Contents 1 Overview 1.1 Eras 2 Wars 2.1 Napoleonic Wars 2.2 Latin American independence 2.3 Abolition and the American Civil War 2.4 Decline of the Ottoman Empire 2.5 Taiping Rebellion 2.6 Meiji Restoration 2.7 Colonization 3 Science and technology 3.1 Medicine 3.2 Inventions 4 Religion 5 Events 5.1 1800s 5.2 1810s 5.3 1820s 5.4 1830s 5.5 1840s 5.6 1850s 5.7 1860s 5.8 1870s 5.9 1880s 5.10 1890s 5.11 1900 6 Significant people 6.1 Show business and theatre 6.2 Athletics 6.3 Business 6.4 Famous and infamous personalities 6.5 Anthropology, archaeology, scholars 6.6 Journalists, missionaries, explorers 6.7 Photography 6.8 Visual artists, painters, sculptors 6.9 Music 6.10 Literature 6.11 Science 6.12 Philosophy and religion 6.13 Politics and the Military 7 See also 8 Supplementary portrait gallery 9 References 10 External links

Overview[edit] The first electronics appeared in the 19th century, with the introduction of the electric relay in 1835, the telegraph and its Morse code protocol in 1837, the first telephone call in 1876,[1] and the first functional light bulb in 1878.[2] The 19th century was an era of rapidly accelerating scientific discovery and invention, with significant developments in the fields of mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, electricity, and metallurgy that laid the groundwork for the technological advances of the 20th century.[3] The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain and spread to continental Europe, North America and Japan.[4] The Victorian era was notorious for the employment of young children in factories and mines, as well as strict social norms regarding modesty and gender roles.[5] Japan embarked on a program of rapid modernization following the Meiji Restoration, before defeating China, under the Qing Dynasty, in the First Sino-Japanese War. Advances in medicine and the understanding of human anatomy and disease prevention took place in the 19th century, and were partly responsible for rapidly accelerating population growth in the western world. Europe's population doubled during the 19th century, from approximately 200 million to more than 400 million.[6] The introduction of railroads provided the first major advancement in land transportation for centuries, changing the way people lived and obtained goods, and fuelling major urbanization movements in countries across the globe. Numerous cities worldwide surpassed populations of a million or more during this century. London became the world's largest city and capital of the British Empire. Its population increased from 1 million in 1800 to 6.7 million a century later. The last remaining undiscovered landmasses of Earth, including vast expanses of interior Africa and Asia, were explored during this century, and with the exception of the extreme zones of the Arctic and Antarctic, accurate and detailed maps of the globe were available by the 1890s. Liberalism became the pre-eminent reform movement in Europe.[7] Arab slave traders and their captives along the Ruvuma river (in today's Tanzania and Mozambique), 19th century Slavery was greatly reduced around the world. Following a successful slave revolt in Haiti, Britain and France stepped up the battle against the Barbary pirates and succeeded in stopping their enslavement of Europeans. The UK's Slavery Abolition Act charged the British Royal Navy with ending the global slave trade.[8] The first colonial empire in the century to abolish slavery was the British, who did so in 1834. America's 13th Amendment following their Civil War abolished slavery there in 1865, and in Brazil slavery was abolished in 1888 (see Abolitionism). Similarly, serfdom was abolished in Russia. The 19th century was remarkable in the widespread formation of new settlement foundations which were particularly prevalent across North America and Australia, with a significant proportion of the two continents' largest cities being founded at some point in the century. Chicago in the United States and Melbourne in Australia were non-existent in the earliest decades but grew to become the 2nd largest cities in the United States and British Empire respectively by the end of the century. In the 19th century approximately 70 million people left Europe, with most migrating to the United States.[9] The 19th century also saw the rapid creation, development and codification of many sports, particularly in Britain and the United States. Association football, rugby union, baseball and many other sports were developed during the 19th century, while the British Empire facilitated the rapid spread of sports such as cricket to many different parts of the world. Also, ladywear was a very sensitive topic during this time, where women showing their ankles was viewed to be scandalous. The boundaries set by the Congress of Vienna, 1815. It also marks the fall of the Ottoman rule of the Balkans which led to the creation of Serbia, Bulgaria, Montenegro and Romania as a result of the second Russo-Turkish War, which in itself followed the great Crimean War. Eras[edit] Map of the world from 1897. The British Empire (marked in pink) was the superpower of the 19th century. Industrial revolution European Imperialism British Regency, Victorian era (UK, British Empire) Bourbon Restoration, July Monarchy, French Second Republic, Second French Empire, French Third Republic (France) Belle Époque (Europe) Edo period, Meiji period (Japan) Qing Dynasty (China) Joseon Dynasty (Korea) Tanzimat, First Constitutional Era (Ottoman Empire) Russian Empire American Manifest Destiny, The Gilded Age

