safe annual yield of 150 acre feet (190,000 m3). Although the proposal was accepted, the results are unknown—there is no remaining trace of these works today.[2] By the late 1960s, increasing runoff in the creek from the growing cities in the watershed begun to spell ecological problems and severe erosion for the creek. Although a series of flood control channels upstream of Aliso Creek Road (near Aliso Canyon) had already begun to prevent erosion in those heavily developed areas, the creek eroded to depths of 20 feet (6.1 m) or more in any unlined areas.[57] In 1969 a flow control and erosion mitigation project for Aliso Creek was begun, requiring the construction of two concrete drop structures on the creek.[57] These two vertical barriers, 11 feet (3.4 m) high and 30 feet (9.1 m) long, were built both upstream and downstream of Aliso Creek Road. Several grouted riprap structures were also constructed between and downstream of these drops.[4] A small dam was built about 1.4 miles (2.3 km) downstream of Aliso Creek Road in the 1990s—inside Aliso Canyon—as part of a "mitigation bank project".[57] This project, known as ACWHEP (Aliso Creek Wildlife Habitat Enhancement Project) was intended to provide water to 70 acres (0.28 km2) of former riparian areas now several feet higher than the eroded channel of the creek. It was conceived and jointly funded by the county and the Mission Viejo Company.[58] The dam was also supposed to control further erosion downstream. Due to faulty design, however, the dam failed to prevent erosion, which has continued to undermine structures throughout the canyon.[37] The grouted riprap structure is about 15 feet (4.6 m) high and 100 feet (30 m) long, and aside from impounding water, captures debris and temporarily controls wet season flows. The building of these modifications, as well as dry weather runoff from seven municipal storm sewer systems, began to contribute to the infamous pollution of Aliso Creek.[57] Cities and protected areas timeline[edit] Aliso Creek watershed map with city boundaries In 1927 Laguna Beach became the first city to be incorporated in the Aliso Creek watershed and the second in Orange County. At this time, prior to the 1930s, aside from some farming and ranching practices, the watershed was largely unpopulated.[4] At the end of that decade, the watershed still remained less than 1 percent developed. Up to the 1960s and 1970s, barely 15 percent of the watershed was developed, but by 1990, after doubling its rate in the past two decades, the watershed was roughly 60 percent developed.[4] The cities of Mission Viejo and Laguna Niguel were incorporated in 1988 and 1989, respectively. By the end of the 20th century, more than 70 percent of the watershed was developed.[4] The newest city in the watershed, Aliso Viejo, was incorporated in 2001. The Cleveland National Forest, the oldest protected area in the Aliso Creek watershed, was created in 1908, and the next major park to be created was Laguna Niguel Regional Park in 1973.[59] Land for Aliso and Wood Canyons Regional Park was first secured in April 1979 with 3,400 acres (14 km2), and small increments were added to the park until the early 1990s forming a total of 3,879 acres (15.70 km2).[60] Also in the 1990s, Aliso and Wood Canyons became part of the Laguna Coast Wilderness, which stretches north to Crystal Cove State Park. Flooding and mitigation[edit] Like most other coastal Orange County streams, the watershed of Aliso Creek is now heavily urbanized. With 70 percent of the original land surface now underneath impermeable surfaces such as pavement and buildings, far more runoff now enters the creek—not only inducing an increased year-round flow, but much larger rainy season flows. In the 1920s and 1930s, devastating floods wreaked havoc on much of southern California; the Los Angeles Flood of 1938 was the most famous flooding episode of this period.[4] The Orange County Flood Control Act of 1927 was created in the wake of some of the earlier flooding events of this era. Dams and reservoirs, some of the largest of which include Irvine Lake and the Sulphur Creek Reservoir, were the first features to be constructed following the passage of this act.[61] Starting from the 1960s, most Orange County rivers, including Aliso Creek, were channelized. Some, like the Santa Ana River, were entirely lined with concrete, but Aliso Creek retains a natural riverbed in most parts despite being bound to a narrow channel.