Contents 1 Early life and education 2 Gaumont, France 3 Solax 4 Personal life 5 Death 6 Legacy and tributes 7 Selected filmography 8 See also 9 References 10 Sources 11 External links

Early life and education[edit] In 1865,[3] Alice's father, Emile Guy, an owner of a bookstore and publishing company in Santiago and Valparaiso, Chile, married Marie Clotilde Franceline Aubert. The couple returned to Santiago, Chile after the wedding in Paris. In early 1873, Marie and Emile lived in Santiago, with Alice's four siblings. There was a devastating smallpox epidemic in Chile in 1872 and 1873.[4] Emile and Marie Guy brought all four of their children back to Paris where Alice was born. In her autobiography, Alice refers to her mother's attempt to make sure "one of her children should be French". Her father returned to Chile soon after her birth, and her mother followed a few months later. Alice was entrusted to her grandmother in Carouge, Switzerland.[5] At the age of three or four, Alice's mother returned from Chile and took Alice with her back to South America. At the age of six, Alice was taken back to France by her father to attend school at the Convent of the Sacred Heart (also known as the Faithful Companions of Jesus) on the French side of the Swiss border in Veyrier, France (arrondissement of Viry). (Her sisters were already there.) Alice and her sister, Rose, were moved to a convent in Ferney a few years later and then brought back to Paris. When Alice was 17, her father died on January 5, 1891 of unknown causes. [6] Following her father's death, Guy trained as a typist and stenographer, a new field at the time, to support herself and her widowed mother. She landed her first stenography-typist job at a varnish factory. In March 1894, she began working at the 'Comptoir général de la photographie' owned by Felix-Max Richard. Léon Gaumont would later take over and head the company.[7][8]

Gaumont, France[edit] This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (December 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Play media Les Fredaines de Pierrette (1900) Still from Chirurgie fin de siècle (1900) Play media Saharet, le Boléro (1905) Still from Le Tango (1905) Still from Les Résultats du féminisme (1906) In 1894, Guy was hired by Felix-Max Richard to work for a camera manufacturing and photography supply company as a secretary. The company changed hands in 1895 due to a court decision against Felix-Max Richard who sold the company to four men: Gustave Eiffel, Joseph Vallot, Alfred Besnier, and Leon Gaumont. Gustave Eiffel was president of the company, and Leon Gaumont, thirty years Eiffel's junior, was the manager. The company was named after Gaumont because Eiffel was the subject of a national scandal regarding the Panama Canal.[9] L. Gaumont et Cie became a major force in the fledgling motion-picture industry in France. Alice continued to work at Gaumont et Cie, a decision that led to a pioneering career in filmmaking that spanned more than 25 years and involved her directing, producing, writing and/or overseeing more than 700 films.[10] Although she initially began working for Léon Gaumont as his secretary, she began to become familiar with myriad clients, relevant marketing strategies, and the company's stock of cameras. She also met a handful of pioneering film engineers such as Georges Demenÿ and Auguste and Louis Lumière.[citation needed] Guy and Gaumont attended the "surprise"[11] Lumière event on March 22, 1895. It was the first demonstration of film projection, an obstacle that Gaumont and the Lumières (as well as Edison) were racing to solve. They screened one of their early films Workers Leaving the Lumière Factory, and it only consisted of a simple scene of workmen leaving the Lumière plant in Lyon. Bored with the idea of captured film only being used for the scientific and/or promotional purpose of selling cameras in the form of "demonstration films", she was confident that she could incorporate fictional story-telling elements into film. She asked Gaumont for permission to make her own film, and he granted it. Alice Guy's first film, and arguably the world's first narrative film, was called La Fée aux Choux (The Fairy of the Cabbages) or The Birth of Infants, in 1896. The scene Alice described does not match either the 1900 or the 1902 versions that have been discovered. Alice said she filmed the first version "before May" 1896. A July 30, 1896 newspaper describes a "chaste fiction of children born under the cabbages in a wonderfully framed chromo landscape" and provides other details that confirm Alice's description of her first film.[12][13] From 1896 to 1906, Guy was Gaumont's head of production and is generally considered to be the first filmmaker to systematically develop narrative filmmaking. She was probably the only female director from 1896 to 1906.[14] Her earlier films share many characteristics and themes with her contemporary competitors, such as the Lumières and Méliès. She explored dance and travel films, often combining the two, such as Le Bolero performed by Miss Saharet (1905) and Tango (1905). Many of Guy's early dance films were popular in music-hall attractions such as the serpentine dance films – also a staple of the Lumières and Thomas Edison film catalogs.[15] In 1906, she made The Life of Christ, a big budget production for the time, which included 300 extras. In addition to this, she was one of the pioneers in the use of audio recordings in conjunction with the images on screen in Gaumont's "Chronophone" system, which used a vertical-cut disc synchronized to the film. She employed some of the first special effects, including using double exposure, masking techniques, and running a film backwards.[citation needed]

