Contents 1 Origin and usage 2 Adam in the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) 3 Post-Biblical Jewish traditions 4 Adam in Christianity 5 Adam in Islam 6 See also 7 References 7.1 Citations 7.2 Bibliography


Origin and usage[edit] And Elohim Created Adam William Blake The majority view among scholars is that the book of Genesis dates from the Persian Empire (the 5th and 4th centuries BCE), but the absence from the rest of the Hebrew Bible of all the other characters and incidents mentioned in chapters 1-11 of Genesis, (Adam appears only in chapters 1-5, with the exception of a mention at the beginning of the Books of Chronicles where, as in Genesis, he heads the list of Israel's ancestors[3]) has led a sizable minority to the conclusion that Genesis 1-11 was composed much later, possibly in the 3rd century BCE.[4] The Bible uses the word אָדָם ( 'adam ) in all of its senses: collectively ("mankind", 1:27), individually (a "man", 2:7), gender nonspecific ("man and woman", 5:1,2), and male (2:23-34).[1] In Genesis 1:27 "adam" is used in the collective sense, and the interplay between the individual "Adam" and the collective "humankind" is a main literary component to the events that occur in the Garden of Eden, the ambiguous meanings embedded throughout the moral, sexual, and spiritual terms of the narrative reflecting the complexity of the human condition.[5] Genesis 2:7 is the first verse where "Adam" takes on the sense of an individual man (the first man), and the context of sex and gender is absent; the gender distinction of "adam" is then reiterated in Genesis 5:1–2 by defining "male and female".[1] A recurring literary motif is the bond between Adam and the earth (adamah): God creates Adam by molding him out of clay in the final stages of the creation narrative. After the loss of innocence, God curses Adam and the earth as punishment for his disobiedience. Adam and humanity is cursed to die and return to the earth (or ground) from which he was formed.[6] This "earthly" aspect is a component of Adam's identity, and Adam's curse of estrangement from the earth seems to describe humankind's divided nature of being earthly yet separated from nature.[6] God himself who took of the dust from all four corners of the earth with each color (red, black, white, and green) then created Adam therewith,[7] where the soul of Adam is the image of God.[8]


Adam in the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament)[edit] God Judging Adam William Blake, 1795 Main articles: Adam and Eve and Genesis creation narrative Genesis 1 tells of God's creation of the world and its creatures, with humankind as the last of his creatures: "Male and female created He them, and blessed them, and called their name Adam ..." (Genesis 5:2). God blesses mankind, commands them to "be fruitful and multiply," and gives them "dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth" (Genesis 1.26-27). In Genesis 2, God forms "Adam", this time meaning a single male human, out of "the dust of the ground" and "breathed into his nostrils the breath of life" (Genesis 2:7). God then places this first man in the Garden of Eden, telling him that "Of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat: But of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it: for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die" (Genesis 2:16-17). God notes that "It is not good that the man should be alone" (Genesis 2:18) and brings the animals to Adam, who gives them their names, but among all the animals there was not found a companion for him (Genesis 2:20). God causes a deep sleep to fall upon Adam and forms a woman (Genesis 2:21-22), and Adam awakes and greets her as his helpmate. Genesis 3, the story of the Fall: A serpent persuades the woman to disobey God's command and eat of the tree of knowledge, which gives wisdom. Woman convinces Adam to do likewise, whereupon they become conscious of their nakedness, cover themselves, and hide from the sight of God. God questions Adam, who blames the woman. God passes judgment, first upon the serpent, condemned to go on his belly, then the woman, condemned to pain in childbirth and subordination to her husband, and finally Adam, who is condemned to labour on the earth for his food and to return to it on his death.[9] God then expels the man and woman from the garden, lest they eat of the Tree of Life and become immortal. The chiastic structure of the death oracle given to Adam in 3:19 forms a link between man's creation from "dust" (2:7) to the "return" of his beginnings.[10] A you return B to the ground C since (kî ) from it you were taken C' for (kî ) dust you are B' and to dust A' you will return Genesis 4 deals with the birth of Adam's sons Cain and Abel and the story of the first murder, followed by the birth of a third son, Seth. Genesis 5, the Book of the Generations of Adam, lists the descendants of Adam from Seth to Noah with their ages at the birth of their first sons (except Adam himself, for whom his age at the birth of Seth, his third son, is given) and their ages at death (Adam lives 930 years). The chapter notes that Adam had other sons and daughters after Seth, but does not name them.


