Contents 1 History 1.1 The Great Migration 1.2 The Second Great Migration 1.3 Late 20th century 2 Contemporary 2.1 Black middle class and white-collar areas 2.2 Ghettos 3 Institutions within black neighborhoods 3.1 Churches 3.2 Museums 3.3 Theatre and arts 3.4 Newspapers 3.5 Education 3.6 Festivals and holidays 4 Built environment 5 See also 6 References

History[edit] The Great Migration[edit] Main article: Great Migration (African American) The Hub is the retail heart of the South Bronx, New York City. Between 1900 and 1930, the number of Bronx residents increased from 201,000 to 1,265,000.[3] The Great Migration was the movement of more than one million African Americans out of rural Southern United States from 1914 to 1940. Most African Americans who participated in the migration moved to large industrial cities such as Chicago, New York, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Washington, D.C., Detroit, Baltimore, Minneapolis, Boston, New Orleans, Milwaukee, St. Louis, Oakland, Los Angeles, and Long Beach as well as many smaller industrial cities. Hence, the Migration played an important role in the formation and expansion of African-American neighborhoods in these cities. Chicago's South Side and adjoining South Suburbs together constitute the largest geographical predominantly Black region in America, stretching from roughly Cermak Road (22nd St) on the north in the Near South Side to the far south suburb of University Park - a distance of approximately 40 miles. There are various races and ethnic groups in this huge expanse such as Whites, Latinos, Asians, and Arabs, but it is predominantly Black. While the Great Migration helped educated African Americans obtain jobs, while enabling a measure of class mobility, the migrants encountered significant forms of discrimination in the North through a large migration during such a short of period of time. The African-American migrants were often resented by working classes in the North, who feared that their ability to negotiate rates of pay, or even to secure employment at all, was threatened by the influx of new labor competition. Populations increased very rapidly with the addition of African-American migrants and new European immigrants, which caused widespread housing shortages in many cities. Newer groups competed even for the oldest and most rundown houses because the poorly constructed houses were what they could afford. African Americans competed for work and housing with first or second generation immigrants in many major cities. Ethnic groups created territories which they defended against change. More established populations with more capital moved away to newer housing that was being developed on the outskirts of the cities, to get away from the pressure of new groups of residents. The migrants also discovered that the open discrimination of the South was only more subtly manifested in the North. In 1917, the Supreme Court declared municipal resident segregation ordinances unconstitutional. In response, some white groups resorted to the restrictive covenant, a formal deed restriction binding property owners in a given neighborhood not to sell to blacks. Whites who broke these agreements could be sued by "damaged" neighbors. Not until 1948 did the Supreme Court strike down restrictive covenants.[4] The National Housing Act of 1934 contributed to limiting the availability of loans to urban areas, particularly those areas inhabited by African Americans.[5] In some cities, the influx of African-American migrants as well as other immigrants resulted in racial violence, which flared in several cities during 1919. This significant event and the subsequent struggle of African-American migrants to adapt to Northern cities was the subject of Jacob Lawrence's Migration Series.[6] This series, exhibited in 1941, was responsible for bringing Lawrence to the public eye as one of the most important African-American artists of the time.[7] The Second Great Migration[edit] See also: Second Great Migration (African American) From 1940-1970, another five million people left the South for industrial jobs in cities in the North and West. Sometimes violence was the outcome of some of the pressure of this migration. In response to the influx of Blacks from the South, banks, insurance companies, and businesses began redlining—denying or increasing the cost of services, such as banking, insurance, access to jobs,[8] access to health care,[9] or even supermarkets[10] to residents in certain, often racially determined,[11] areas. The most common use of the term refers to mortgage discrimination. Data on house prices and attitudes toward integration suggest that in the mid-20th century, segregation was a product of collective actions taken by whites to exclude blacks from their neighborhoods.[12] This meant that ethnic minorities could secure mortgage loans only in certain areas, and it resulted in a large increase in the residential racial segregation and urban decay in the United States.[13] Urban renewal, the redevelopment of areas within large cities, including white flight, has also been a factor in the growth patterns of African-American neighborhoods. The process began an intense phase in the late 1940s and continues in some places to the present day. It has had a major impact on the urban landscape. Urban renewal was extremely controversial because it involved the destruction of businesses, the relocation of people, and the use of eminent domain to reclaim private property for city-initiated development projects. The justifications often used for urban renewal include the "renewal" of residential slums and blighted commercial and industrial areas. In the second half of the 20th century, renewal often resulted in the creation of urban sprawl and vast areas of cities being demolished and replaced by freeways and expressways, housing projects, and vacant lots, some of which still remain vacant at the beginning of the 21st century.