[4] Many drop structures exist in the Aliso Creek riverbed to prevent erosion. Several tributaries of Aliso Creek—the Dairy Fork, Aliso Hills Channel, Munger Creek, and other smaller ones—have been replaced by storm drains.[62] Wood Canyon Creek remains much like its original condition, despite degradation due to polluted water. Sulphur Creek has been channelized and diverted into culverts in several stretches, and English Canyon Creek has received some riprap stabilization and bank protection.[37] Although there are no major flood control dams on Aliso Creek itself, there are 19 drop structures, and while doing nothing to reduce the creek's rainy season surges, the drop structures were constructed to mitigate the catastrophic erosion that came with the creek's increased flow. Although the creek has a wide floodplain throughout most of Aliso Canyon, a major bottleneck lies at the south end of the canyon where a sharp bend in the creek is constricted between crowded development and steep cliffs. In flooding events, this area generally sustains heavy damage.[4] Another major era of floods lasted from the 1980s until the early 21st century. The 1983 El Niño season brought unprecedented rainfall that produced a flow of 5,400 cubic feet per second (150 m3/s) from the creek, an all-time high. The creek overflowed its banks and flooded up to 10 feet (3.0 m) deep in places.[19] There were five large floods throughout the 1990s, including one in 1998 that reputedly destroyed six footbridges.[63] The years of 2004 and 2005 again saw heavy rainfall.[64]

Along the creek[edit] Crossings[edit] Crossings of the creek are listed from mouth to source (year built in parentheses).[13][65] The creek is crossed by roughly 30 major bridges. SR 1 / Pacific Coast Highway (1926) Multiple private roads in the Aliso Creek Golf Course Aliso Canyon Road Service Road for Aliso Canyon Dam AWMA Road—an acronym for the Aliso Water Management Agency Aliso Creek Road (1988) Pacific Park Drive SR 73 / California State Route 73 (1996) Trail [Pedestrian Bridge] Moulton Parkway (northbound 1969, southbound 1987) Laguna Hills Drive—twin bridges (1985) Avenida Sevilla Trails in Aliso Park Paseo de Valencia (1966) Aliso Creek Trail I-5 / Interstate 5 (1959) Aliso Creek Trail Los Alisos Boulevard (1973) Muirlands Boulevard (1973) Private road in Lake Forest Golf Center Surf Line Jeronimo Road (1974) 2nd Street [Pedestrian Bridge] Trabuco Road—twin bridges (1975) Creekside Drive (1980) El Toro Road (1975) Normandale Drive (1987) Portola Parkway Saddleback Parkway SR 241 / California State Route 241 (1995) Glen/Glenn Ranch Road Aliso Creek Trail Ridgeline Road Santiago Canyon Road Crystal Canyon Road Country Home Road Whiting Road Tributaries[edit] From mouth to source, Aliso Creek is joined by six major tributaries. All of these tributaries as well as several others are listed. Another 46 minor streams and drains flow into the creek. Name Variant name(s) Source Source coordinates Length Mouth Mouth coordinates Mouth N/A N/A N/A Aliso Creek Beach, Laguna Beach 33°30′38″N 117°45′12″W / 33.5105°N 117.7532°W / 33.5105; -117.7532 [3] Wood Canyon Creek Aliso Viejo 33°35′39″N 117°44′22″W / 33.5941°N 117.7394°W / 33.5941; -117.7394[66] 2.8 miles (4.5 km)[67] Aliso Canyon—right bank of Aliso Creek 33°32′28″N 117°44′13″W / 33.5411°N 117.7369°W / 33.5411; -117.7369[66] Sulphur Creek Arroyo Salada, Sulpher Creek, Salt Creek, Cañada Salada[68] North Laguna Niguel 33°33′33″N 117°41′04″W / 33.5591°N 117.6844°W / 33.5591; -117.6844[69] 4.5 miles (7.2 km)[68] Head of Aliso Canyon—left bank of Aliso Creek 33°32′32″N 117°42′16″W / 33.5422°N 117.7044°W / 33.5422; -117.7044[69] Aliso Hills Channel South Laguna Hills 4.5 miles (7.2 km)[12] Aliso Viejo—left bank of Aliso Creek Dairy Fork Dairy Fork Storm Drain South Laguna Woods 3 miles (4.8 km)[12] Aliso Viejo- right bank of Aliso Creek Munger Creek Munger Creek Storm Drain Lake Forest 1 mile (1.6 km)[12] Mission Viejo—right bank of Aliso Creek Unnamed northern fork Portola Hills 2.5 miles (4.0 km) Mission Viejo—right bank of Aliso Creek English Canyon English Canyon Creek, English Canyon Channel Mission Viejo 33°39′30″N 117°38′28″W / 33.6583°N 117.6411°W / 33.6583; -117.6411[70] 3.5 miles (5.6 km)[71] Mission Viejo—left bank of Aliso Creek 33°37′42″N 117°40′52″W / 33.6283°N 117.6811°W / 33.6283; -117.6811[70] Source Cleveland National Forest, Portola Hills 33°42′10″N 117°37′21″W / 33.7027°N 117.6225°W / 33.7027; -117.6225[3] N/A N/A N/A [12]