Post-Biblical Jewish traditions[edit] Adam Lucas Cranach the Elder Main article: Adam in rabbinic literature Adam possessed a body of light, identical to the light created by God on the first day.[11] According to Jewish mystical tradition the original glory of Adam can be regained through mystical contemplation of God.[2] The rabbis, puzzled by the verse of Genesis 1 which states that God created man and woman together, told that when God created Adam he also created a woman from the dust, as he had created Adam, and named her Lilith; but the two could not agree, for Adam wanted Lilith to lie under him, and Lilith insisted that Adam should lie under her, and so she fled from him, and Eve was created from Adam's rib.[12] Her story was greatly developed, during the Middle Ages, in the tradition of Aggadic midrashim, the Zohar and Jewish mysticism. Other rabbis explained the same verse as meaning that Adam was created with two faces, male and female, or as a single hermaphrodite being, male and female joined back to back, but God saw that this made walking and conversing difficult, and so split them apart.[13] The serpent approached Eve rather than Adam because Adam had heard the word of God with his own ears, whereas Eve had only his report; Eve tasted the fruit and knew at once that she was doomed to death, and said to herself that it was better she trick Adam into eating so that he too would die, and not take another woman in her place.[14] Adam ate the fruit unaware of what he was doing, and was filled with grief.[14] Adam withdrew from Eve for 130 years after their expulsion from Eden, and in this time both he and Eve had sex with demons, until at length they reunited and Eve gave birth to Seth.[12] The 2nd century BCE Book of Jubilees tells how Adam had a daughter, Awân, born after Cain and Abel,[15] and another daughter, Azûrâ, born after Seth[16], and they had nine other sons;[17] Cain married Awân and Seth married Azûrâ, thus accounting for their descendants. The Life of Adam and Eve and its Greek version the Apocalypse of Moses recount how Adam repented his sin in exile and was rewarded by being transported to the heavenly paradise, foreshadowing the destiny of all the righteous at the end of time.[2] The Archangel Michael attended Adam's death, together with Eve and his son Seth, still living at that time, and he was buried together with his murdered son Abel.[18] Because they repented God gave Adam and Eve garments of light, and similar garments will clothe the Messiah when he comes.[19] In the book Kav ha-Yashar the author warns not to talk negatively about Adam, he writes that those who talk positively about Adam will be blessed with a long life.[20] A similar warning can be found in The Zohar.[21] The Sefer Raziel HaMalakh (רזיאל המלאך) (Raziel the Angel) is a collection of esoteric writings, probably compiled and edited by the same hand, but originally not the work of one author, which according to tradition was revealed to Adam by the angel Raziel. The book cannot be shown to predate the 13th century, but may in parts date back to Late Antiquity, and like other obscure ancient texts such as the Bahir and Sefer Yetzirah, it has been extant in a number of versions. Zunz ("G. V." 2d ed., p. 176) distinguishes three main parts: (1) the Book Ha-Malbush; (2) the Great Raziel; (3) the Book of Secrets, or the Book of Noah. These three parts are still distinguishable — 2b-7a, 7b-33b, 34a and b. After these follow two shorter parts entitled "Creation" and "Shi'ur Ḳomah," and after 41a come formulas for amulets and incantations.[22]


Adam in Christianity[edit] For the Christian doctrines, see fall of man and original sin. According to the Apocalypse of Moses the altar of the Temple of Solomon was the centre of the world and the gateway to God's Garden of Eden, and it was here that Adam was both created and buried.[23] The early Christian community adapted this to their own legend of Golgotha, replacing the altar with the place of Jesus's crucifixion.[24] According to this Christian legend, current in the time of Origen (early 3rd century CE), the holy blood of Christ trickled down and restored to life the father of the human race, who then led the saints who appeared to many in Jerusalem on that day as described in Scripture.[25] Christianity, but neither Judaism nor Islam, sees human nature as irrevocably stained by the sin of Adam.