Solax[edit] Still from Two Little Rangers (1912) In 1907, Alice Guy married Herbert Blaché who was soon appointed the production manager for Gaumont's operations in the United States. After working with her husband for Gaumont in the U.S., the two struck out on their own in 1910, partnering with George A. Magie in the formation of The Solax Company, the largest pre-Hollywood studio in America.[10] With production facilities for their new company in Flushing, Queens, New York City, her husband served as production manager as well as cinematographer, and Alice Guy-Blaché worked as the artistic director and directed many of its releases. Within two years, they had become so successful that they invested more than $100,000 into new and technologically advanced production facilities in Fort Lee, New Jersey. Many early film studios were based in Fort Lee at the beginning of the 20th century.[16][17][18] It was mentioned in publications of the era that Guy-Blaché placed a large sign in her studio that read: 'Be Natural'.[10] Alice Guy and her husband divorced several years later, and with the rise of the more hospitable and cost-effective climate in Hollywood, their film partnership also ended.

Personal life[edit] Catherine Calvert in House of Cards (1917), written and directed by Alice Guy-Blaché Still from Tarnished Reputations (1920) Alice Guy-Blaché's marriage meant that she had to resign from her position working with Gaumont. The couple was sent by the Gaumont company to Cleveland to facilitate the franchise of Gaumont equipment. Early in 1908, the couple went to New York where Guy gave birth to her daughter, Simone in September 1908.[19] Two years later, Guy became the first woman to run her own studio when she created Solax in Gaumont's Flushing studio. In 1912, when Guy was pregnant with her second child, she built a studio in Fort Lee, New Jersey, and continued to complete one to three films a week. To focus on writing and directing, Guy made her husband the president of Solax in 1913.[20] Shortly after taking the position, Herbert Blaché started a film company called Blaché Features, Inc. For the next few years, the couple maintained a personal and business partnership, working together on many projects. In 1918, Herbert Blaché left his wife and children to pursue a career in Hollywood. [19] Alice Guy-Blaché almost died from the Spanish flu pandemic in October 1918.[21] Following her illness, she joined Herbert in Hollywood in 1919. Alice Guy-Blaché directed her last film in 1919. In 1921, she was forced to auction her film studio and other possessions in bankruptcy. Alice and Herbert were officially divorced in 1922. She returned to France in 1922 and never made a film again.[19]

Death[edit] Alice Guy-Blaché never remarried, and in 1964 she returned to the United States to stay with one of her daughters. On March 24, 1968, Guy died at the age of 94 while living at a nursing home[22] in New Jersey. She is interred at Maryrest Cemetery.[23]