Wars[edit] Napoleonic Wars[edit] Main article: Napoleonic Wars See also: Timeline of the Napoleonic era The Napoleonic Wars were a series of major conflicts from 1803-1815 pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom. The wars stemmed from the unresolved disputes associated with the French Revolution and its resultant conflict. The wars are often categorised into five conflicts, each termed after the coalition that fought Napoleon; the Third Coalition (1805), the Fourth (1806–07), Fifth (1809), Sixth (1813), and the Seventh and final (1815). In 1805, Napoleon decisively defeats an Austrian-Russian army at the Battle of Austerlitz. In 1812, the French invasion of Russia is a turning point in the Napoleonic Wars. In 1815, Napoleon abdicates and is exiled to Elba. Later that year, he escaped exile and began the Hundred Days before finally being defeated at the Battle of Waterloo and exiled to St Helena. Latin American independence[edit] Main articles: Latin American wars of independence and Spanish American wars of independence Most countries in Central America and South America obtained independence from colonial overlords during the 19th century. In Mexico, the Mexican War of Independence was a decade-long conflict that ended in Mexican independence in 1821, and in South America, most Spanish-speaking countries obtained independence in that same time frame. Due to the Napoleonic Wars, the royal family of Portugal relocated to Brazil from 1808-1821, leading to Brazil having a separate monarch from Portugal. In 1830, the post-colonial nation of Greater Colombia dissolved and the nations of Colombia (including modern-day Panama), Ecuador, and Venezuela took its place. Abolition and the American Civil War[edit] Main article: American Civil War The abolitionism movement achieved success in the 19th century. The Atlantic slave trade was abolished in 1808, and by the end of the century, almost every government had banned slavery. The American Civil War took place from 1861-1865. Eleven southern states seceded from the United States, largely over concerns related to slavery. In 1863, President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation. Lincoln issued a preliminary [10] on September 22, 1862 warning that in all states still in rebellion (Confederacy) on January 1, 1863, he would declare their slaves "then, thenceforward, and forever free."[11] The Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution,[12] ratified in 1865, officially abolished slavery in the entire country. Five days after Robert E. Lee surrendered at Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia, Lincoln was assassinated by actor and Confederate sympathiser John Wilkes Booth. Decline of the Ottoman Empire[edit] In 1830, Greece became the first country to break away from the Ottoman Empire after the Greek War of Independence. In 1831, the Great Bosnian uprising against Ottoman rule occurred. In 1817, the Principality of Serbia became suzerain from the Ottoman Empire, and in 1867, it passed a Constitution which defined its independence from the Ottoman Empire. In 1876, Bulgarians instigate the April Uprising against Ottoman rule. Following the Russo-Turkish War, the Treaty of Berlin recognized the formal independence of the Principality of Serbia, Montenegro and Romania. Bulgaria becomes autonomous. Taiping Rebellion[edit] 1850–1864: Taiping Rebellion is the bloodiest conflict of the century, leading to the deaths of 20 million people. Meiji Restoration[edit] Main article: Meiji Restoration During the Edo period, Japan largely pursued an isolationist foreign policy. In 1853, United States Navy Commodore Matthew C. Perry threatened the Japanese capital Edo with gunships, demanding that they agree to open trade. This led to the opening of trade relations between Japan and foreign countries. By 1872, the Japanese government under Emperor Meiji had eliminated the daimyo system and established a strong central government. Further reforms included the abolishment of the samurai class and rapid industrialization. Colonization[edit] Main articles: Western imperialism in Asia and Scramble for Africa In 1862, French gained its first foothold in Southeast Asia, and in 1863 France annexes Cambodia. The Berlin Conference of 1884-1885 signaled the start of the European "scramble for Africa". In 1885, King Leopold II of Belgium establishes the Congo Free State as a personal fiefdom.