See also[edit] Los Angeles portal Cook's Corner List of rivers of California List of rivers of Orange County, California

References[edit] Notes ^ Durham, p. 4 ^ a b c d e f g h i j "California Division of Water Resources, Department of Public Works, Application #7901" (PDF). California Division of Water Rights. March 6, 1936. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 15, 2007. Retrieved 2009-02-04.  ^ a b c d e f g "Aliso Creek". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. January 19, 1981. Retrieved October 8, 2009.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r "Flood Protection Corridor Program Project Evaluation Criteria Competitive Grant Application Form" (PDF). California Department of Water Resources. Retrieved 2009-02-12.  ^ a b c d e f O'Neil, Stephen; Christopher Corey; Nancy Sikes (October 2006). "Cultural Resources Inventory and Evaluation for the Proposed Aliso Creek Inn and Golf Course Project, City of Laguna Beach, Orange County, California". SWCA Cultural Resources Report Database No. 2005-115. SWCA Environmental Consultants.  ^ "Surface Water Ambient Monitoring Program (SWAMP) Report on the San Juan Hydrologic Unit" (PDF). South California Coastal Water Recovery Project. Retrieved 2009-05-16.  ^ Diamond, Barbara (September 1, 2006). "Cleaning up the creek". Coastline Pilot. Retrieved 2009-02-02.  ^ Gudde and Bright, p. 8 ^ "GNIS Feature Search with "California" and "Stream" parameters selected and "Aliso" search word". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2009-08-12.  ^ a b c Map of Aliso Creek (Map). Cartography by NAVTEQ. Google Maps. 2009. Archived from the original on August 7, 2009. Retrieved 2009-08-10.  ^ a b c d e f "Aliso Creek Watershed" (PDF). 303(d) Fact Sheet Region 9 Water Quality Control Board. State Water Resources Control Board. 1998. Retrieved 2009-02-04.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Aliso Creek Watershed and Elevation Ranges". Orange County Watershed and Coastal Resources Division. Watershed and Coastal Resources Division. Archived from the original on October 21, 2007. Retrieved 2009-05-03.  ^ a b c d e f g "South Orange Street Map- San Clemente/Mission Viejo". American Maps. Langenscheidt Publishing Group, 2001. ^ a b Mudry, Dwight (June 2008). "Aliso Creek Hydrologic Conditions, Project Plans, and Adaptive Management". Aliso Creek Urban Runoff Recovery, Reuse, and Conservation Project. Environmental & GIS Services, LLC.  ^ a b Mudry, Dwight (July 2008). "Initial Study and Environmental Checklist for Aliso Creek Urban Runoff Recovery, Reuse, and Conservation Project Laguna Beach, California" (PDF). Environmental & GIS Services, LLC. Retrieved 2009-05-03.  ^ "What is to become of Aliso Creek?". Laguna Greenbelt, Inc. June 2, 2009. Retrieved 2009-12-01. [dead link] ^ a b c "USGS Gage #11047700 on Aliso Creek at South Laguna, CA". National Water Information System. United States Geological Survey. 1983–1986. Retrieved 2009-08-14.  ^ a b c "USGS Gage #11047500 on Aliso Creek at El Toro". National Water Information System. United States Geological Survey. 1931–1980. Retrieved 2009-02-05.  ^ a b Martin Beck &, Steve Kresal (June 15, 1998). "Aliso Creek Is Ready for This Surge". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2009-02-07.  ^ Bardsley, Audra (May 2007). "Patterns of Fecal Indicator Bacteria in the Aliso Creek Watershed" (PDF). Brown University. Retrieved 2009-12-12.  ^ "Santa Ana River Watershed Geology". Santa Ana Watershed Project Authority. Archived from the original on February 21, 2011. Retrieved 2009-09-12.  ^ Grant, Lisa B.; Mueller, Karl J.; Gath, Eldon M.; Cheng, Hai; Edweards, R. Lawrence; Munro, Rosalind; Kennedy, George L. (November 1999). "Late Quaternary uplift and earthquake potential of the San Joaquin Hills, southern Los Angeles basin, California" (PDF). California Institute for Hazards Research. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 12, 2010. Retrieved 2009-08-10.  ^ a b Colburn, Ivan P. "The Role of Antecedent Rivers in Shaping the Orange/Los Angeles Coastal Plain" (PDF). California State University Los Angeles, Department of Geology. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 2, 2010. Retrieved 2009-08-18.  ^ Stadum, Carol J. (2007). "The Geologic History of Orange County". Irvine Valley College. Archived from the original on October 25, 2012. Retrieved 2009-08-18.  ^ a b c "Aliso and Wood Canyons Wilderness Park" (PDF). Open House and Information Fair. County of Orange Resources & Development Management Department. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 10, 2006. Retrieved 2009-05-03.  ^ a b c "Orange County California Watershed: Aliso Creek Land Use". Watershed and Coastal Resources Division of Orange County. Archived from the original on April 27, 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-03.  The Orange County Watershed Website states that "Orange County, California is a rapid[ly] developing area. Land Use is constantly changing and this information may not reflect the current conditions of the land." so therefore, the information provided may only be an estimate. ^ "Aliso Creek Super Project Concept Plan Report" (PDF). February 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 25, 2009. Retrieved 2009-08-17.  ^ "Introduction to Aliso Creek Watershed". Watershed and Coastal Resources Division of Orange County. Archived from the original on October 9, 2007. Retrieved 2010-02-13.  ^ "Introduction to Watersheds of Orange County, California". Watershed and Coastal Resources Division of Orange County. Archived from the original on August 28, 2009. Retrieved 2009-08-10.  ^ "Section 303(d) Maps (Impaired Water Bodies)" (PDF). State Water Resources Control Board. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 14, 2009. Retrieved December 12, 2009.  ^ Butow, Roger (January 12, 2010). "How to Build an Environmental Activist". Salem News. Archived from the original on March 26, 2010. Retrieved 2010-02-13.  ^ a b c "San Juan Watershed". project clean water. Archived from the original on March 27, 2009. Retrieved May 5, 2009.  ^ Mariano, Willoughby (May 11, 2000). "Aliso Creek Pollution Is Down, Report Says". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2009-02-03.  ^ Vardon, Susan Gill; Radcliffe, Jim (August 1, 2001). "Checking up on the creek". Orange County Register. Archived from the original on April 18, 2008. Retrieved 2009-02-12.  ^ "Dangerous Pollution Levels Prompt 25 Percent More Beach Closings in California; Closings Hit Record High Nationwide". National Resources Defense Council. August 3, 2006. Archived from the original on December 2, 2008. Retrieved 2009-05-03.  ^ a b Granberry, Michael (September 28, 1997). "A Cesspool Stew". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2009-02-17.  ^ a b c d e f g h "Aliso Creek – Watershed Management Plan". Watershed and Coastal Resources Division of Orange County. Retrieved 2009-05-25.  ^ "Aliso Beach". Orange County. 2008. Archived from the original on February 5, 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-14.  ^ a b "Aliso & Wood Canyons Park Amenities". Orange County. 2008. Archived from the original on March 5, 2009. Retrieved 2009-08-29.  ^ "Laguna Niguel Regional Park Activities". OC Parks. Archived from the original on February 8, 2009. Retrieved 2009-09-23.  ^ National Marine Fisheries Service. Technical Memorandum #394 Steelhead of the South-Central/Southern California Coast: Population Characterization for Recovery Planning (2006). ^ "Steelhead/rainbow trout resources of Orange County" (PDF). Center for Ecosystem Management and Restoration. Retrieved 2009-12-01.  ^ Hagle, William (June 27, 2008). "Steelhead Spawn a New Water War". Laguna Beach Independent. Retrieved 2010-02-13. [permanent dead link] ^ Hagle, William. "At Every Turn, Aliso Creek Walk Surprises". Laguna Beach Independent. Retrieved 2010-02-13. [dead link] ^ Adelson, Andrea (March 20, 2009). "Storms Brew Over Water Protections" (PDF). Laguna Beach Independent. Archived from the original on April 8, 2009. Retrieved 2010-02-13.  ^ "Aliso Beach Deserves a Better Fix: Long-term plan needed to avert polluted runoff from ocean". Los Angeles Times. October 5, 1997. Retrieved 2010-02-13.  ^ Current status of Oncorhynchus mykiss in coastal streams of Orange County, California (PDF) (Map). Cartography by CEMAR. Center for Ecosystem Management and Restoration. 2008. Retrieved 2009-12-01.  ^ "Rules and Regulations" (PDF). Federal Register. Fish and Wildlife Service. 65 (224). November 20, 2000. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 18, 2011. Retrieved December 10, 2011.  ^ a b c d Cameron, Constance. "Determining Tribal Boundaries Through Potsherds – An Archaeological Perspective" (PDF). Pacific Coast Archaeological Society. PCAS Quarterly, 35 (2 & 3), Spring and Summer 1999. Retrieved 2009-08-10.  ^ "Niguel Shores – A History" (PDF). Retrieved 2009-08-10.  ^ O'Neil, Stephen; Evans, Nancy H. (1980). "Notes on Historical Juaneno Villages and Geographical Features". Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology (2).  ^ Bolton, Herbert E. (1927). Fray Juan Crespi: Missionary Explorer on the Pacific Coast, 1769–1774. HathiTrust Digital Library. pp. 137–139. Retrieved 3 April 2014.  ^ McCawley, William (1996). The First Angelinos: The Gabrielino Indians of Los Angeles. Ballena Publishing. ISBN 0-9651016-0-6.  ^ Granberry, Michael (March 13, 1994). "Orange County Tribe Battles for Its Identity – The Juaneño Indians were stripped of a large part of Southern California. They seek U.S. recognition to validate their past and enrich their future". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2009-08-10. [permanent dead link] ^ "Wood Canyon Trails". Biketrails. Archived from the original on February 1, 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-10.  ^ "Headline History: Orange County 1866 to 1888". Orange County Almanac. Archived from the original on April 8, 2009. Retrieved 2009-08-11.  ^ a b c d "Executive Officer Summary Report: April 08, 2009" (PDF). State of California, Regional Water Quality Control Board, San Diego Region. Retrieved 2009-05-03.  ^ Mitigation banking: theory and practice, p. 251 ^ OC Parks. "Laguna Niguel Regional Park History". Archived from the original on January 4, 2010. Retrieved 2009-08-11.  ^ Yi, Daniel (January 17, 2005). "'Open Space' Doesn't Always Mean Forever". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2009-08-11.  ^ "Neighborhood Flood Control Introduction". Orange County Flood Control District. Archived from the original on July 13, 2010. Retrieved 2009-02-02.  ^ The County of Orange Watershed and Coastal Resources Division mentions several times in its reports "Dairy Fork Storm Drain" and "Munger Creek Storm Drain". ^ Seymour, Liz (January 29, 1998). "Oft-Battered Laguna Storms into Action". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2009-05-03.  ^ Schofield, Kent; Earp, Suzie. "Historical Perspectives on flooding in Southern California" (PDF). California State University San Bernardino. Retrieved 2009-08-10.  ^ "2007 National Bridge Inventory". Retrieved 2009-08-08.  ^ a b "Wood Canyon". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2009-02-14.  Note: The GNIS site details the beginning of the canyon, not the creek, which actually begins as a subterranean channel upstream of the head of the canyon. ^ "Wood Canyon Emergent Wetland Project" (PDF). City of Aliso Viejo. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 6, 2010. Retrieved 2009-02-17.  ^ a b Durham, p. 176 ^ a b "Sulphur Creek". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. 1981-01-19. Retrieved 2009-02-15.  ^ a b "English Canyon". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. 1981-01-19. Retrieved 2009-10-18.  ^ Durham, p. 59 Bibliography Durham, David L. (2001). Durham's Place Names of Greater Los Angeles. Clovis, Calif.: Word Dancer Press. ISBN 1-884995-28-4. Gudde, Erwin G.; Bright, William (2004). California Place Names: The Origin and Etymology of Current Geographical Names (4th ed.). Berkeley, Calif., and London: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-24217-3. Marsh, Lindell L.; Porter, Douglas R.; Salvesen, David; Urban Land Institute (1996). Mitigation banking: theory and practice. Washington, D.C.: Island Press. ISBN 1-55963-371-9. Retrieved 2010-01-28.

External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Aliso Creek. Map all coordinates using OSM Map all coordinates using Google Export all coordinates as KML Export all coordinates as GPX Map all microformatted coordinates Place data as RDF Orange County Watersheds Introduction Aliso Creek Fecal Coliform Indicators Wood Canyon Emergent Wetland U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Aliso Canyon Places adjacent to Aliso Creek (Orange County) San Diego Creek Santiago Creek Laguna Canyon Aliso Creek San Juan Creek Salt Creek v t e Rivers of Orange County, California San Gabriel River watershed Brea Creek Coyote Creek Carbon Creek Fullerton Creek Imperial Creek Moody Creek North Fork Coyote Creek Santa Ana River watershed Black Star Canyon Blind Canyon Fremont Canyon Handy Creek Harding