Contents 1 History 1.1 Typographic variants 2 Use in writing systems 2.1 English 2.2 Other languages 2.3 Other systems 3 Other uses 4 Related characters 4.1 Descendants and related characters in the Latin alphabet 4.2 Derived signs, symbols and abbreviations 4.3 Ancestors and siblings in other alphabets 5 Computing codes 6 Other representations 7 Notes 8 Footnotes 9 References 10 External links

History Egyptian   Cretan Phoenician aleph Semitic Greek Alpha Etruscan A Roman/Cyrillic A Boeotian 800–700 BC Greek Uncial Latin 300 AD Uncial The earliest certain ancestor of "A" is aleph (also written 'aleph), the first letter of the Phoenician alphabet,[3] which consisted entirely of consonants (for that reason, it is also called an abjad to distinguish it from a true alphabet). In turn, the ancestor of aleph may have been a pictogram of an ox head in proto-Sinaitic script[4] influenced by Egyptian hieroglyphs, styled as a triangular head with two horns extended. By 1600 BC, the Phoenician alphabet letter had a linear form that served as the base for some later forms. Its name is thought to have corresponded closely to the Hebrew or Arabic aleph. Blackletter A Uncial A Another Blackletter A  Modern Roman A Modern Italic A Modern script A When the ancient Greeks adopted the alphabet, they had no use for a letter to represent the glottal stop—the consonant sound that the letter denoted in Phoenician and other Semitic languages, and that was the first phoneme of the Phoenician pronunciation of the letter—so they used their version of the sign to represent the vowel /a/, and called it by the similar name of alpha. In the earliest Greek inscriptions after the Greek Dark Ages, dating to the 8th century BC, the letter rests upon its side, but in the Greek alphabet of later times it generally resembles the modern capital letter, although many local varieties can be distinguished by the shortening of one leg, or by the angle at which the cross line is set. The Etruscans brought the Greek alphabet to their civilization in the Italian Peninsula and left the letter unchanged. The Romans later adopted the Etruscan alphabet to write the Latin language, and the resulting letter was preserved in the Latin alphabet that would come to be used to write many languages, including English. Typographic variants Different glyphs of the lowercase letter A. During Roman times, there were many variant forms of the letter "A". First was the monumental or lapidary style, which was used when inscribing on stone or other "permanent" media. There was also a cursive style used for everyday or utilitarian writing, which was done on more perishable surfaces. Due to the "perishable" nature of these surfaces, there are not as many examples of this style as there are of the monumental, but there are still many surviving examples of different types of cursive, such as majuscule cursive, minuscule cursive, and semicursive minuscule. Variants also existed that were intermediate between the monumental and cursive styles. The known variants include the early semi-uncial, the uncial, and the later semi-uncial.[5] Typographic variants include a double-storey a and single-storey ɑ. At the end of the Roman Empire (5th century AD), several variants of the cursive minuscule developed through Western Europe. Among these were the semicursive minuscule of Italy, the Merovingian script in France, the Visigothic script in Spain, and the Insular or Anglo-Irish semi-uncial or Anglo-Saxon majuscule of Great Britain. By the 9th century, the Caroline script, which was very similar to the present-day form, was the principal form used in book-making, before the advent of the printing press. This form was derived through a combining of prior forms.[5] 15th-century Italy saw the formation of the two main variants that are known today. These variants, the Italic and Roman forms, were derived from the Caroline Script version. The Italic form, also called script a, is used in most current handwriting and consists of a circle and vertical stroke. This slowly developed from the fifth-century form resembling the Greek letter tau in the hands of medieval Irish and English writers.[3] The Roman form is used in most printed material; it consists of a small loop with an arc over it ("a").[5] Both derive from the majuscule (capital) form. In Greek handwriting, it was common to join the left leg and horizontal stroke into a single loop, as demonstrated by the uncial version shown. Many fonts then made the right leg vertical. In some of these, the serif that began the right leg stroke developed into an arc, resulting in the printed form, while in others it was dropped, resulting in the modern handwritten form. Italic type is commonly used to mark emphasis or more generally to distinguish one part of a text from the rest (set in Roman type). There are some other cases aside from italic type where script a ("ɑ"), also called Latin alpha, is used in contrast with Latin "a" (such as in the International Phonetic Alphabet).