[26] This was introduced by the Apostle Paul, drawing on currents in Hellenistic Jewish thought which held that Adam's sin had introduced death and sin.[27] Sin, for Paul, was a power to which all humans are subject, but Christ's coming held out the means by which the righteous would be restored to the Paradise from which Adam's sin had banished mankind.[27][2] He did not conceive of this original sin of Adam as being biologically transmitted or that later generations were to be punished for the deeds of a remote ancestor.[27] It was Saint Augustine who took this step, locating sin itself in male semen: when Adam and Eve ate of the fruit they were ashamed and covered their genitals, identifying the place from which the first sin was passed on to all succeeding generations.[28] Only Jesus Christ, who was not conceived by human semen, was free of the stain passed down from Adam.[29] (Augustine's idea was based on the ancient world's ideas on biology, according to which male sperm contained the entire unborn baby, the mother's womb being no more than a nurturing chamber in which it grew.)[30]


Adam in Islam[edit] Main article: Adam in Islam Adam and Eve Manafi al-Hayawan (The Useful Animals), Maragheh, Iran, 1294–99 Allah created Adam (Arabic: آدم) from a handful of earth taken from the entire world, which explains why the peoples of the world are of different colours.[31] He was the first prophet of Islam and the first Muslim, as the Quran says that all the prophets preached the same faith of submission to God. When Allah informed the angels that he would create a viceregent (a khalifa) on Earth the angels objected, saying he would spread corruption and bloodshed, but Allah allowed Adam to reveal the names of the beasts to the angels, saying, "I (Adam) know what you (Allah) reveal and what you conceal;" the scholar Al-Tabari explained that Adam was referring to the evil plans of Iblis (Satan).[32] Adam and Eve both ate of the Tree of Immortality, and both shared guilt equally, for Eve neither tempted Adam or ate before him; nor is Eve to blame for the pain of childbirth, for Allah never punishes one person for the sins of another.[33] The Shiah school of Islam does not even consider that their action was a sin, for obedience and disobedience are possible only on Earth and not in heaven, which is the location of Paradise.[33] Adam fell on a mountain in India, the tallest in the world and so the closest to Heaven, and from there God sent him to Mecca, where he repented and was forgiven.[34] At Mecca he built the first Sanctuary (the Kaabah - it was later rebuilt by Ibrahim) and was taught the ritual of the Hajj, and wove the first cloak for himself and the first veil and shift for Eve, and after this returned to India where he died at the age of 930, having seen the sons of the sons of his children, 1400 in all.[35] According to the Ahmadiyya sect Adam was not the first human being on earth, but when the human race came into existence, and spread all over the world and developed the ability to receive revelation, God sent Adam to each and every branch and civilization. According to a revelation received by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, the founder of the community, the Adam mentioned in the Qur'an was born 4,598 years before Muhammad.[36]


See also[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Adam. Wikiquote has quotations related to: Adam Adapa Adam Kadmon Banu (Arabic) Paradise Lost Mahabad (prophet) Manu Table of prophets of Abrahamic religions Y-chromosomal Adam Old Testament Pseudepigrapha: Life of Adam and Eve Apocalypse of Adam Testament of Adam Books of Adam Conflict of Adam and Eve with Satan Creationism portal Christianity portal Islam portal Judaism portal


References[edit] Citations[edit] ^ a b c Hendel 2000, p. 18. ^ a b c d Hendel 2000, p. 19. ^ Enns 2012, p. 84. ^ Gmirkin 2006, pp. 240—241. ^ Hendel 2000, p. 18-19. ^ a b Hendel 2000, p. 119. ^ Ginzberg 1909 vol I, chapter II ^ Ginzberg 1909 vol I, chapter II Citation: God had fashioned his (Adam's) soul with particular care. She is the image of God, and as God fills the world, so the soul fills the human body; as God sees all things, and is seen by none, so the soul sees, but cannot be seen; as God guides the world, so the soul guides the body; as God in His holiness is pure, so is the soul; and as God dwells in secret, so doth the soul. ^ Mathews 1996, p. 252 ^ Mathews 1996, p. 253 ^ Schwartz 2006, p. 130. ^ a b Schwartz 2006, p. 218. ^ Schwartz 2006, p. 138. ^ a b Schwartz 2006, p. 434-435. ^ Jubilees 4:1. ^ Jubilees 4:9 ^ Jubilees 4:10 ^ Schwartz 2006, p. 445. ^ Schwartz 2006, p. 437. ^ Parshat Chukat ^ Zohar Chadash Parshat Beresheit 24a or in older versions 19 ^ "Raziel, Book of". Jewish Encyclopedia (1906). ^ Ginzberg 1998, p. 125-126. ^ Ginzberg 1998, p. 126. ^ Hanauer 2011, pp. 69—70. ^ Pies 2000, p. xviii. ^ a b c Boring 2012, p. 301. ^ Stortz 2001, p. 93. ^ Stortz 2001, pp. 93—94. ^ Stortz 2001, p. 94. ^ Wheeler 2002, pp. 17—18. ^ Wheeler 2002, p. 15. ^ a b Ashrof 2005, p. 74. ^ Wheeler 2002, p. 25,30. ^ Wheeler 2002, p. 32,39,43. ^ "Man Lived on Earth Even Before the Advent of Adam". Al Islam.  Bibliography[edit] Ashrof, V. A. Mohamad (2005). Islam and Gender Justice: Questions at the Interface. Gyan Books. ISBN 9788178354569.  Boring, Eugene (2012). An Introduction to the New Testament: History, Literature, Theology. Westminster John Knox. ISBN 9780664255923.  Enns, Peter (2012). The Evolution of Adam: What the Bible Does and Doesn't Say about Human Origins. Baker Books. ISBN 9781587433153.  Ginzberg, Louis (1998). The Legends of the Jews: From the Creation to Exodus: Notes for Volumes 1 and 2. JHU Press. ISBN 9780801858949.  Ginzberg, Louis (1909). The Legends of the Jews (Translated by Henrietta Szold) Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society. Gmirkin, Russell E. (2006). Berossus and Genesis, Manetho and Exodus. Bloomsbury. ISBN 9780567134394.  Hanauer, J.E. (2011). Folklore of the Holy Land. The Other Press. ISBN 9789675062568.  Hendel, Ronald S (2000). "Adam". In David Noel Freedman. Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Eerdmans. ISBN 9789053565032.  Mathews, K. A. (1996). Genesis 1–11:26. B&H Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0805401011.  Pies, Ronald W. (2000). The Ethics of the Sages: An Interfaith Commentary on Pirkei Avot. Jason Aronson. ISBN 9780765761033.  Schwartz, Howard (2006). Tree of Souls: The Mythology of Judaism. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195327137.  Stortz, Martha Ellen (2001). ""Where or When was Your Servant Innocent?"". In Bunge, Marcia J. The Child in Christian Thought. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802846938.  Wheeler, Brannon M. (2002). Prophets in the Quran: An Introduction to the Quran and Muslim Exegesis. A&C Black. ISBN 9780826449573.  v t e Hamartiology Adam Good and evil The Fall Original sin Christian views on sin Imputation of sin Other views on sin Logical order of God's decrees Theodicy Total depravity See also Apologetics Soteriology Demonology v t e Adam to David according to the Bible Creation to Flood Adam Seth Enos Kenan Mahalalel Jared Enoch Methuselah Lamech Noah Shem Cain line Adam Cain Enoch Irad Mehujael Methusael Lamech Tubal-cain Patriarchs after Flood Arpachshad Cainan Shelah Eber Peleg Reu Serug Nahor Terah Abraham Isaac Jacob Tribe of Judah to Kingdom Judah Perez Hezron Ram Amminadab Nahshon Salmon Boaz Obed Jesse David Names in italics only appear in the Greek Septuagint version v t e Prophets in the Quran آدم إدريس نوح هود صالح إبراهيم لوط إسماعيل Adam Adam Idris Enoch (?) Nuh Noah Hud Eber (?) Saleh Salah (?) Ibrahim Abraham Lut Lot Ismail Ishmael إسحاق يعقوب يوسف أيوب شُعيب موسى هارون ذو الكفل داود Is'haq Isaac Yaqub Jacob Yusuf Joseph Ayyub Job Shuayb Jethro (?) Musa Moses Harun Aaron Dhul-Kifl Ezekiel (?) Daud David سليمان إلياس إليسع يونس زكريا يحيى عيسى مُحمد Sulaiman Solomon Ilyas Elijah Al-Yasa Elisha Yunus Jonah Zakaria Zechariah Yahya John Isa Jesus Muhammad Muhammad Note: Muslims believe that there were many prophets sent by God to mankind. The Islamic prophets above are only the ones mentioned by name in the Quran. v t e Legendary progenitors Manu (Hinduism) Mannus (German) Adam, Noah, Abraham (Judaism, Christianity, Islam) Kintu (Uganda) Mashya and Mashyana (Zoroastrianism) Phoenix (Phoenicians) Nyatri Tsenpo (Tibetan Buddhism) Nüwa (China) Melampus (Greek Mythology) Wurugag and Waramurungundi (Australian Gunwinggu) Míl Espáine (Irish) Wau Rauh (Bali) v t e Adam and Eve Source Genesis creation narrative in the Book of Genesis Adam Eve Offspring Cain and Abel Aclima Seth Awan Azura Television "Probe 7, Over and Out" (1963) Film Mama's Affair (1921) Good Morning, Eve! (1934) The Broken Jug (1937) The Original Sin (1948) The Private