Legacy and tributes[edit] In the late 1940s, Guy-Blaché wrote an autobiography, and in 1976 it was published in French. It was translated into English in 1986 with the help of her daughter Simone and daughter-in-law Roberta Blaché and film writer Anthony Slide. Guy-Blaché was tremendously concerned with her unexplained absence from the historical record of the film industry. She was in constant communication with colleagues and film historians correcting previously made and supposedly factual statements about her life. She crafted lengthy lists of her films as she remembered them, with the hope of being able to assume creative ownership and get legitimate credit for them.[24] Guy-Blaché is the first female filmmaker, and from 1896 to 1920, she directed over 1,000 films, some 350 of which survive, and 22 of which are feature-length films.[citation needed] Guy was one of the first women (along with Lois Weber) to manage and own her own studio: The Solax Company. Few of her films survive in an easily viewable format. In 1953, Guy was awarded the Légion d'honneur, the highest non-military award France offers. On March 16, 1957, she was honored in a Cinématheque Française ceremony that went unnoticed by the press.[22] In 2002, Circle X Theatre in Los Angeles produced Laura Comstock’s Bag-punching Dog, a musical about the invention of cinema, and Alice Guy was a lead character. The musical was written by Jillian Armenante, Alice Dodd, and Chris Jeffries. In 2004, the only existing historic marker dedicated to Alice Guy-Blaché in the United States was unveiled on the location of her Solax Studio in Fort Lee, New Jersey by the Fort Lee Film Commission. In 2010 the Academy Film Archive preserved Alice Guy-Blaché's short film The Girl in the Arm-Chair.[25] In 2011, an off Broadway production of Flight[26] premiered at the Connelly Theatre, featuring a fictionalized portrayal of Alice Guy-Blaché as a 1913 documentary filmmaker. Also in 2011, the Fort Lee Film Commission successfully lobbied the Directors Guild of America to accept Alice Guy-Blaché as a member.[27] In 2012, for the centennial of the founding and building of Guy-Blaché's Solax Studio in Fort Lee, the Fort Lee Film Commission raised funds to replace her grave marker in Maryrest Cemetery in Mahwah, New Jersey. The new marker includes the Solax studio logo and indicates her role as a cinema pioneer. She was the subject of a National Film Board of Canada documentary The Lost Garden: The Life and Cinema of Alice Guy-Blaché by director Marquise Lepage, which received Quebec's Gemeaux Award for Best Documentary.[28] In 2002, film scholar Alison McMahan published Alice Guy Blaché: Lost Visionary of the Cinema.[citation needed] In 2013, Guy-Blaché was inducted into the New Jersey Hall of Fame.[29] In 2014, film podcast "Hell Is for Hyphenates" devoted a segment to exploring the career of Alice Guy-Blaché. In 2017, the documentary film Be Natural covered Guy-Blaché's life.[30]

Selected filmography[edit] La Fée aux Choux (The Fairy of the Cabbages; 1896) Le chiffonnier (1898) Danse serpentine (1900) Bataille de boules de neige (1900) Les Résultats du féminisme (1906) Fanfan la Tulipe (1907) One Touch of Nature (1910) The Sergeant's Daughter (1910) The Pawnshop (1910) Greater Love Hath No Man (1911) La Esméralda (1905) (based on the Victor Hugo novel, The Hunchback of Notre Dame) Algie the Miner (1912) Falling Leaves (1912) Making an American Citizen (1912) The Pit and the Pendulum (1913) Matrimony's Speed Limit (1913) The Lure (1914) The Shooting of Dan McGrew (1915) The Great Adventure (1918) Tarnished Reputations (1920)

See also[edit] Women's cinema

References[edit] ^ As reported in the margins of p. 91 of birth certificate Archived 2014-03-31 at the Wayback Machine. from the city of Saint-Mandé. ^ "Alice Guy-Blaché". A&E Television Networks. Retrieved May 3, 2015.  ^ Archives de Paris, Marriages, 18 Juilliet 1865, Clichy Hauts de Seine, 4 E/CLI_66. ^ New York Times, South America, Terrible Ravages of Small-Pox on the West Coast, September 26, 1872. British Medical Journal, vol. 1, 1875 ^ Nicolas Aubert, her grandfather, died October 11, 1872 ^ Archives de Paris, Deces 6e arr. 5 Janvier 1891 V4E5962 ^ Alice Guy Blaché: Cinema Pioneer. ISBN 978-0-300-15250-0.  ^ Dietrick, Janelle, Alice & Eiffel ^ Les premieres annees de la societe L. Gaumont et Cie, Correspondance commercialed de Leon Gaumont 1895-1899. Corcy, Malthete, Mannoni, Laurent, Meusy, 1998 ^ a b c "The Lost Garden: The Life and Cinema of Alice Guy-Blaché". 2012-05-02. Retrieved 2012-06-24.  ^ Bachy, Victor. Entretiens avec Alice Guy. p. 41.  ^ Gil Blas, 30 July 1896 ^ Dietrick, Janelle, Alice & Eiffel, A New History of Early Cinema and the Love Story Kept Secret for a Century, pp. 193-203, 2016 ^ "Alice Guy Blaché – Women Film Pioneers Project". Retrieved 2016-03-31.  ^ Simon, Joan. Alice Guy Blaché Cinema Pioneer. ISBN 978-0-300-15250-0.  ^ Koszarski, Richard (2004), Fort Lee: The Film Town, Rome, Italy: John Libbey Publishing, ISBN 0-86196-653-8  ^ "Fort Lee Film Commission". Fort Lee Film Commission. Retrieved December 19, 2016.  ^ Fort Lee Film Commission (2006), Fort Lee Birthplace of the Motion Picture Industry, Arcadia Publishing, ISBN 0-7385-4501-5  ^ a b c "Alice Guy-Blaché profile". Retrieved November 11, 2014.  ^ Moving Picture World, June 14, 1913, p. 1140 ^ Mme Blache Ill, The Film Daily, October 27, 1918, p. 7 ^ a b McMahan, Alison J. (1997). Madame a des envies (Madam has her cravings): A critical analysis of the short films of Alice Guy Blaché, the first woman filmmaker. Ph.D. dissertation, The Union Institute, United States—Ohio, from Dissertations & Theses: A&I (publication No. AAT 9817949). ^ "Find-a-Grave". Retrieved November 11, 2014.  ^ Simon, Joan. The Great Adventure: Alice Guy Blaché, Cinema Pioneer. Whitney Museum of American Art. pp. 1–5. ISBN 978-0-300-15250-0.  ^ "Preserved Projects". Academy Film Archive. Retrieved December 19, 2016.  ^ "Flight". Pacific Performance Project East. 2012. Retrieved June 23, 2012.  ^ Svetlana Shkolnikova. "". Retrieved November 11, 2014.  ^ "The Lost Garden: The Life and Cinema of Alice Guy-Blaché". Collection. National Film Board of Canada. Retrieved August 6, 2012.  ^ Svetlana Shkolnikova. "New Jersey Hall of Fame". Retrieved November 11, 2014.  ^ Green, Pamela B. (2017). "Be Natural: The Untold Story of Alice Guy-Blaché". 