[14] Urban renewal had a disproportionate and largely negative impact on African-American neighborhoods. In the 1960s James Baldwin famously dubbed urban renewal "Negro Removal".[15][16][17] The creation of highways in some cases divided and isolated black neighborhoods from goods and services, many times within industrial corridors. For example, Birmingham's interstate highway system attempted to maintain racial boundaries established by the city’s 1926 racially based zoning law. The construction of interstate highways through black neighborhoods in the city led to significant population loss in those neighborhoods. It was also associated with an increase in neighborhood racial segregation.[18] In 1964, the Civil Rights Act removed racial deed restrictions on housing. This enabled middle-class African Americans to move to better housing, in some cases in the suburbs, and to desegregated residential neighborhoods. In some areas, however, real estate agents continued to steer African Americans to particular areas although that was now illegal. The riots that swept cities across the country from 1964 to 1968 damaged or destroyed additional areas of major cities, for instance Detroit's 12th Street, the U and H street corridors in Washington, DC, and Harlem in New York City during the Harlem Riots. Late 20th century[edit] By 1990, the legal barriers enforcing segregation had been replaced by decentralized racism, where whites pay more to live in predominantly white areas.[12] Some social scientists suggest that the historical processes of suburbanization and decentralization are instances of white privilege that have contributed to contemporary patterns of environmental racism.[19] At the same time, however, middle-class and upper-class blacks have also paid more to live in the suburbs and have left the inner cities of former industrial powerhouses behind. In the New Great Migration, black college graduates are returning to the South for jobs, where they generally settle in middle-class, suburban areas. This includes states such as Texas, Georgia, and Maryland, three of the biggest gaining states of college graduates.[20]

Contemporary[edit] Despite these pervasive patterns, many changes for individual areas are small.[21] Thirty years after the civil rights era, the United States remains a residentially segregated society in which both blacks and whites inhabit different neighborhoods of vastly different quality.[21][22] Cities throughout history have contained distinct ethnic districts. But rarely have they been so isolated and impoverished as the African-American districts found in U.S. cities today.[12] Black middle class and white-collar areas[edit] Due to advancements caused by the Civil Rights movement, the social and political activism of the African-American community (religious and educational institutions), have been a strong prominent advent of the black middle class and black white-collar professionals. This has helped produce majority black populations with significant middle to upper class black neighborhoods. Many of these communities are found in the Maryland suburbs of Washington, D.C. and Baltimore, MD and scattered around the country such as Cedar Hill, Texas, Oak Park, Michigan, and LaPlace, Louisiana.[23] The residents of these communities are highly educated and work in white-collar professional jobs. Such communities have also developed in many of the larger cities of the United States. Even some of those that traditionally have high poverty and unemployment have also had neighborhoods with middle class and affluent blacks. Cities' policies of gentrification, the process of renovating a district so that it conforms to middle-class taste, has also played a factor.[citation needed] Ghettos[edit] Main article: ghetto Racial segregation in the United States is most pronounced in housing. Although people of different races may work together, they are still unlikely to live in largely integrated neighborhoods. This pattern differs only by degree in different metropolitan areas.[24] Due to segregated conditions and widespread poverty, some black neighborhoods in the United States have been called "the ghetto" or "the projects." The use of this term is controversial and, depending on the context, potentially offensive. Despite mainstream America’s use of the term "ghetto" to signify a poor urban area (predominantly African-Americans), those living in the area often used it to signify something positive. The black ghettos did not always contain dilapidated houses and deteriorating projects, nor were all of its residents poverty-stricken. For many African Americans, the ghetto was "home", a place representing authentic blackness and a feeling, passion, or emotion derived from the rising above the struggle and suffering of being black in America.[25] Langston Hughes relays in the "Negro Ghetto" (1931) and "The Heart of Harlem" (1945): "The buildings in Harlem are brick and stone/And the streets are long and wide,/But Harlem’s much more than these alone,/Harlem is what’s inside." Playwright August Wilson used the term "ghetto" in Ma Rainey’s Black Bottom (1984) and Fences (1987), both of which draw upon the author’s experience growing up in the Hill District of Pittsburgh, first a neighborhood of early European immigrants, then a black ghetto.[26] Depending on the context and social circles, the term 'ghetto' or 'hood (short for neighborhood) can be a term of endearment for where the individual person has been brought up or lives.