Lives of Adam and Eve (1960) El pecado de Adán y Eva (1969) La Biblia en pasta (1984) The Annunciation (1984) Adipapam (1988) Adam (1992) Man's Best Friend (1998) Babs (2000) The Last Eve (2005) Year One (2009) The Tragedy of Man (2011) Adam and Dog (2011) Tropico (2013) Plays Le Jeu d'Adam (12th century) The Broken Jug (1808) The Tragedy of Man (1861) The Creation of the World and Other Business (1972) Musicals The Apple Tree (1966) Dude (1972) Up from Paradise (1973) Children of Eden (1991) Compositions The Creation (1798) structure La mort d'Adam (1809) Ève (1875) Genesis Suite (1945) Lilith (2001) Literature Apocalypse of Adam Book of Moses Book of Abraham Books of Adam Book of the Penitence of Adam Cave of Treasures "El y Ella" Genesis A and Genesis B Harrowing of Hell Life of Adam and Eve Testament of Adam Testimony of Truth (3rd century) Conflict of Adam and Eve with Satan (6th century) "Old Saxon Genesis" (9th century) "Adam lay ybounden" (15th century) Paradise Lost (1667) Le Dernier Homme (1805) Extracts from Adam's Diary (1904) Eve's Diary (1905) The Book of Genesis (2009) Art Bernward Doors (1015) Tapestry of Creation (11th century) Expulsion from the Garden of Eden (1425) Vienna Diptych (15th century) The Last Judgment (1482) The Garden of Earthly Delights (1504) Adam and Eve (1507) Paradise and Hell (1510) The Creation of Adam (1512) The Haywain Triptych (1516) Eve, the Serpent and Death (1510s or 1520s) Adam and Eve (1528) The Fall of Man (1550) Maps of ancient Israel The Garden of Eden with the Fall of Man (1617) The Fall of Man (1628) The Four Seasons (1660s) The Koren Picture-Bible (1692–1696) The First Mourning (1888) Eve (1931) Adam and Eve (1932) The Serpent Chooses Adam and Eve (1958) Adam and Eve (1992) Songs "Dese Bones G'wine Rise Again" "Adam-ondi-Ahman" (1835) "Forbidden Fruit" (1915) "The Garden of Eden" (1956) "Let's Give Adam and Eve Another Chance" (1970) "Man Gave Names to All the Animals" (1979) Albums The Cainian Chronicle (1996) Visions of Eden (2006) Other cultures Adam–God doctrine Adam and Eve (LDS Church) Adam in Islam Adam in rabbinic literature Al-A'raf Book of Moses Endowment Manu (Hinduism) Mashya and Mashyana Serpent seed Tree of Jiva and Atman Tree of life (Quran) Our Lady of Endor Coven Geography Adam-ondi-Ahman Tomb of Eve Biology Mitochondrial Eve Y-chromosomal Adam The Real Eve Story within a story Doraemon: Nobita's Diary of the Creation of the World Island of Love The Visitors Games Demon: The Fallen (2002) Related theology Fall of man Original sin Garden of Eden Tree of the knowledge of good and evil Serpents in the Bible Forbidden fruit Apple Fig leaf Figs in the Bible Adam's ale Adamic language Rosh Hashanah Camael Shamsiel Tree of life Allegorical interpretations of Genesis Other Pre-Adamite Generations of Adam Cave of the Patriarchs "In-A-Gadda-Da-Leela" "Simpsons Bible Stories" Second Time Lucky Adam and Eve cylinder seal Timeline of Genesis patriarchs Genealogies of Genesis Carnal knowledge Legend of the Rood Ystorya Adaf Snakes for the Divine Ransom theory of atonement v t e Cain and Abel Book of Genesis Biblical characters Adam Eve Cain and Abel Lucifer Enoch Awan Portrayals in media Film East of Eden (film, 1952) Caín (1984) La Biblia en pasta (1984) The Last Eve (2005) Year One (2009) Abel Cain Plays Le Jeu d'Adam (12th century) Cain (1821) Musicals Children of Eden (1991) Here's Where I Belong (1968) Literature Book of the Penitence of Adam East of Eden (novel, 1952) Abel Sánchez: The History of a Passion (1917) The Book of Lies (2008) Songs "Should the Bible Be Banned" (1988) "Cain's Blood" (1995) Other La mort d'Abel (composition, 1810) The First Mourning (painting, 1888) Cain and Abel (TV series, 2009) Cain and Abel (DC Comics) Kane (Command & Conquer video game character) Related theology Adam and Eve Curse and mark of Cain Serpent seed Christian Identity Cain and Abel in Islam Balbira and Kalmana Cainites Other Generations of Adam Timeline of Genesis patriarchs Land of Nod Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Adam&oldid=820431539" Categories: Adam and EveChristian saints from the Old TestamentProphets of IslamBook of Genesis peopleBereshit (parsha)Hidden categories: Articles with hCardsArticles containing Arabic-language textArticles containing Greek-language textInstances of Lang-el using second unnamed parameter


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