Sources[edit] Acker, Ally. Reel Women: Pioneers of the Cinema, 1896 to the Present. New York: Continuum, 1990. Print. Acker, Ally. Reel Women: The First Hundred Years (Two Volumes). New York: Reel Women Media, 2011. Print. Dietrick, Janelle. Alice & Eiffel, A New History of Early Cinema and the Love Story Kept Secret for a Century. 2016, Print and ebook. Dietrick, Janelle. Illuminating Moments: The Films of Alice Guy Blaché,'''' 2017, Print and ebook. McMahan, Alison. Alice Guy Blaché: Lost Visionary of the Cinema. New York: Continuum, 2002. Print. McMahan, Alison. Alice Guy Blache The Research & Books of Alison Mcmahan." Homunculus Productions.

External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Alice Guy-Blaché. Reel Women Media Alice Guy Blaché, Lost Visionary of the Cinema Alice Guy-Blaché on IMDb Alice Guy Blaché at Women Film Pioneers Project Alice Guy-Blaché is available for free download at the Internet Archive Literature on Alice Guy-Blaché The Lost Garden: The Life and Cinema of Alice Guy-Blaché at the National Film Board of Canada Women Make Movies site for The Lost Garden: The Life and Cinema of Guy-Blaché Key events in the life of Alice Guy-Blaché Alice Guy-Blaché at Find a Grave The films of Alice Guy-Blaché, Hell Is For Hyphenates, January 31, 2014 Alice Guy; at kinotv(kinotv) "Alice Guy Blaché". New Jersey Hall of Fame. 2014-04-14. Retrieved 2017-06-02.  v t e Films directed by Alice Guy-Blaché Films La Fée aux Choux Esméralda Algie the Miner Falling Leaves Making an American Citizen Matrimony's Speed Limit The Pit and the Pendulum Related Herbert Blaché Solax Studios Complete filmography Authority control WorldCat Identities VIAF: 69002151 LCCN: n85282148 ISNI: 0000 0000 8148 5070 GND: 118816802 SUDOC: 032374151 BNF: cb12341617d (data) ICCU: IT\ICCU\TO0V\421441 SNAC: w6fg8h0x Retrieved from "é&oldid=825962071" Categories: 1873 births1968 deathsFrench women film directorsFrench emigrants to the United StatesCinema pioneersPeople from Mahwah, New JerseySilent film directorsFrench cinema pioneersHidden categories: Webarchive template wayback linksArticles with hCardsArticles needing additional references from December 2016All articles needing additional referencesAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from December 2016Pages using div col with deprecated parametersPages using div col without cols and colwidth parametersArticles with Internet Archive linksFind a Grave template with ID same as WikidataWikipedia articles with VIAF identifiersWikipedia articles with LCCN identifiersWikipedia articles with ISNI identifiersWikipedia articles with GND identifiersWikipedia articles with BNF identifiersWikipedia articles with SBN identifiersWikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers

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Saint-MandéWayne, New JerseyFilmmakerFilm DirectorScreenwriterFilm ProducerActressHerbert BlachéWikipedia:VerifiabilityHelp:Introduction To Referencing With Wiki Markup/1Help:Maintenance Template RemovalFilm DirectorChronophoneChileSantiago, ChileCarouge, SwitzerlandLéon GaumontWikipedia:VerifiabilityHelp:Introduction To Referencing With Wiki Markup/1Help:Maintenance Template RemovalLes Fredaines De PierrettePlay MediaGustave EiffelGeorges DemenÿAuguste And Louis LumièreWikipedia:Citation NeededWorkers Leaving The Lumière FactoryLa Fée Aux ChouxNarrativeMélièsSaharetSerpentine DanceThomas EdisonSound-on-discWikipedia:Citation NeededEnlargeHerbert BlachéThe Solax CompanyFlushing, New YorkFort Lee, New JerseyFilm StudioHollywoodCatherine CalvertTarnished ReputationsNew York CityHollywoodNew JerseyAnthony SlideWikipedia:Citation NeededLois WeberThe Solax CompanyLégion D'honneurCinématheque FrançaiseCircle X TheatreJillian ArmenanteChris JeffriesFort Lee, New JerseyDirectors Guild Of AmericaMahwah, New JerseyNational Film Board Of CanadaMarquise LepageGemeaux AwardWikipedia:Citation NeededNew Jersey Hall Of FameLa Fée Aux ChouxLe ChiffonnierDanse SerpentineBataille De Boules De NeigeLes Résultats Du FéminismeGreater Love Hath No ManLa Esméralda (1905 Film)Victor HugoThe Hunchback Of Notre DameAlgie The MinerFalling Leaves (1912 Film)Making An American CitizenThe Pit And The Pendulum (1913 Film)Matrimony's Speed LimitThe Lure (1914 Film)The Shooting Of Dan McGrew (1915 Film)The Great Adventure (1918 Film)Tarnished ReputationsWomen's CinemaWayback MachineInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-300-15250-0International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-300-15250-0International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-86196-653-8International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-7385-4501-5International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-300-15250-0IMDbInternet ArchiveNational Film Board Of CanadaFind A GraveTemplate:Alice Guy-BlachéTemplate Talk:Alice Guy-BlachéLa Fée Aux ChouxEsmeralda (1905 Film)Algie The MinerFalling Leaves (1912 Film)Making An American CitizenMatrimony's Speed LimitThe Pit And The Pendulum (1913 Film)Herbert BlachéSolax StudiosAlice Guy-BlachéHelp:Authority ControlVirtual International Authority FileLibrary Of Congress Control NumberInternational Standard Name IdentifierIntegrated Authority FileSystème Universitaire De DocumentationBibliothèque Nationale De FranceIstituto Centrale Per Il Catalogo UnicoSNACHelp:CategoryCategory:1873 BirthsCategory:1968 DeathsCategory:French Women Film DirectorsCategory:French Emigrants To The United StatesCategory:Cinema PioneersCategory:People From Mahwah, New JerseyCategory:Silent Film DirectorsCategory:French Cinema PioneersCategory:Webarchive Template Wayback LinksCategory:Articles With HCardsCategory:Articles Needing Additional References From December 2016Category:All Articles Needing Additional ReferencesCategory:All Articles With Unsourced StatementsCategory:Articles With Unsourced Statements From December 2016Category:Pages Using Div Col With Deprecated ParametersCategory:Pages Using Div Col Without Cols And Colwidth ParametersCategory:Articles With Internet Archive LinksCategory:Find A Grave Template With ID Same As WikidataCategory:Wikipedia Articles With VIAF IdentifiersCategory:Wikipedia Articles With LCCN IdentifiersCategory:Wikipedia Articles With ISNI IdentifiersCategory:Wikipedia Articles With GND IdentifiersCategory:Wikipedia Articles With BNF IdentifiersCategory:Wikipedia Articles With SBN IdentifiersCategory:Wikipedia Articles With SNAC-ID IdentifiersDiscussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer

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