Contents 1 Description 2 Strength 3 Distribution 4 Etymology 5 Composition 6 Material properties 7 Uses 7.1 Poured and puddled adobe walls 7.2 Adobe bricks 7.3 Adobe wall construction 7.4 Adobe roof 8 Adobe around the world 9 See also 10 References 11 External links

Description[edit] Adobe bricks are most often made into units weighing less than 100 pounds and small enough that they can quickly air dry individually without cracking. They can be subsequently assembled, with the application of adobe mud, to bond the individual bricks into a structure. Modern methods of construction allow the pouring of whole adobe walls that are reinforced with steel.

Strength[edit] In dry climates, adobe structures are extremely durable, and account for some of the oldest existing buildings in the world. Adobe buildings offer significant advantages due to their greater thermal mass, but they are known to be particularly susceptible to earthquake damage if they are not somehow reinforced.[2][3] Cases where adobe structures were widely damaged during earthquakes include the 1976 Guatemala earthquake, the 2003 Bam earthquake, and the 2010 Chile earthquake.

Distribution[edit] Buildings made of sun-dried earth are common throughout the world (Middle East, Western Asia, North Africa, West Africa, South America, southwestern North America, Spain, and Eastern Europe.)[4][5] Adobe had been in use by indigenous peoples of the Americas in the Southwestern United States, Mesoamerica, and the Andes for several thousand years.[6] Puebloan peoples built their adobe structures with handsful or basketsful of adobe, until the Spanish introduced them to making bricks. Adobe bricks were used in Spain from the Late Bronze and Iron Ages (eighth century BCE onwards).[7] Its wide use can be attributed to its simplicity of design and manufacture, and economics.[8] A distinction is sometimes made between the smaller adobes, which are about the size of ordinary baked bricks, and the larger adobines, some of which may be one to two yards (1–2 m) long.

Etymology[edit] Church at San Pedro de Atacama, Chile The word adobe /əˈdoʊbiː/ has existed for around 4000 years with relatively little change in either pronunciation or meaning. The word can be traced from the Middle Egyptian (c. 2000 BC) word ɟbt "mudbrick." Middle Egyptian evolved into Late Egyptian, Demotic or "pre-Coptic", and finally to Coptic (c. 600 BC), where it appeared as τωωβε tōʾpə. This was adopted into Arabic as الطوب aṭ-ṭawbu or aṭ-ṭūbu, with the definite article al- attached.[9] tuba,[10][11] This was assimilated into the Old Spanish language as adobe [aˈdobe], probably via Mozarabic. English borrowed the word from Spanish in the early 18th century, still referring to mudbrick construction. Adobe style in Santa Fe, New Mexico In more modern English usage, the term "adobe" has come to include a style of architecture popular in the desert climates of North America, especially in New Mexico., regardless of the construction method.

Composition[edit] An adobe brick is a composite material made of earth mixed with water and an organic material such as straw or dung. The soil composition typically contains sand, silt and clay. Straw is useful in binding the brick together and allowing the brick to dry evenly, thereby preventing cracking due to uneven shrinkage rates through the brick.[12] Dung offers the same advantage. The most desirable soil texture for producing the mud of adobe is 15% clay, 10–30% silt, and 55–75% fine sand.[13] Another source quotes 15–25% clay and the remainder sand and coarser particles up to cobbles 50 to 250 mm (2 to 10 in), with no deleterious effect. Modern adobe is stabilized with either emulsified asphalt or Portland cement up to 10% by weight. No more than half the clay content should be expansive clays, with the remainder non-expansive illite or kaolinite. Too much expansive clay results in uneven drying through the brick, resulting in cracking, while too much kaolinite will make a weak brick. Typically the soils of the Southwest United States, where such construction has been widely used, are an adequate composition.[14]