Use in writing systems Pronunciation of the name of the letter ⟨a⟩ in European languages, note that /a/ and /aː/ can differ phonetically between [a], [ä], [æ] and [ɑ] depending on the language. English Further information: Pronunciation of English ⟨a⟩ In modern English orthography, the letter ⟨a⟩ represents at least seven different vowel sounds: the near-open front unrounded vowel /æ/ as in pad; the open back unrounded vowel /ɑː/ as in father, which is closer to its original Latin and Greek sound;[4] the diphthong /eɪ/ as in ace and major (usually when ⟨a⟩ is followed by one, or occasionally two, consonants and then another vowel letter) – this results from Middle English lengthening followed by the Great Vowel Shift; the modified form of the above sound that occurs before ⟨r⟩, as in square and Mary; the rounded vowel of water; the shorter rounded vowel (not present in General American) in was and what;[3] a schwa, in many unstressed syllables, as in about, comma, solar. The double ⟨aa⟩ sequence does not occur in native English words, but is found in some words derived from foreign languages such as Aaron and aardvark.[6] However, ⟨a⟩ occurs in many common digraphs, all with their own sound or sounds, particularly ⟨ai⟩, ⟨au⟩, ⟨aw⟩, ⟨ay⟩, ⟨ea⟩ and ⟨oa⟩. ⟨a⟩ is the third-most-commonly used letter in English (after ⟨e⟩ and ⟨t⟩),[7] and the second most common in Spanish and French. In one study, on average, about 3.68% of letters used in English texts tend to be ⟨a⟩, while the number is 6.22% in Spanish and 3.95% in French.[8] Other languages In most languages that use the Latin alphabet, ⟨a⟩ denotes an open unrounded vowel, such as /a/, /ä/, or /ɑ/. An exception is Saanich, in which ⟨a⟩ (and the glyph Á) stands for a close-mid front unrounded vowel /e/. Other systems In phonetic and phonemic notation: in the International Phonetic Alphabet, ⟨a⟩ is used for the open front unrounded vowel, ⟨ä⟩ is used for the open central unrounded vowel, and ⟨ɑ⟩ is used for the open back unrounded vowel. in X-SAMPA, ⟨a⟩ is used for the open front unrounded vowel and ⟨A⟩ is used for the open back unrounded vowel.

Other uses Main article: A (disambiguation) In algebra, the letter a along with other letters at the beginning of the alphabet is used to represent known quantities, whereas the letters at the end of the alphabet (x, y, z) are used to denote unknown quantities. In geometry, capital A, B, C etc. are used to denote segments, lines, rays, etc.[5] A capital A is also typically used as one of the letters to represent an angle in a triangle, the lowercase a representing the side opposite angle A.[4] "A" is often used to denote something or someone of a better or more prestigious quality or status: A-, A or A+, the best grade that can be assigned by teachers for students' schoolwork; "A grade" for clean restaurants; A-list celebrities, etc. Such associations can have a motivating effect, as exposure to the letter A has been found to improve performance, when compared with other letters.[9] Finally, the letter A is used to denote size, as in a narrow size shoe,[4] or a small cup size in a brassiere.[citation needed]

Related characters Descendants and related characters in the Latin alphabet Æ æ : Latin AE ligature A with diacritics: Å å Ǻ ǻ Ḁ ḁ ẚ Ă ă Ặ ặ Ắ ắ Ằ ằ Ẳ ẳ Ẵ ẵ Ȃ ȃ Â â Ậ ậ Ấ ấ Ầ ầ Ẫ ẫ Ẩ ẩ Ả ả Ǎ ǎ Ⱥ ⱥ Ȧ ȧ Ǡ ǡ Ạ ạ Ä ä Ǟ ǟ À à Ȁ ȁ Á á Ā ā Ā̀ ā̀ Ã ã Ą ą Ą́ ą́ Ą̃ ą̃ ᶏ[10] Phonetic alphabet symbols related to A (the International Phonetic Alphabet only uses lowercase, but uppercase forms are used in some other writing systems): Ɑ ɑ : Latin letter alpha / script A, which represents an open back unrounded vowel in the IPA ᶐ : Latin small letter alpha with retroflex hook[10] Ɐ ɐ : Turned A, which represents a near-open central vowel in the IPA Λ ʌ : turned V (also called a wedge, a caret, or a hat), which represents an open-mid back unrounded vowel in the IPA Ɒ ɒ : Turned alpha / script A, which represents an open back rounded vowel in the IPA ᶛ : Modifier letter small turned alpha[10] ᴀ : Small capital A, an obsolete or non-standard symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet used to represent various sounds (mainly open vowels) ᴬ ᵃ ᵄ : Modifier letters are used in the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet (UPA).[11] ₐ : Subscript small a is used in Indo-European studies[12] ꬱ : Small letter a reversed-schwa is used in the Teuthonista phonetic transcription system[13] Derived signs, symbols and abbreviations ª : an ordinal indicator Å : Ångström sign ∀ : a turned capital letter A, used in predicate logic to specify universal quantification ("for all") @ : At sign ₳ : Argentine austral Ancestors and siblings in other alphabets This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (December 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) 𐤀 : Semitic letter Aleph, from which the following symbols originally derive Α α : Greek letter Alpha, from which the following letters derive А а : Cyrillic letter A Ⲁ ⲁ : Coptic letter Alpha 𐌀 : Old Italic A, which is the ancestor of modern Latin A ᚨ : Runic letter ansuz, which probably derives from old Italic A 𐌰 : Gothic letter aza/asks

Computing codes Character A a Unicode name LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A LATIN SMALL LETTER A Encodings decimal hex decimal hex Unicode 65 U+0041 97 U+0061 UTF-8 65 41 97 61 Numeric character reference A A a a EBCDIC family 193 C1 129 81 ASCII 1 65 41 97 61 1 Also for encodings based on ASCII, including the DOS, Windows, ISO-8859 and Macintosh families of encodings.