Canyon Limestone Canyon Modjeska Canyon Santiago Creek Silverado Canyon Weir Canyon Williams Canyon Newport Bay watershed Agua Chinon Creek Bee Canyon Creek Santa Ana-Delhi Channel Bonita Creek Marshburn Channel La Cañada Creek Peters Canyon Wash San Diego Creek San Joaquin Wash Sand Canyon Wash Serrano Creek Aliso Creek tributaries Aliso Hills Channel Dairy Fork English Canyon Creek Munger Creek Sulphur Creek Wood Canyon Creek San Juan Creek watershed Bell Canyon Cañada Gobernadora Cold Springs Creek El Horno Creek Falls Canyon Creek Hickey Creek Holy Jim Creek Hot Springs Creek Live Oak Canyon Creek Lucas Canyon Creek Morrell Canyon Creek Oso Creek Tijeras Canyon Creek Trabuco Creek Trampas Canyon Other Bolsa Chica Channel Buck Gully Muddy Creek Prima Deshecha Cañada Salt Creek Segunda Deshecha Cañada Talbert Channel v t e Greater Los Angeles Area Central city Los Angeles Counties Los Angeles Orange Riverside San Bernardino Ventura Satellite cities Long Beach Riverside San Bernardino Cities >200k Anaheim Fontana Glendale Huntington Beach Irvine Long Beach Moreno Valley Oxnard Riverside San Bernardino Santa Ana Cities and towns 100k−200k Burbank Corona Costa Mesa Downey East Los Angeles El Monte Fullerton Garden Grove Inglewood Lancaster Murrieta Norwalk Ontario Orange Palmdale Pasadena Pomona Rancho Cucamonga Rialto Santa Clarita Simi Valley Temecula Thousand Oaks Torrance Ventura Victorville West Covina Area regions Los Angeles metropolitan area Antelope Valley Central Los Angeles Coachella Valley Colorado Desert Conejo Valley Downtown Los Angeles East Los Angeles Gateway Cities Greater Hollywood Harbor Area Inland Empire Mojave Desert Northwest Los Angeles Palos Verdes Peninsula Pomona Valley San Bernardino Valley San Fernando Valley San Gabriel Valley Santa Ana Valley Santa Clarita Valley Simi Valley South Bay South Los Angeles Victor Valley Westside Los Angeles Landforms Los Angeles Basin Baldwin Hills (range) Catalina Island Channel Islands Chino Hills Hollywood Hills Oxnard Plain Palos Verdes Hills Puente Hills San Fernando Valley San Gabriel Mountains San Gabriel Valley San Jacinto Mountains Santa Ana Mountains Santa Monica Mountains Santa Susana Mountains Sierra Pelona Mountains Simi Hills Verdugo Mountains Bodies of water Los Angeles River Aliso Creek Arroyo Calabasas Arroyo Seco Ballona Creek Bell Creek Big Bear Lake Coyote Creek Lake Arrowhead Lake Gregory Lake Perris Lake Piru Los Angeles Aqueduct Malibu Creek Mojave River Pacific Ocean Pyramid Lake Rio Hondo San Gabriel River San Juan Creek San Pedro Bay Santa Ana River Santa Clara River Santa Margarita River Santa Monica Bay Tujunga Wash Retrieved from "" Categories: Rivers of Orange County, CaliforniaSanta Ana MountainsSan Joaquin HillsAliso Viejo, CaliforniaLaguna Beach, CaliforniaMission Viejo, CaliforniaRivers of Southern CaliforniaHidden categories: All articles with dead external linksArticles with dead external links from October 2010Articles with dead external links from July 2017Articles with permanently dead external linksArticles with dead external links from March 2012Use mdy dates from April 2016Featured articlesCoordinates on WikidataGeobox usage tracking for river typeLists of coordinatesGeographic coordinate listsArticles with Geo

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Aliso_Creek_(Orange_County) - Photos and All Basic Informations

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This Is A Featured Article. Click Here For More Information.Aliso Creek (Los Angeles County)A Channed Stream Between Rocky Banks Runs Towards A Canyon In The Distance As It Flows Under A Concrete BridgeAliso And Wood Canyons Wilderness ParkAlderUnited StatesCaliforniaOrange County, CaliforniaSulphur Creek (California)English Canyon CreekWood Canyon CreekDairy ForkLaguna BeachLaguna NiguelAliso ViejoLaguna WoodsLaguna HillsLake Forest, CaliforniaMission ViejoPortola Hills, CaliforniaCleveland National ForestSanta Ana MountainsOrange County, CaliforniaPacific OceanLaguna BeachGeographic Coordinate SystemLaguna BeachAliso Creek Drains A Roughly Spoon-shaped Area (light Brown). It Is Bordered By The Cities Of Laguna Beach, Aliso Viejo, Laguna Hills, Lake Forest, Foothill Ranch, Portola Hills, Mission Viejo, And Laguna Niguel, Clockwise From Bottom Left. There Are Several Forks Of The Creek Including English Canyon Creek, The Dairy Fork, The Aliso Hills Channel, Sulphur Creek, And Wood Canyon