Institutions within black neighborhoods[edit] Although some black neighborhoods may suffer from civic disinvestment,[27] with schools assumed to be of lower quality due to some schools showing lower test scores, less effective policing[28] and fire protection, there are institutions that help to improve the physical and social capital of black neighborhoods. And with the social mobility of many African Americans, there has been the rise of many communities with better schools and safe neighborhoods. But these issues may be more due to economics than race since middle class blacks with middle-class neighborhoods tend to live in better neighborhoods and children attend better schools than those from lower income neighborhoods or schools districts. Churches[edit] See also: Black church In black neighborhoods the churches have been important sources of social cohesion and activism.[29] For some African Americans, the kind of spirituality learned through these churches works as a protective factor against the corrosive forces of racism.[30] Churches may also do work to improve the physical infrastructure of the neighborhood. Churches in Harlem have undertaken real estate ventures and renovated burnt-out and abandoned brownstones to create new housing for residents.[31] Churches have fought for the right to operate their own schools in place of the often inadequate public schools found in many black neighborhoods.[32] Museums[edit] DuSable Museum, Washington Park, Chicago. See also: List of museums focused on African Americans The African American Museum Movement emerged during the 1950s and 1960s to preserve the heritage of the black experience and to ensure its proper interpretation in American history.[33] Museums devoted to African American history are found in many black neighborhoods. Institutions such as the African American Museum and Library at Oakland, the Charles H. Wright Museum of African American History in Detroit, and The African American Museum in Cleveland were created by African Americans to teach and investigate cultural history that, until recent decades was primarily preserved through oral traditions.[34] Theatre and arts[edit] Major movements in literature, music, and the arts have their roots in African American neighborhoods: Blues, Gospel, Jazz, Soul, Rap, House, Hip hop, Rock 'n' roll and others. Cities were the places where young artists could meet and study with other artists and receive recognition, as did Jacob Lawrence when his "Migration Series" was featured by the Museum of Modern Art in New York when he was still in his 20's. African American neighborhoods have also generated African American theater and numerous dance companies in a variety of styles. After his career as a classical ballet dancer with the New York City Ballet, Arthur Mitchell founded a school and dance company in Harlem. Alvin Ailey created dances out of the African American experience with his Alvin Ailey Dance Company. Chicago stepping is a name given to a dance that was created in Chicago's predominantly African American neighborhoods. House music, a form of Electronic Dance Music was first developed in Chicago in the early 1980s. By the 1990s, it had spread both nationally and globally. Hip hop is both a cultural movement and a music genre developed in New York City starting in the late 1970s predominantly by African Americans.[35] Since first emerging in the South Bronx and Bedford-Stuyvesant, the lifestyle of rap/hip hop has spread globally. Newspapers[edit] The historic office of the Omaha Star, an African American newspaper. Main article: African American newspapers Many African American neighborhoods produce their own newspapers, including the South Fulton Neighbor in Atlanta, the Capitol Update in Tallahassee, and the Star in Omaha. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (May 2008) Education[edit] Lincoln Academy was the first school for African Americans in Tallahassee, Florida. See also: Historically black colleges and universities and Black school Segregation in schools and universities led to the creation of many Black schools. Public elementary, junior and senior high schools across the United States during the period of legal segregation. Students that attended this school went through either vocational classes or regular high school. This school offered several vocational such as cosmetology, tailoring and welding. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (May 2008) Festivals and holidays[edit] See also: Odunde Festival and Emancipation Day Odunde Festival is celebrated in Southwest Center City in Philadelphia, the largest gathering of African Americans on the East Coast of the United States. In the U.S. city of Philadelphia, the Odunde Festival (also known as "African New Year") claims to be the largest gathering of African Americans that happens annually on the second Sunday of June in the Southwest Center City section of town. Also, the District of Columbia celebrates April 16 as Emancipation Day as a public holiday, which is an observance of the emancipation of slaves of African origin.