Science and technology[edit] 1807: Potassium and Sodium are individually isolated by Sir Humphry Davy. 1831–1836: Charles Darwin's journey on the HMS Beagle. 1869: Dmitri Mendeleev created the Periodic table. 1873: Maxwell's A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism published. Medicine[edit] 1804: Morphine first isolated. 1842: Anaesthesia used for the first time. 1855: Cocaine is isolated by Friedrich Gaedcke. 1885: Louis Pasteur creates the first successful vaccine against rabies for a young boy who had been bitten 14 times by a rabid dog. 1889: Aspirin patented. Inventions[edit] Thomas Edison was an American inventor, scientist, and businessman who developed many devices that greatly influenced life around the world, including the phonograph, the motion picture camera, and a long-lasting, practical electric light bulb. 1804: First steam locomotive begins operation. 1825: Erie Canal opened connecting the Great Lakes to the Atlantic Ocean. 1825: First isolation of aluminum. 1825: The Stockton and Darlington Railway, the first public railway in the world, is opened. 1826: Samuel Morey patents the internal combustion engine. 1829: First electric motor built. 1837: Telegraphy patented. 1841: The word "dinosaur" is coined by Richard Owen 1844: First publicly funded telegraph line in the world—between Baltimore and Washington—sends demonstration message on 24 May, ushering in the age of the telegraph. This message read "What hath God wrought?" (Bible, Numbers 23:23) 1849: The safety pin and the gas mask are invented. 1855: Bessemer process enables steel to be mass-produced. 1856: World's first oil refinery in Romania 1858: Invention of the phonautograph, the first true device for recording sound. 1867: Alfred Nobel invents dynamite. 1873: Blue jeans and barbed wire are invented. 1877: Thomas Edison invents the phonograph 1879: Thomas Edison tests his first light bulb. 1881: First electrical power plant and grid in Godalming, Britain. 1884: Sir Hiram Maxim invents the first self-powered Machine gun. 1885: Singer begins production of the 'Vibrating Shuttle'. which would become the most popular model of sewing machine. 1886: Karl Benz sells the first commercial automobile. 1890: The cardboard box is invented. 1892: John Froelich develops and constructs the first gasoline/petrol-powered tractor. 1894: Karl Elsener invents the Swiss Army knife. 1894: First gramophone record. 1895: Wilhelm Röntgen identifies x-rays.