Creek.Aliso Creek (marked By A Red Dot) Is Located On The South Coast Of The State Of California.Template:Aliso Creek MapTemplate Talk:Aliso Creek MapTemplate:Waterways LegendCalifornia State Route 241Munger CreekEnglish Canyon CreekInterstate 5Aliso Hills ChannelCalifornia State Route 73Dairy ForkSulphur Creek ReservoirWood Canyon CreekPacific OceanAlderUrban StreamOrange County, CaliforniaSanta Ana MountainsLos Angeles BasinSedimentary RockEocenePlioceneIce AgeAliso CanyonJuaneñoGabrieleñoRancho NiguelRanchos Of CaliforniaJuan AvilaMunicipal WaterStorm DrainBiodiversityRecreationConquistadorAlder TreePlatanus RacemosaGeographic Names Information SystemUnited States Geological SurveyMiddle SchoolSaddleback Valley Unified School DistrictAliso Viejo, CaliforniaSanta Ana MountainsPortola Hills, CaliforniaLake Forest, CaliforniaCleveland National ForestEl Toro RoadInterstate 5California State Route 241Lake Forest, CaliforniaMission Viejo, CaliforniaEnlargeStream GaugeCulvertLaguna Hills, CaliforniaCalifornia State Route 73Aliso Viejo, CaliforniaLaguna Niguel, CaliforniaAliso And Wood Canyons Wilderness ParkSulphur Creek (California)San Joaquin HillsWood Canyon CreekCalifornia State Route 1EnlargeSandbarErosionTidewater GobyHabitat DestructionUrban RunoffBaseflowUnited States Geological SurveyStream GaugeLaguna BeachMission Viejo, CaliforniaEnlargeEl NiñoEnlargeSouthern CaliforniaEnlargeSan Joaquin HillsThrust FaultLos Angeles BasinWater GapAliso CanyonLaguna CanyonSan Diego CreekSan Juan CreekSulphur Creek (California)Salt Creek (Orange County)Last Glacial PeriodLast Glacial PeriodPacific NorthwestFjordStratumEocenePlioceneAlluvialWater TableCivicsRecreationalResidentialUnincorporated AreaDrainage BasinSanta Ana RiverSan Diego CountySantiago CreekSan Diego CreekLaguna CanyonSalt Creek (Orange County)San Juan CreekSerrano CreekOso CreekTrabuco CreekLaguna BeachLaguna NiguelAliso ViejoLaguna HillsLaguna Woods, CaliforniaLake Forest, CaliforniaMission ViejoFoothill Ranch, Lake Forest, CaliforniaPortola Hills, CaliforniaInterstate 5California State Route 241California State Route 73Santa Ana MountainsSan Joaquin HillsAliso CanyonWater GapSulphur Creek ReservoirEnlargeSan Joaquin HillsSanta Ana MountainsClean Water ActFecal ColiformsEnlargeStorm DrainSkin RashPink EyeChlorineCarpSedimentU.S. Army Corps Of EngineersSan Juan CreekEnglish Canyon CreekEnlargeSulphur Creek (California)Cleveland National ForestAliso And Wood Canyons Wilderness ParkLaguna Niguel Regional ParkSulphur Creek ReservoirCatfishBass (fish)BluegillTroutCarpWood Canyon CreekEnlargeSteelhead TroutLive OakSycamoreAlder TreeCoyoteMountain LionSan Juan CreekSteelhead TroutNational Marine Fisheries ServiceCarpShrimpBenthicTidewater GobyTobaccoCastor BeanPampas GrassVincaArtichoke ThistleGiant ReedSulphur Creek ReservoirWater TableEnlargeGreat EgretCarpCalifornia Least TernLeast Bell's VireoWillow FlycatcherCalifornia GnatcatcherWestern Snowy PloverGambusia AffinisBluegillBass (fish)Indigenous Peoples Of The AmericasTongva PeopleAcjachemenSanta Ana RiverSan Gabriel River (California)Los Angeles CountySan Juan CreekSan Mateo Creek (Southern California)San Diego CountyTrabuco CreekSulphur Creek (California)Luiseño LanguageDrainage DividePortola ExpeditionSan Juan CapistranoInterstate 5Mission San Gabriel ArcángelMission San Juan CapistranoGabrielinoJuaneñoLos Angeles RiverMexicoAlta CaliforniaJuan AvilaRancho NiguelLaguna Niguel, CaliforniaMexican–American WarEnlargeSan Joaquin HillsOrange County, CaliforniaAliso Viejo, CaliforniaLaguna Hills, CaliforniaLaguna Beach, CaliforniaChlorideAliso CanyonDrop StructureGroutRiprapEnlargeLaguna BeachMission Viejo, CaliforniaLaguna Niguel, CaliforniaAliso Viejo, CaliforniaCleveland National ForestLaguna Niguel Regional ParkAliso And Wood Canyons Regional ParkCrystal Cove State ParkLos Angeles Flood Of 1938Irvine LakeSulphur Creek ReservoirSanta Ana RiverEnlargeDrop StructureRiprapDrop StructureErosionFloodplainChoke PointEl NiñoFootbridgeCalifornia State Route 1Pacific Coast Highway (California)California State Route 73California State Route 73Interstate 5 In CaliforniaInterstate 5Surf LineCalifornia State Route 241California State Route 241Laguna BeachWood Canyon CreekAliso ViejoAliso CanyonSulphur Creek (California)Laguna NiguelLaguna HillsAliso ViejoLaguna WoodsLake Forest, CaliforniaMission ViejoPortola Hills, CaliforniaMission ViejoMission ViejoCleveland National