Material properties[edit] The Great Mosque of Djenné, Mali, is built in adobe. The struts projecting from the wall serve as decoration, as well as supports for scaffolding during maintenance Adobe walls are load bearing, i.e. they carry their own weight into the foundation rather than by another structure, hence the adobe must have sufficient compressive strength. In the United States, most building codes[15] call for a minimum compressive strength of 300 lbf/in2 (2.07 newton/mm2) for the adobe block. Adobe construction should be designed so as to avoid lateral structural loads that would cause bending loads. The building codes require the building sustain a 1 g lateral acceleration earthquake load. Such an acceleration will cause lateral loads on the walls, resulting in shear and bending and inducing tensile stresses. To withstand such loads, the codes typically call for a tensile modulus of rupture strength of at least 50 lbf/in2 (0.345 newton/mm2) for the finished block. In addition to being an inexpensive material with a small resource cost, adobe can serve as a significant heat reservoir due to the thermal properties inherent in the massive walls typical in adobe construction. In climates typified by hot days and cool nights, the high thermal mass of adobe mediates the high and low temperatures of the day, moderating the temperature of the living space. The massive walls require a large and relatively long input of heat from the sun (radiation) and from the surrounding air (convection) before they warm through to the interior. After the sun sets and the temperature drops, the warm wall will continue to transfer heat to the interior for several hours due to the time-lag effect. Thus, a well-planned adobe wall of the appropriate thickness is very effective at controlling inside temperature through the wide daily fluctuations typical of desert climates, a factor which has contributed to its longevity as a building material. Thermodynamic material properties are sparsely quoted. The thermal resistance of adobe is quoted as having an R-value of R0 = 0.41 h ft2 °F/(Btu in)[16] and a conductivity of 0.57 W/(m K) quoted from another source.[17] A third source provides the following properties: conductivity=0.30 Btu/(h ft °F); heat capacity=0.24 Btu/(lb °F); density=106 lb/ft3 (1700 kg/m3).[18] To determine the total R-value of a wall for example, multiply R0 by the thickness of the wall. From knowledge of the adobe density, heat capacity and a diffusivity value, the conductivity is found to be k = 0.20 Btu/(h ft °F) or 0.35 W/(m K). The heat capacity is commonly quoted as cp = 0.20 Btu/(lb F) or 840 joules/(kg K).[19] The density is 95 lb/ft3 or 1520 kg/m3. The thermal diffusivity is calculated to be 0.0105 ft2/h or 2.72x10−7 m2/s.