Religion[edit] 1830: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints is established on 6 April 1830. 1844: Persian Prophet the Báb announces his revelation on 23 May, founding Bábísm. He announced to the world of the coming of "He whom God shall make manifest". He is considered the forerunner of Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith. 1863: Bahá'u'lláh declares his station as "He whom God shall make manifest". This date is celebrated in the Bahá'í Faith as The Festival of Ridván. 1871–1878: In Germany, Otto von Bismarck attacks the privileges of the Catholic Church in the Kulturkampf ("Culture War") 1879: Mary Baker Eddy founds the Church of Christ, Scientist. 1891: Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, founder of the Ahmadiyya movement, claims to be Promised Messiah and Imam Mahdi. 1891: Pope Leo XIII launches the encyclical Rerum Novarum, the first major catholic document on social justice

Events[edit] Main article: Timeline of the 19th century 1800s[edit] William Wilberforce (1759–1833), politician and philanthropist who was a leader of the movement to abolish the slave trade. 1801: Thomas Jefferson elected President of the United States by the House of Representatives, following a tie in the Electoral College – United States 1801: The Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland merge to form the United Kingdom. 1801: Ranjit Singh crowned as King of Punjab. 1801: Assassination of Tsar Paul I of Russia. 1801–1815: the First Barbary War and the Second Barbary War between the United States and the Barbary States of North Africa 1802: Treaty of Amiens between France and the United Kingdom ends the War of the Second Coalition. 1803: William Symington demonstrates his Charlotte Dundas, the "first practical steamboat". 1803: The United States more than doubles in size when it buys out France's territorial claims in North America via the Louisiana Purchase. This begins the U.S.'s westward expansion to the Pacific referred to as its Manifest Destiny which involves annexing and conquering land from Mexico, Britain, and Native Americans. 1803: The Wahhabis of the First Saudi State capture Mecca and Medina. 1804: Haiti gains independence from France and becomes the first black republic. 1804–1813: Russo-Persian War. 1804: Austrian Empire founded by Francis I. 1804: Napoleon crowns himself Emperor of the French. 1804: World population reaches 1 billion. 1804–1810: Fulani Jihad in Nigeria. 1804–1815: Serbian revolution erupts against the Ottoman rule. Suzerainty of Serbia recognized in 1817. 1805: The Battle of Trafalgar eliminates the French and Spanish naval fleets and allows for British dominance of the seas, a major factor for the success of the British Empire later in the century. 1805–1848: Muhammad Ali modernizes Egypt. 1806: Holy Roman Empire dissolved as a consequence of the Treaty of Pressburg. 1806: Cape Colony becomes part of the British Empire. 1806–1812: Russo-Turkish War, Treaty of Bucharest. 1807: Britain declares the Slave Trade illegal. 1808–1809: Russia conquers Finland from Sweden in the Finnish War. 1810s[edit] Napoleon's retreat from Russia in 1812. The war swings decisively against the French Empire 1819: 29 January, Stamford Raffles arrives in Singapore with William Farquhar to establish a trading post for the British East India Company. 8 February, The treaty is signed between Sultan Hussein of Johor, Temenggong Abdul Rahman and Stamford Raffles. Farquhar is installed as the first Resident of the settlement. 1810: The University of Berlin was founded. Among its students and faculty are Hegel, Marx, and Bismarck. The German university reform proves to be so successful that its model is copied around the world (see History of European research universities). 1810: The Grito de Dolores begins the Mexican War of Independence. 1810s–1820s: Punjab War between the Sikh Empire and British Empire. 1812–1815: War of 1812 between the United States and Britain; ends in a draw, except that Native Americans lose power 1813: Jane Austen publishes Pride and Prejudice 1813–1837: Afghan-Sikh Wars. 1814: Elisha Collier invents the Flintlock Revolver. 1814–16: Anglo-Nepalese War between Nepal (Gurkha Empire) and British Empire. 1815: The Congress of Vienna redraws the European map. Reaction and conservatism dominate all of Europe.[13] The Concert of Europe attempts to preserve this settlement, but the forces of liberalism and nationalism make for dramatic changes. It marks the beginning of a Pax Britannica which lasts until 1914. 