ForestPortola HillsPortal:Los AngelesCook's CornerList Of Rivers Of CaliforniaList Of Rivers Of Orange County, CaliforniaGeographic Names Information SystemUnited States Geological SurveyGeographic Names Information SystemUnited States Geological SurveyWikipedia:Link RotUnited States Geological SurveyUnited States Geological SurveyWikipedia:Link RotWikipedia:Link RotInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-9651016-0-6Los Angeles TimesWikipedia:Link RotThe Los Angeles TimesGeographic Names Information SystemUnited States Geological SurveyGeographic Names Information SystemUnited States Geological SurveyGeographic Names Information SystemUnited States Geological SurveyInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/1-884995-28-4International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-520-24217-3International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/1-55963-371-9Keyhole Markup LanguageGPS EXchange FormatSan Diego CreekSantiago CreekLaguna CanyonSan Juan CreekSalt Creek (Orange County)Template:Orange County Major WatershedsTemplate Talk:Orange County Major WatershedsList Of Rivers Of Orange County, CaliforniaSan Gabriel River (California)Brea CreekCoyote Creek (San Gabriel River)Fullerton CreekSanta Ana RiverBlack Star CanyonModjeska CanyonSantiago CreekSilverado CanyonNewport Bay (California)Agua Chinon CreekBonita CreekPeters Canyon WashSan Diego CreekSan Joaquin WashSand Canyon WashSerrano CreekAliso Creek (Orange County)Aliso Creek (Orange County)Dairy ForkEnglish Canyon CreekMunger CreekSulphur Creek (California)Wood Canyon CreekSan Juan CreekBell CanyonCañada GobernadoraEl Horno CreekMorrell Canyon CreekOso CreekTijeras Canyon CreekTrabuco CreekTrampas CanyonSalt Creek (Orange County)Template:Greater Los Angeles AreaTemplate Talk:Greater Los Angeles AreaGreater Los Angeles AreaLos AngelesLos Angeles County, CaliforniaOrange County, CaliforniaRiverside County, CaliforniaSan Bernardino County, CaliforniaVentura County, CaliforniaSatellite TownLong Beach, CaliforniaRiverside, CaliforniaSan Bernardino, CaliforniaAnaheim, CaliforniaFontana, CaliforniaGlendale, CaliforniaHuntington Beach, CaliforniaIrvine, CaliforniaLong Beach, CaliforniaMoreno Valley, CaliforniaOxnard, CaliforniaRiverside, CaliforniaSan Bernardino, CaliforniaSanta Ana, CaliforniaBurbank, CaliforniaCorona, CaliforniaCosta Mesa, CaliforniaDowney, CaliforniaEast Los Angeles, CaliforniaEl Monte, CaliforniaFullerton, CaliforniaGarden Grove, CaliforniaInglewood, CaliforniaLancaster, CaliforniaMurrieta, CaliforniaNorwalk, CaliforniaOntario, CaliforniaOrange, CaliforniaPalmdale, CaliforniaPasadena, CaliforniaPomona, CaliforniaRancho Cucamonga, CaliforniaRialto, CaliforniaSanta Clarita, CaliforniaSimi Valley, CaliforniaTemecula, CaliforniaThousand Oaks, CaliforniaTorrance, CaliforniaVentura, CaliforniaVictorville, CaliforniaWest Covina, CaliforniaLos Angeles Metropolitan AreaAntelope ValleyCentral Los AngelesCoachella ValleyColorado DesertConejo ValleyDowntown Los AngelesEast Los Angeles (region)Gateway CitiesGreater Hollywood, Los AngelesHarbor AreaInland EmpireMojave DesertNorthwest Los AngelesPalos Verdes PeninsulaPomona ValleySan Bernardino ValleySan Fernando ValleySan Gabriel ValleySanta Ana ValleySanta Clarita ValleySimi Valley, CaliforniaSouth Bay, Los AngelesSouth Los AngelesVictor ValleyWestside (Los Angeles County)Los Angeles BasinBaldwin Hills (mountain Range)Santa Catalina Island (California)Channel Islands Of CaliforniaChino HillsHollywood HillsOxnard PlainPalos Verdes HillsPuente HillsSan Fernando ValleySan Gabriel MountainsSan Gabriel ValleySan Jacinto MountainsSanta Ana MountainsSanta Monica MountainsSanta Susana MountainsSierra Pelona MountainsSimi HillsVerdugo MountainsLos Angeles RiverArroyo CalabasasArroyo Seco (Los Angeles County)Ballona CreekBell Creek (Southern California)Big Bear LakeCoyote Creek (San Gabriel River)Lake Arrowhead ReservoirLake Gregory (California)Lake PerrisLake PiruLos Angeles AqueductMalibu CreekMojave RiverPacific OceanPyramid Lake (Los Angeles County, California)Rio Hondo (California)San Gabriel River (California)San Juan CreekSan Pedro Bay (California)Santa Ana RiverSanta Clara River (California)Santa Margarita RiverSanta Monica BayTujunga WashHelp:CategoryCategory:Rivers Of Orange County, CaliforniaCategory:Santa Ana MountainsCategory:San Joaquin HillsCategory:Aliso Viejo, 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