Uses[edit] Poured and puddled adobe walls[edit] Cliff dwellings of poured or puddled adobe (cob) at Cuarenta Casas in Mexico. Poured and puddled adobe (puddled clay, piled earth), today called cob, is made by placing soft adobe in layers, rather than by making individual dried bricks or using a form. "Puddle" is a general term for a clay or clay and sand-based material worked into a dense, plastic state.[20] These are the oldest methods of building with adobe in the Americas until holes in the ground were used as forms, and later wooden forms used to make individual bricks were introduced by the Spanish.[21] Adobe bricks[edit] Adobe bricks near a construction site in Milyanfan, Kyrgyzstan Bricks made from adobe are usually made by pressing the mud mixture into an open timber frame. In North America, the brick is typically about 25 by 36 cm (10 by 14 in) in size. The mixture is molded into the frame, which is removed after initial setting. After drying for a few hours, the bricks are turned on edge to finish drying. Slow drying in shade reduces cracking. The same mixture, without straw, is used to make mortar and often plaster on interior and exterior walls. Some ancient cultures used lime-based cement for the plaster to protect against rain damage.[citation needed] Depending on the form into which the mixture is pressed, adobe can encompass nearly any shape or size, provided drying is even and the mixture includes reinforcement for larger bricks. Reinforcement can include manure, straw, cement, rebar or wooden posts. Experience has shown straw, cement, or manure added to a standard adobe mixture can all produce a stronger, more crack-resistant brick.[22] A test is done on the soil content first. To do so, a sample of the soil is mixed into a clear container with some water, creating an almost completely saturated liquid. The container is shaken vigorously for one minute. It is then allowed to settle for a day until the soil has settled into layers. Heavier particles settle out first, sand above, silt above that and very fine clay and organic matter will stay in suspension for days. After the water has cleared, percentages of the various particles can be determined. Fifty to 60 percent sand and 35 to 40 percent clay will yield strong bricks. The Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service at New Mexico State University recommends a mix of not more than 1/3 clay, not less than 1/2 sand, and never more than 1/3 silt. Adobe wall construction[edit] The earthen plaster removed exposing the adobe bricks at Fort St. Sebastian in France The ground supporting an adobe structure should be compressed, as the weight of adobe wall is significant and foundation settling may cause cracking of the wall. Footing depth is to below the ground frost level. The footing and stem wall are commonly 24 and 14 inches thick, respectively. Modern construction codes call for the use of reinforcing steel in the footing and stem wall. Adobe bricks are laid by course. Adobe walls usually never rise above two stories as they are load bearing and adobe has low structural strength. When creating window and door openings, a lintel is placed on top of the opening to support the bricks above. Atop the last courses of brick, bond beams made of heavy wood beams or modern reinforced concrete are laid to provide a horizontal bearing plate for the roof beams and to redistribute lateral earthquake loads to shear walls more able to carry the forces. To protect the interior and exterior adobe walls, finishes such as mud plaster, whitewash or stucco can be applied. These protect the adobe wall from water damage, but need to be reapplied periodically. Alternatively, the walls can be finished with other nontraditional plasters that provide longer protection. Bricks made with stabilized adobe generally do not need protection of plasters. Adobe roof[edit] The traditional adobe roof has been constructed using a mixture of soil/clay, water, sand and organic materials. The mixture was then formed and pressed into wood forms, producing rows of dried earth bricks that would then be laid across a support structure of wood and plastered into place with more adobe. Depending on the materials available, a roof may be assembled using wood or metal beams to create a framework to begin layering adobe bricks. Depending on the thickness of the adobe bricks, the framework has been preformed using a steel framing and a layering of a metal fencing or wiring over the framework to allow an even load as masses of adobe are spread across the metal fencing like cob and allowed to air dry accordingly. This method was demonstrated with an adobe blend heavily impregnated with cement to allow even drying and prevent cracking. The more traditional flat adobe roofs are functional only in dry climates that are not exposed to snow loads. The heaviest wooden beams, called vigas, lie atop the wall. Across the vigas lie smaller members called latillas[23] and upon those brush is then laid. Finally, the adobe layer is applied. To construct a flat adobe roof, beams of wood were laid to span the building, the ends of which were attached to the tops of the walls. Once the vigas, latillas and brush are laid, adobe bricks are placed. An adobe roof is often laid with bricks slightly larger in width to ensure a greater expanse is covered when placing the bricks onto the roof. Following each individual brick should be a layer of adobe mortar, recommended to be at least 25 mm (1 in) thick to make certain there is ample strength between the brick’s edges and also to provide a relative moisture barrier during rain[24]. Depending on the materials, adobe roofs can be inherently fire-proof. The construction of a chimney can greatly influence the construction of the roof supports, creating an extra need for care in choosing the materials. The builders can make an adobe chimney by stacking simple adobe bricks in a similar fashion as the surrounding walls

Adobe around the world[edit] The largest structure ever made from adobe is the Arg-é Bam built by the Achaemenid Empire. Other large adobe structures are the Huaca del Sol in Peru, with 100 million signed bricks and the ciudellas of Chan Chan and Tambo Colorado, both in Peru. The citadel of Bam, Iran, or Arg-é Bam, in Kerman Province, Iran: The world's largest adobe structure, dating to at least 500 BC Still in production today, Romania's Danube Delta Mixing mud and straw in brick frames Community effort Adobe brick house under construction in Kyrgyzstan House in Sa'dah, Yemen Adobe brick house under construction in Romania An adobe wall in Linxia City, Gansu, China Poeh Museum tower, the tallest adobe structure in New Mexico, USA San Miguel Mission in Santa Fe, New Mexico Great Mosque of Djenné, famous building made from banco, a type of adobe Adobe house in Middle America

See also[edit] Alker Cob (building) Compressed earth block Earth structure Hassan Fathy Mudbrick Qadad (waterproofing plaster) Qalat (fortress) Rammed earth San Xavier del Bac Sod house Super Adobe Wattle and daub Cas di torto Monterey Colonial architecture used adobe walls Ctesiphon Arch in Iraq is the largest mud brick arch in the world built beginning in 540 AD