1815: April, Mount Tambora in Sumbawa island erupts, becoming the largest volcanic eruption in recorded history, destroying Tambora culture, and killing at least 71,000 people, including its aftermath. The eruption created global climate anomalies known as "volcanic winter".[14] 1816: Year Without a Summer: Unusually cold conditions wreak havoc throughout the Northern Hemisphere, likely influenced by the 1815 explosion of Mount Tambora. 1816–1828: Shaka's Zulu Kingdom becomes the largest in Southern Africa. 1817: First Seminole War begins in Florida. 1817: Russia commences its conquest of the Caucasus. 1818: Mary Shelley publishes Frankenstein. 1819: John Keats writes his odes of 1819. 1819: The modern city of Singapore is established by the British East India Company. 1819: Théodore Géricault paints his masterpiece The Raft of the Medusa, and exhibits it in the French Salon of 1819 at the Louvre. 1820s[edit] 1816: Shaka rises to power over the Zulu Kingdom. Zulu expansion was a major factor of the Mfecane ("Crushing") that depopulated large areas of southern Africa 1820: Missouri Compromise. 1820: Regency period ends in the United Kingdom. 1820: Revolutions of 1820 in Southern Europe 1820: Discovery of Antarctica. 1820: Liberia founded by the American Colonization Society for freed American slaves. 1820: Dissolution of the Maratha Empire. 1820–1835: At least 5000 Mexicans die in Apache raids, and 100 settlements are destroyed.[15] 1822–1823: First Mexican Empire, as Mexico's first post-independent government, ruled by Emperor Agustín I of Mexico. 1822: Prince Pedro of Brazil proclaimed the Brazilian independence on 7 September. On 1 December, he was crowned as Emperor Dom Pedro I of Brazil. 1823–1887: The British Empire annexed Burma (now also called Myanmar) after three Anglo-Burmese Wars. 1823: Monroe Doctrine declared by US President James Monroe. 1824: Premiere of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony. 1825: The Decembrist revolt. Decembrists at the Senate Square. 1825: Java War. (to 1830) 1826–1828: After the final Russo-Persian War, the Persian Empire took back territory lost to Russia from the previous war. 1828–1832: Black War in Tasmania leads to the near extinction of the Tasmanian aborigines 1829: Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's Faust premieres. 1829: Sir Robert Peel founds the Metropolitan Police Service, the first modern police force. 1830s[edit] Emigrants leaving Ireland. From 1830 to 1914, almost 5 million Irish people went to the United States alone. 1830: Anglo-Russian rivalry over Afghanistan, the Great Game, commences and concludes in 1895. 1830: November Uprising in Poland against Russia. 1830: End of the Diponegoro war. The whole area of Yogyakarta and Surakarta Manca nagara Dutch seized. 27 September, Klaten Agreement determines a fixed boundary between Surakarta and Yogyakarta and permanently divide the kingdom of Mataram was signed by Sasradiningrat, Pepatih Dalem Surakarta, and Danurejo, Pepatih Dalem Yogyakarta. Mataram is a de facto and de yure controlled by the Dutch East Indies. 1831: France invades and occupies Algeria. 1831: Ioannis Kapodistrias, the First Governor of Greece is murdered at Nauplion. 1831: The Belgian constitution is ratified and Leopold I is crowned as first "King of the Belgians". 1831: November Uprising ends with crushing defeat for Poland in the Battle of Warsaw. 1831–1833: Egyptian–Ottoman War. 1832: The British Parliament passes the Great Reform Act. 1833: Slavery Abolition Act bans slavery throughout the British Empire. 1834: The German Customs Union is formed. 1834–1859: Imam Shamil's rebellion in Russian-occupied Caucasus. 1835–1836: The Texas Revolution in Mexico resulted in the short-lived Republic of Texas. 1836: Samuel Colt popularizes the revolver and sets up a firearms company to manufacture his invention of the Colt Paterson revolver a six bullets firearm shot one by one without reloading manually. 1837: Charles Dickens publishes Oliver Twist. 1837–1838: Rebellions of 1837 in Canada. 1837–1901: Queen Victoria's reign is considered the apex of the British Empire and is referred to as the Victorian era. 1838: By this time, 46,000 Native Americans have been forcibly relocated in the Trail of Tears. 1838–1840: Civil war in the Federal Republic of Central America led to the foundings of Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica. 1839: Kingdom of Belgium declared. 1839–1860: After the First and Second Opium Wars, France, the United Kingdom, the United States and Russia gain many trade and associated concessions from China resulting in the start of the decline of the Qing dynasty. 