Built environment[edit] Bedford-Stuyvesant brownstones. Many African American neighborhoods are located in inner cities or are a part of an urban center. These are the mostly residential neighborhoods located closest to the central business district. The built environment is often 19th- and early 20th-century row houses or brownstones, mixed with older single-family homes that may be converted to multifamily homes. In some areas there are larger apartment buildings. Shotgun houses are an important part of the built environment of some southern African American neighborhoods. The houses consist of three to five rooms in a row with no hallways. This African American house design is found in both rural and urban southern areas, mainly in African-American communities and neighborhoods (especially in New Orleans).[36] The term "shotgun house," is often said to come from the saying that one could fire a shotgun through the front door and the pellets would fly cleanly through the house and out the back door. However, the name's origin may actually reflect an African architectural heritage, perhaps being a corruption of a term such as to-gun, which means "place of assembly" in the Southern Dohomey Fon area.[37] During the periods of population decline and urban decay in the 1970s and 1980s, many African American neighborhoods, like other urban minority neighborhoods, turned abandoned lots into community gardens. Community gardens serve social and economic functions,[38][39] providing safe, open spaces in areas with few parks. Organizations such as Philadelphia Green, organized by the Philadelphia Horticultural Society, have helped communities organize gardens to build community feeling and improve neighborhoods.[40] They can be places for socialization,[38] fresh vegetables in neighborhoods poorly served by supermarkets, and sources of traditional African American produce.[41]

See also[edit] African American portal List of African American neighborhoods List of U.S. metropolitan areas with large African-American populations List of U.S. communities with African American majority populations

References[edit] ^ Burrows, Edwin G.; Wallace, Mike (1998). Gotham: A History of New York City to 1898. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-514049-4.  ^ Johnson, James Weldon (1991). Black Manhattan. New York, N.Y.: Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-80431-X.  ^ A Brief Look at The Bronx Archived 2007-08-07 at the Wayback Machine., Bronx Historical Society. Accessed September 23, 2007. ^ Mintz, S. (2007). "The Great Migration, Period: 1920s". Digital History. Archived from the original on 2008-01-21. Retrieved 2007-11-29.  ^ 'Gotham, Kevin Fox (Summer 2000). "Racialization and the State: The Housing Act of 1934 and the Creation of the Federal Housing Administration". Sociological Perspectives. 43 (2): 291–317. doi:10.2307/1389798. JSTOR 1389798.  ^ (adapted). "Module 1: Introduction and Definitions" (PDF). Retrieved 2 April 2012.  ^ Holland Cotter, "Jacob Lawrence Is Dead at 82; Vivid Painter Who Chronicled Odyssey of Black Americans", New York Times, June 10, 2000. ^ Zenou, Yves; Boccard, Nicolas (February 25, 1999). "Racial Discrimination and Redlining in Cities" (PDF). Universite catholique de Louvain. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 November 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-29.  ^ See:Race and health ^ Eisenhauer, Elizabeth (February 2001). "In poor health: Supermarket redlining and urban nutrition". GeoJournal. 53 (2): 125. doi:10.1023/A:1015772503007. Retrieved 2007-11-29.  ^ Thabit, Walter (2003). How East New York Became a Ghetto. NYU Press. p. 42. ISBN 0-8147-8267-1. Retrieved 2007-11-29.  ^ a b c Cutler, David M.; Glaeser, Edward L.; Vigdor, Jacob L. (June 1999). "The Rise and Decline of the American Ghetto". The Journal of Political Economy. 107 (3): 455–506. doi:10.1086/250069.  ^ Jackson, Kenneth T. (1985), Crabgrass Frontier: The Suburbanization of the United States, New York: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-504983-7  ^ Bowery Bummer: Downtown Plan Will Make and Break History Archived 2008-03-23 at the Wayback Machine., J. A. Lobbia, March 17, 1999. ^ The story of urban renewal: In East Liberty and elsewhere, Pittsburgh's dominant public policy tool didn't work out as planned, Sunday, May 21, 2000, By Dan Fitzpatrick, Post-Gazette Staff Writer. ^ "Loading..." Retrieved 25 October 2017.  ^ "Harsh urban renewal in New Orleans". 12 October 2005. Retrieved 25 October 2017.  ^ Charles E. Connerly, "From Racial Zoning to Community Empowerment: The Interstate Highway System and the African American Community in Birmingham, Alabama", Journal of Planning Education and Research, Vol. 22, No. 2, 99-114 (2002). ^ Rethinking Environmental Racism: White Privilege and Urban Development in Southern California Laura Pulido Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 90, No. 1 (March 2000), pp. 12-40. ^ Elliott, Emerson J.; Ravitch, Diane; Grant, W. Vance; Snyder, Thomas D.; Sonnenberg, William C. "120 Years of American Education: A Statistical Portrait" (PDF). Retrieved 25 March 2017.  Missing |last1= in Authors list (help) ^ a b Inequality and Segregation Rajiv Sethi and Rohini Somanathan Journal of Political Economy, volume 112 (2004), pp. 1296–1321. ^ Segregation and Stratification: A Biosocial Perspective Douglas S. Massey Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race (2004), 1: 7-25 Cambridge University Press ^ "Advanced U.S. city search". Retrieved 25 October 2017.  ^ The Suburban Racial Dilemma: Housing and Neighborhoods By William Dennis Keating. Temple University Press. 1994. ISBN 1-56639-147-4 ^ Smitherman, Geneva. Black Talk: Words and Phrases from the Hood to the Amen Corner. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2000. ^ GHETTO Archived 2008-05-11 at the Wayback Machine. Kim Pearson ^ Root shock: The consequences of African American dispossession Journal of Urban Health. Springer New York. Volume 78, Number 1 / March, 2001 ^ The Neighborhood Context of Police Behavior Douglas A. Smith Crime and Justice, Vol. 8, Communities and Crime (1986), pp. 313-341 ^ Church Culture as a Strategy of Action in the Black Community Mary Pattillo-McCoy American Sociological Review, Vol. 63, No. 6 (Dec., 1998), pp. 767-784 ^ "Gathering the Spirit" at First Baptist Church: Spirituality as a Protective Factor in the Lives of African American Children by Wendy L. Haight; Social Work, Vol. 43, 1998 ^ "Home". Abyssinian Development Corporation. Retrieved 25 October 2017.  ^ A Harlem Church Sues to Operate Charter School Archived January 21, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. by Azi Paybarah Published: October 25, 2007 ^ African American Museums Association: History Archived 2007-10-16 at the Wayback Machine. ^ African-American Museums, History, and the American Ideal by John E. Fleming The Journal of American History, Vol. 81, No. 3, The Practice of American History: A Special Issue (Dec., 1994), pp. 1020-1026 ^ The Resource - THE NEXT Archived November 30, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Black architecture still standing, the Shotgun House! The Great Buildings Collection on CD-ROM Kevin Matthews ^ Vlach, John (1976). "The Shotgun House: An African Architectural Legacy". Pioneer America. 8: 47–56.  ^ a b Urban Community Gardens as Contested Space Karen Schmelzkopf Geographical Review, Vol. 85, No. 3 (Jul., 1995), pp. 364-381 ^ A survey of community gardens in upstate New York: Implications for health promotion and community development Health & Place Volume 6, Issue 4, 1 December 2000, Pages 319-327 ^ Minority Communities Need More Parks, Report Says by Angela Rowen The Berkeley Daily Planet ^ The Paradox of Parks by Brett Williams Identities: Global Studies in Power and Culture, Volume 13, Number 1, January–March 2006 , pp. 139-171(33) v t e African American topics History Atlantic slave trade Maafa Slavery in the United States Partus sequitur ventrem Free negro Reconstruction era Military history of African Americans Jim Crow laws Nadir of American race relations Redlining Great Migration Civil rights movement 1865–1896 / 1896–1954 / 1954–68 Black Power movement Second Great Migration Afrocentrism New Great Migration Post–civil rights era Inauguration of Barack Obama 2009 / Inauguration of Barack Obama 2013 Black Lives Matter Culture Art African-American names Afrofuturism Black mecca Dance Film Juneteenth Kwanzaa Literature Music Musical theater Neighborhoods Sexual orientation Soul food Education, science and technology Black schools Black colleges and universities Museums African-American studies Inventors and scientists Women in computer science in medicine in STEM fields Religion Black church Black theology Doctrine of Father Divine American Society of Muslims Nation of Islam Black Hebrew Israelites Political movements Pan-Africanism Self-determination Nationalism Black Power Black fist Anarchism Capitalism Conservatism Populism Leftism Garveyism Back-to-Africa movement Civic and economic groups National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) Black Panther Party National Urban League (NUL) Rights organizations Association for the Study of African American Life and History (ASALH) Thurgood Marshall College Fund United Negro College Fund (UNCF) National Black Chamber of Commerce (NBCC) National Pan-Hellenic Council (NPHC) National Council of Negro Women (NCNW) Sports Negro league baseball Baseball color line Black players in professional American football African Americans in the Canadian Football League Black players in ice hockey Athletic associations and conferences Central (CIAA) Southern (SIAC) Mid-Eastern (MEAC) Southwestern (SWAC) Ethnic subdivisions Black Indians Gullah Fula Igbo Louisiana Creole (of color) Melungeon Yoruba Demographics Neighborhoods list U.S. cities with large populations 2000 majorities 2010 majorities Metropolitan areas Black Belt Languages English American English African-American English Gullah Louisiana Creole French By state/city Alabama Florida Georgia (Atlanta) Illinois (Chicago) Iowa (Davenport) Louisiana Maryland Massachusetts (Boston) Michigan (Detroit) Mississippi Nebraska (Omaha) New York New York City Pennsylvania (Philadelphia) Puerto Rico Tennessee Texas (Houston) Diaspora Africa Gambia Ghana Liberia Sierra Leone Back-to-Africa movement Americas Caribbean history Canada Nova Scotia Dominican Republic Haiti Mexico Trinidad and Tobago Other France Israel Lists African Americans visual artists Republicans US senators African-American firsts mayors US state firsts Neighborhoods Landmark African-American legislation African American-related articles Topics related to the African diaspora Category Portal v t e Ethnic enclaves African-American list Arabic Armenian Australian Cambodian Canadian Chinese Cuban Filipino Greek Hispanic and Latino American Indian Irish Italian Iranian Japanese Jewish Korean Pakistani Serbian Vietnamese Retrieved from "" Categories: Ethnic enclavesAfrican-American societyAfrican-American history by locationAfrican-American demographicsAfrican-American segregation in the United StatesEthnic enclaves in the United StatesHidden categories: Webarchive template wayback linksCS1 errors: missing author or editorArticles needing additional references from May 2010All articles needing additional referencesAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from November 2007Articles with unsourced statements from October 2013Articles to be expanded from May 2008All articles to be expandedArticles using small message boxes

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