References[edit] ^ definition of adobe from Oxford Dictionaries Online. Retrieved 25 December 2010. ^ Short documentary about adobe preparation and 2010 Chile earthquake, FICh, retrieved 5 March 2014 ^ Collyns, Dan (15 August 2009). "Peru rebuilds two years on from quake". Archived from the original on 15 August 2009. Retrieved 24 August 2009.  the 1976 Guatemala earthquake the 2003 Bam earthquake ^ Marchand, Trevor. The Masons of Djenne. Bloomington: University of Indiana Press, 2009 ^ Museum of Lithuanian life, Rumsiskes, Lithuania (2011) ^ Beck, Roger B.; Linda Black; Larry S. Krieger; Phillip C. Naylor; Dahia Ibo Shabaka (1999). World History: Patterns of Interaction. Evanston, IL: McDougal Littell. ISBN 978-0-395-87274-1.  ^ de Chazelles-Gazzal, Claire-Anne (1997). Les maisons en terre de la Gaule méridionale. Montagnac, France: Éditions Monique Mergoil. pp. 49–57.  ^ Rose, William I.; Julian J. Bommer (2004). Natural hazards in El Salvador. Geological Society of America. p. 299. ISBN 978-0-8137-2375-4.  ^ "adobe", Oxford English Dictionary, Second Edition, on CD-ROM (v. 4.0) © Oxford University Press, 2009 ^ Spanish Word Histories and Mysteries: English Words that Come from Spanish, Houghton Mifflin Co., 2007, p.5 ^ "Adobe Moulding" Auroville Earth Institute ^ Vargas, J.; J. Bariola; M. Blondet (1986). "Seismic Strength of Adobe Masonry". Materials and Structures. 9 (4): 253–256. doi:10.1007/BF02472107.  ^ Garrison, James. "Adobe-The Material, Its Deterioration, Its Coatings" (PDF). pp. 5–16. Retrieved 27 February 2013.  ^ Austin, George. "Adobe as a building material" (PDF). New Mexico Geology, November 1984. New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources. p. 70. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 December 2013. Retrieved 27 February 2013.  ^ "14.7.4 NMAC" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 August 2013. Retrieved 25 June 2013.  ^ "2009 New Mexico Energy Conservation Code: Residential Applications Manual" (PDF). Retrieved 21 July 2013.  ^ Chávez-Galán, Jesus; Almanza, Rafael; Rodríguez, Neftali. "Experimental Measurements of Thermal Properties for Mexican Building Materials to Simulate Thermal Behavior to Save Energy". Spriner. Retrieved 25 November 2014.  ^ "HVAC Systems AE-390". Drexel University. Retrieved 25 November 2014.  ^ "Mass and insulation with adobe". Green Home Building. Retrieved 25 June 2013.  ^ "puddle, n. 4.". Oxford English Dictionary 2nd. ed. 2009. CD-rom. ^ Keefe, Laurence. Earth Building: Methods and Materials, Repair and Conservation. London: Taylor & Francis, 2005. 22. Print. ^ Technical Information Online. "Mud Plasters and Renders – Technical Information Online – Practical Answers" (PDF). Retrieved 9 November 2010.  ^ "Preservation of Historic Adobe Buildings". Dawson Lupul. Retrieved 30 January 2014.  ^ "How Adobe Construction Works". Add Water, Then Stir - How Adobe Construction Works | HowStuffWorks. 2012-04-17. Retrieved 2017-10-24. 