Other representations NATO phonetic Morse code Alpha ·– Signal flag Flag semaphore American manual alphabet (ASL fingerspelling) Braille dots-1

Notes ^ Aes is the plural of the name of the letter. The plural of the letter itself is rendered As, A's, as, or a's.[1]

Footnotes ^ a b Simpson & Weiner 1989, p. 1 ^ McCarter 1974, p. 54 ^ a b c Hoiberg 2010, p. 1 ^ a b c d Hall-Quest 1997, p. 1 ^ a b c d Diringer 2000, p. 1 ^ Gelb & Whiting 1998, p. 45 ^ Anon 2004 ^ Anon 2006 ^ Ciani & Sheldon 2010, pp. 99–100 ^ a b c Constable, Peter (2004-04-19). "L2/04-132 Proposal to add additional phonetic characters to the UCS" (PDF).  ^ Everson, Michael; et al. (2002-03-20). "L2/02-141: Uralic Phonetic Alphabet characters for the UCS" (PDF).  ^ Anderson, Deborah; Everson, Michael (2004-06-07). "L2/04-191: Proposal to encode six Indo-Europeanist phonetic characters in the UCS" (PDF).  ^ Everson, Michael; Dicklberger, Alois; Pentzlin, Karl; Wandl-Vogt, Eveline (2011-06-02). "L2/11-202: Revised proposal to encode "Teuthonista" phonetic characters in the UCS" (PDF). 

References Anon (2004). "English Letter Frequency". Math Explorer's Club. Cornell University. Archived from the original on 28 May 2014. Retrieved 28 May 2014.  Anon (2006). "Percentages of Letter frequencies per Thousand words". Trinity College. Archived from the original on 25 January 2007. Retrieved 11 May 2015.  Ciani, Keith D.; Sheldon, Kennon M. (2010). "A versus F: The effects of implicit letter priming on cognitive performance". British Journal of Educational Psychology. 80 (1): 99–119. doi:10.1348/000709909X466479.  Diringer, David (2000). "A". In Bayer, Patricia. Encyclopedia Americana. I: A-Anjou (First ed.). Danbury, CT: Grolier Incorporated. ISBN 0-7172-0133-3.  Gelb, I. J.; Whiting, R. M. (1998). "A". In Ranson, K. Anne. Academic American Encyclopedia. I: A–Ang (First ed.). Danbury, CT: Grolier Incorporated. ISBN 0-7172-2068-0.  Hall-Quest, Olga Wilbourne (1997). "A". In Johnston, Bernard. Collier's Encyclopedia. I: A to Ameland (First ed.). New York, NY: P.F. Collier.  Hoiberg, Dale H., ed. (2010). "A". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1: A-ak–Bayes. Chicago, IL: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ISBN 978-1-59339-837-8.  McCarter, P. Kyle (September 1974). "The Early Diffusion of the Alphabet". The Biblical Archaeologist. 37 (3): 54–68. doi:10.2307/3210965. JSTOR 3210965.  Simpson, J. A.; Weiner, E.S.C., eds. (1989). "A". The Oxford English Dictionary. I: A–Bazouki (2nd ed.). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-861213-3. 

External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to A. Look up A or a in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. History of the Alphabet Texts on Wikisource: "A" in A Dictionary of the English Language by Samuel Johnson "A". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911.  "A". The New Student's Reference Work. 1914.  "A". Collier's New Encyclopedia. 1921.  v t e Latin script History Spread Romanization Roman numerals Alphabets (list) Classical Latin alphabet ISO basic Latin alphabet phonetic alphabets International Phonetic Alphabet X-SAMPA Spelling alphabet Letters (list) Letters of the ISO basic Latin alphabet Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz Letter A with diacritics Áá Àà Ăă Ắắ Ằằ Ẵẵ Ẳẳ Ââ Ấấ Ầầ Ẫẫ Ẩẩ Ǎǎ Åå Ǻǻ Ää Ǟǟ Ãã Ȧȧ Ǡǡ Ąą Ą́ą́ Ą̃ą̃ Āā Ā̀ā̀ Ảả Ȁȁ A̋a̋ Ȃȃ Ạạ Ặặ Ậậ Ḁḁ Ⱥⱥ ᶏ ẚ Multigraphs Digraphs ch cz dž dz gh ij ll ly nh ny sh sz th Trigraphs dzs eau Tetragraphs ough Pentagraphs tzsch Keyboard layouts (list) QWERTY QWERTZ AZERTY Standards ISO/IEC 646 Unicode Western Latin character sets Lists precomposed Latin characters in Unicode letters used in mathematics Diacritics Palaeography Retrieved from "" Categories: ISO basic Latin lettersHidden categories: Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pagesWikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pagesUse dmy dates from June 2013All articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from October 2015Articles needing additional references from December 2016All articles needing additional referencesWikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource referenceWikipedia articles incorporating citation to the NSRWWikipedia articles incorporating citation to the NSRW with an wstitle parameterWikipedia articles incorporating a citation from Collier's Encyclopedia

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