External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Adobe (building material). Look up adobe in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Building With Awareness A detailed how-to DVD video that shows adobe wall construction and their use as thermal mass walls Cal-Earth (The California Institute of Earth Art and Architecture) has developed a patented system called Superadobe, in which bags filled with stabilized earth are layered with strands of barbed wire to form a structure strong enough to withstand earthquakes, fire and flood. Earth Architecture – A website whose focus is contemporary issues in earth architecture. Earth Architecture and Conservation in East Anglia – British organisation that focuses on the proper maintenance and conservation of earth buildings in a region of the UK that has a long history of building with mud. – A website on earthen architecture researches stabilized with gypsum. Kleiwerks – International organization recognized for their unique contribution to modern earthen and natural building techniques throughout the world, their focus is on education through hands on experience. Very experienced experts are contactable and there are regular demonstrations in the area. Valle de Sensaciones – Artistic construction with adobe, Experimental ground and theme park for creative living close to nature World Monuments Fund – Adobe Missions of New Mexico – Description of a project of the World Monuments Fund for the preservation of adobe churches in New Mexico, in the United States. v t e Prehistoric technology Prehistory timeline outline Stone Age subdivisions New Stone Age Technology history Tools Farming Neolithic Revolution founder crops New World crops Ard / plough Celt Digging stick Domestication Goad Irrigation Secondary products Sickle Terracing Food processing Fire Basket Cooking Earth oven Granaries Grinding slab Ground stone Hearth Aşıklı Höyük Qesem Cave Manos Metate Mortar and pestle Pottery Quern-stone Storage pit Hunting Arrow Boomerang throwing stick Bow and arrow history Nets Spear Spear-thrower baton harpoon woomera Schöningen Spears Projectile points Arrowhead Bare Island Cascade Clovis Cresswell Cumberland Eden Folsom Lamoka Manis Site Plano Transverse arrowhead Systems Game drive system Buffalo jump Toolmaking Earliest toolmaking Oldowan Acheulean Mousterian Clovis culture Cupstone Fire hardening Gravettian culture Hafting Hand axe Grooves Langdale axe industry Levallois technique Lithic core Lithic reduction analysis debitage flake Lithic technology Magdalenian culture Metallurgy Microblade technology Mining Prepared-core technique Solutrean industry Striking platform Tool stone Uniface Yubetsu technique Other tools Adze Awl bone Axe Bannerstone Blade prismatic Bone tool Bow drill Burin Canoe Oar Pesse canoe Chopper tool Cleaver Denticulate tool Fire plough Fire-saw Hammerstone Knife Microlith Quern-stone Racloir Rope Scraper side Stone tool Tally stick Weapons Wheel illustration Architecture Ceremonial Göbekli Tepe Kiva Standing stones megalith row Stonehenge Pyramid Dwellings Neolithic architecture British megalith architecture Nordic megalith architecture Burdei Cave Cliff dwelling Dugout Hut Quiggly hole Jacal Longhouse Mud brick Mehrgarh Neolithic long house Pit-house Pueblitos Pueblo Rock shelter Blombos Cave Abri de la Madeleine Sibudu Cave Stone roof Roundhouse Stilt house Alp pile dwellings Wattle and daub Water management Check dam Cistern Flush toilet Reservoir Water well Other architecture Archaeological features Broch Burnt mound fulacht fiadh Causewayed enclosure Tor enclosure Circular enclosure Goseck Cursus Henge Thornborough Oldest buildings Megalithic architectural elements Midden Timber circle Timber trackway Sweet Track Arts and culture Material goods Baskets Beadwork Beds Chalcolithic Clothing/textiles timeline Cosmetics Glue Hides shoes Ötzi Jewelry amber use Mirrors Pottery Cardium Grooved ware Linear Jōmon Unstan ware Sewing needle Weaving Wine Winery wine press PrehistArt Art of the Upper Paleolithic Art of the Middle Paleolithic Blombos Cave List of Stone Age art Bird stone Bradshaw rock paintings Cairn Carved Stone Balls Cave paintings painting pigment Cup and ring mark Geoglyph Golden hats Guardian stones Megalithic art Petroform Petroglyph Petrosomatoglyph Pictogram Rock art Stone carving Sculpture Statue menhir Stone circle list British Isles and Brittany Venus figurines Burial Burial mounds Bowl barrow Round barrow Mound Builders culture U.S. sites Chamber tomb Severn-Cotswold Cist Dartmoor kistvaens Clava cairn Court tomb Cremation Dolmen Great dolmen Funeral pyre Gallery grave transepted wedge-shaped Grave goods Jar burial Long barrow unchambered Grønsalen Megalithic tomb Mummy Passage grave Rectangular dolmen Ring cairn Simple dolmen Stone box grave Tor cairn Tumulus Unchambered long cairn Other cultural Astronomy sites lunar calendar Behavioral modernity Origin of language trepanning Prehistoric medicine Evolutionary musicology music archaeology Prehistoric music Alligator drum flutes Divje Babe flute gudi Prehistoric numerals Origin of religion Paleolithic religion Prehistoric religion Spiritual drug use Prehistoric warfare Symbols symbolism Retrieved from "" Categories: Soil-based building materialsMasonryAdobe buildings and structuresAppropriate technologyVernacular architectureSustainable buildingBuildings and structures by construction materialHidden categories: Use dmy dates from June 2013Articles with hAudio microformatsArticles including recorded pronunciations (US English)Articles containing Arabic-language textAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from October 2008Commons category with local link different than on WikidataRequests for audio pronunciation (Spanish)

Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog in Namespaces ArticleTalk Variants Views ReadEditView history More Search Navigation Main pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom articleDonate to WikipediaWikipedia store Interaction HelpAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact page Tools What links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkPage informationWikidata itemCite this page Print/export Create a bookDownload as PDFPrintable version In other projects Wikimedia Commons Languages العربيةAragonésAsturianuAymar aruБеларускаяБългарскиCatalàЧӑвашлаČeštinaDanskDeutschEestiEspañolEsperantoEuskaraفارسیFrançaisGalego한국어हिन्दीHrvatskiIdoBahasa IndonesiaItalianoქართულიҚазақшаLatinaMagyarМакедонскиമലയാളംNāhuatlNederlands日本語NorskPolskiPortuguêsRomânăRuna SimiРусскийසිංහලSimple EnglishСрпски / srpskiSrpskohrvatski / српскохрватскиSuomiSvenskaTagalogТатарча/tatarçaTürkçeУкраїнськаWinaray粵語中文 Edit links This page was last edited on 16 January 2018, at 10:34. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Contact Wikipedia Developers Cookie statement Mobile view (window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgPageParseReport":{"limitreport":{"cputime":"0.520","walltime":"0.675","ppvisitednodes":{"value":2160,"limit":1000000},"ppgeneratednodes":{"value":0,"limit":1500000},"postexpandincludesize":{"value":136223,"limit":2097152},"templateargumentsize":{"value":14881,"limit":2097152},"expansiondepth":{"value":12,"limit":40},"expensivefunctioncount":{"value":3,"limit":500},"entityaccesscount":{"value":1,"limit":400},"timingprofile":["100.00% 561.719 1 -total"," 25.00% 140.411 1 Template:Reflist"," 23.09% 129.695 1 Template:Lang"," 10.51% 59.046 1 Template:Prehistoric_technology"," 9.91% 55.677 1 Template:Navbox_with_collapsible_groups"," 8.40% 47.211 2 Template:Cite_news"," 5.90% 33.133 3 Template:IPAc-en"," 5.80% 32.554 9 Template:Cite_web"," 5.43% 30.526 1 Template:Commons_category"," 5.09% 28.604 3 Template:Convert"]},"scribunto":{"limitreport-timeusage":{"value":"0.270","limit":"10.000"},"limitreport-memusage":{"value":14088178,"limit":52428800}},"cachereport":{"origin":"mw1257","timestamp":"20180220122837","ttl":1900800,"transientcontent":false}}});});(window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgBackendResponseTime":71,"wgHostname":"mw1328"});});

Adobe - Photos and All Basic Informations

Adobe More Links

Adobe SystemsAbodeAdoboEnlargePalenciaEnlargeCoatingChamisal, New MexicoEnlargeShirazIranAmerican EnglishHelp:IPA/EnglishAbout This SoundBritish EnglishHelp:IPA/EnglishHelp:IPA/SpanishMudbrickCob (material)Rammed EarthThermal Mass1976 Guatemala Earthquake2003 Bam Earthquake2010 Chile EarthquakeMiddle EastWestern AsiaNorth AfricaWest AfricaSouth AmericaNorth AmericaSpainEastern EuropeIndigenous Peoples Of The AmericasSouthwestern United StatesMesoamericaAndesPuebloan PeoplesBronze AgeIron AgeEnlargeSan Pedro De AtacamaChileHelp:IPA/EnglishMiddle Egyptian LanguageLate Egyptian LanguageDemotic (Egyptian)Article (grammar)Old Spanish LanguageMozarabic LanguageMudbrickEnlargeSanta Fe, New MexicoNew MexicoComposite MaterialStrawDung (matter)SoilSandSiltClayCementExpansive ClayEnlargeGreat Mosque Of DjennéMaliRadiationConvectionR-value (insulation)BtuEnlargeCuarenta CasasPuddling (engineering)EnlargeMilyanfanKyrgyzstanMortar (masonry)PlasterLime (material)Wikipedia:Citation NeededCementRebarCooperative State Research, Education, And Extension ServiceNew Mexico State UniversityEnlargeEarthen PlasterLintelViga (architecture)Arg-é BamAchaemenid EmpireHuaca Del SolPeruChan ChanTambo ColoradoThe Citadel Of Bam, Iran, Or Arg-é Bam, In Kerman Province, Iran: The World's Largest Adobe Structure, Dating To At Least 500 BCFile:Ancient Bam, 2002.pngCitadelBam, IranArg-é BamKerman ProvinceIranRomaniaDanube DeltaKyrgyzstanSa'dahYemenRomaniaLinxia CityGansuPoeh MuseumNew MexicoSan Miguel MissionSanta Fe, New MexicoGreat Mosque Of DjennéMudbrickMiddle America (United States)AlkerCob (building)Compressed Earth BlockEarth StructureHassan FathyMudbrickQadadQalat (fortress)Rammed EarthSan Xavier Del BacSod HouseSuper AdobeWattle And DaubCas Di TortoMonterey Colonial ArchitectureCtesiphon Arch2010 Chile Earthquake1976 Guatemala Earthquake2003 Bam EarthquakeInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-395-87274-1International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-8137-2375-4Digital Object IdentifierWorld Monuments FundNew MexicoTemplate:Prehistoric TechnologyTemplate Talk:Prehistoric TechnologyPrehistoric TechnologyPrehistoryTimeline Of Human PrehistoryOutline Of Prehistoric TechnologyStone AgeThree-age SystemNeolithicTechnologyHistory Of TechnologyLithic TechnologyHistory Of AgricultureNeolithic RevolutionNeolithic Founder CropsNew World CropsArd (plough)Celt (tool)Digging StickDomesticationGoadIrrigationSecondary Products RevolutionSickleTerrace (agriculture)Control Of Fire By Early HumansBasketCookingEarth OvenGranaryGrinding SlabGround StoneHearthAşıklı HöyükQesem CaveMano (stone)MetateMortar And PestlePotteryQuern-stoneStorage Pit (archaeology)Hunting HypothesisArrowBoomerangThrowing StickBow And ArrowHistory Of ArcheryUse Of Animals During The Gravettian PeriodSpearSpear-throwerBaton Fragment (Palart 310)HarpoonWoomera (spear-thrower)Schöningen SpearsProjectile PointArrowheadBare Island Projectile PointCascade PointClovis PointCreswellian CultureCumberland PointEden PointFolsom PointLamoka Projectile PointManis Mastodon SitePlano PointTransverse ArrowheadGame Drive SystemBuffalo JumpLithic TechnologyIndustry (archaeology)OldowanAcheuleanMousterianClovis CultureCupstoneFire HardeningGravettianHaftingHand AxeGrooves (archaeology)Langdale Axe IndustryLevallois TechniqueLithic CoreLithic ReductionLithic AnalysisDebitageLithic FlakeLithic TechnologyMagdalenianFerrous MetallurgyMicroblade TechnologyGrime's GravesPrepared-core TechniqueSolutreanStriking PlatformTool StoneUnifaceYubetsu TechniqueAdzeStitching AwlUse Of Animals During The Gravettian PeriodAxeBannerstoneBlade (archaeology)Prismatic BladeBone ToolBow DrillBurin (lithic Flake)CanoeOarPesse CanoeChopper (archaeology)Chopping ToolCleaver (tool)Denticulate ToolFire PloughFire-sawHammerstoneKnifeMicrolithQuern-stoneRacloirRopeScraper (archaeology)Grattoir De CôtéStone ToolTally StickHistory Of WeaponsWheelBronocice PotHistory Of ArchitectureGöbekli TepeKivaMenhirMegalithStone RowStonehengePyramidNeolithic ArchitectureBritish Megalith ArchitectureNordic Megalith ArchitectureBurdeiCaveCliff DwellingDugout (shelter)HutQuiggly HoleJacalLonghouseMudbrickMehrgarhNeolithic Long HousePit-houseNavajo PueblitosPuebloRock ShelterBlombos CaveAbri De La MadeleineSibudu CaveNess Of BrodgarRoundhouse (dwelling)Stilt HousePrehistoric Pile Dwellings Around The AlpsWattle And DaubCheck DamCisternFlush ToiletReservoirWater WellFeature (archaeology)BrochBurnt MoundFulacht FiadhCausewayed EnclosureTor EnclosureNeolithic Circular Enclosures In Central EuropeGoseck CircleCursusHengeThornborough HengesList Of Oldest BuildingsMegalithic Architectural ElementsMiddenTimber CircleTimber TrackwaySweet TrackPrehistoric ArtBasket WeavingBeadworkBedChalcolithicHistory Of Clothing And TextilesTimeline Of Clothing And Textiles TechnologyHistory Of CosmeticsMiddle Stone AgeHistory Of Hide MaterialsShoeÖtziJewelleryAmberMirrorPotteryCardium PotteryGrooved WareLinear Pottery CultureJōmon PotteryUnstan WareSewing NeedleWeavingHistory Of WineAreni-1 WineryHistory Of The Wine PressPrehistoric ArtCategory:Prehistoric ArtArt Of The Upper PaleolithicArt Of The Middle PaleolithicBlombos CaveList Of Stone Age ArtBird StoneBradshaw Rock PaintingsCairnCarved Stone BallsCave PaintingHistory Of PaintingPigmentCup And Ring MarkGeoglyphGolden HatGuardian StonesMegalithic ArtPetroformPetroglyphPetrosomatoglyphPictogramRock ArtStone CarvingSculptureStatue MenhirStone CircleList Of Stone CirclesStone Circles In The British Isles And BrittanyVenus FigurinesPaleolithic ReligionTumulusBowl BarrowRound BarrowMound BuildersList Of Burial Mounds In The United StatesChamber TombSevern-Cotswold TombCistDartmoor KistvaensClava CairnCourt CairnCremationDolmenGreat DolmenPyreGallery GraveTransepted Gallery GraveWedge-shaped Gallery GraveGrave GoodsJar BurialLong BarrowUnchambered Long BarrowGrønsalenMegalithic TombMummyPassage GraveRectangular DolmenRing CairnSimple DolmenStone Box GraveTor CairnTumulusUnchambered Long CairnArchaeoastronomyList Of Archaeoastronomical Sites By CountryLunar CalendarBehavioral ModernityOrigin Of LanguageTrepanningPrehistoric MedicineEvolutionary MusicologyMusic ArchaeologyPrehistoric MusicAlligator DrumPaleolithic FlutesDivje Babe FluteGudi (instrument)Prehistoric NumeralsEvolutionary Origin Of ReligionsPaleolithic ReligionPrehistoric ReligionEntheogenic Drugs And The Archaeological RecordPrehistoric WarfareDiepkloof Rock ShelterHowiesons PoortHelp:CategoryCategory:Soil-based Building MaterialsCategory:MasonryCategory:Adobe Buildings And StructuresCategory:Appropriate TechnologyCategory:Vernacular ArchitectureCategory:Sustainable BuildingCategory:Buildings And Structures By Construction MaterialCategory:Use Dmy Dates From June 2013Category:Articles With HAudio MicroformatsCategory:Articles Including Recorded Pronunciations (US English)Category:Articles Containing Arabic-language TextCategory:All Articles With Unsourced StatementsCategory:Articles With Unsourced Statements From October 2008Category:Commons Category With Local Link Different Than On WikidataCategory:Requests For Audio Pronunciation (Spanish)Discussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer

view link view link view link view link view link