1839–1919: Anglo-Afghan Wars lead to stalemate and the establishment of the Durand line The Great Exhibition in London. Starting during the 18th century, the United Kingdom was the first country in the world to industrialise. 1840s[edit] 1840: New Zealand is founded, as the Treaty of Waitangi is signed by the Māori and British. 1840: Upper and Lower Canada are merged into the Province of Canada. 1842: Treaty of Nanking cedes Hong Kong to the British. 1843: The first wagon train sets out from Missouri. 1845–1849: The Irish Potato Famine leads to the Irish diaspora. 1846–1848: The Mexican-American War leads to Mexico's cession of much of the modern-day Southwestern United States. 1846–1847: Mormon migration to Utah. Liberal and nationalist pressure led to the European revolutions of 1848 1847: The Brontë sisters publish Jane Eyre, Wuthering Heights and Agnes Grey. 1848: The Communist Manifesto published. 1848: Revolutions of 1848 in Europe. 1848: Seneca Falls Convention is the first women's rights convention in the United States and leads to the battle for women's suffrage. 1848–1858: California Gold Rush. 1849: Earliest recorded air raid, as Austria employs 200 balloons to deliver ordnance against Venice. 1850s[edit] 1850: The Little Ice Age ends around this time. 1851: The Great Exhibition in London was the world's first international Expo or World Fair. 1851: Louis Napoleon assumes power in France in a coup. 1851: Herman Melville publishes Moby-Dick. 1852: Frederick Douglass delivers his speech "The Meaning of July Fourth for the Negro" in Rochester, New York. 1853: United States Commodore Matthew C. Perry threatens the Japanese capital Edo with gunships, demanding that they agree to open trade. 1853–1856: Crimean War between France, the United Kingdom, the Ottoman Empire and Russia 1854: Battle of Balaclava and the Charge of the Light Brigade. 1854: The Convention of Kanagawa formally ends Japan's policy of isolation. 1855: Walt Whitman publishes the first edition of Leaves of Grass. 1856: Rana dynasty of Nepal established by Jung Bahadur Rana. 1857: Sir Joseph Whitworth designs the first long-range sniper rifle. 1857–1858: Indian Rebellion of 1857. The British Empire assumes control of India from the East India Company. 1858: Construction of Big Ben is completed. 1859: Charles Darwin publishes On the Origin of Species. 1859–1869: Suez Canal is constructed. The first vessels sail through the Suez Canal 1860s[edit] Dead Confederate soldiers. 30% of all Southern white males 18–40 years of age died in the American Civil War.[16] Robert Koch discovered the tuberculosis bacilli. The disease killed an estimated 25 percent of the adult population of Europe during the 19th century.[17] 1860: Giuseppe Garibaldi launches the Expedition of the Thousand. 1860: The Pony Express started. 1861–1865: American Civil War between the Union and seceding Confederacy. 1861: Russia abolishes serfdom. 1861–1867: French intervention in Mexico and the creation of the Second Mexican Empire, ruled by Maximilian I of Mexico and his consort Carlota of Mexico. 1861: James Clerk Maxwell publishes On Physical Lines of Force, formulating the four Maxwell's Equations. 1862: Victor Hugo publishes Les Misérables. 1862–1877: Muslim Rebellion in north-west China. 1863: Formation of the International Red Cross is followed by the adoption of the First Geneva Convention in 1864. 1863: First section of the London Underground opens. 1863–1865: Polish uprising against the Russian Empire. 1864–1870: The Paraguayan War ends Paraguayan ambitions for expansion and destroys much of the Paraguayan population. 1865–1877: Reconstruction in the United States; Slavery is banned in the United States by the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. 1865: Gregor Mendel formulates his laws of inheritance. 1865: Lewis Carroll publishes Alice's Adventures in Wonderland. 1866: Successful transatlantic telegraph cable follows an earlier attempt in 1858. 1866: Austro-Prussian War results in the dissolution of the German Confederation and the creation of the North German Confederation and the Austrian-Hungarian Dual Monarchy. 1867: The United States purchases Alaska from Russia. 1867: Canadian Confederation formed. 1868: The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution is approved. 1868: Michael Barrett is the last person to be publicly hanged in England. 1868–1878: Ten Years' War between Cuba and Spain. 1869: Leo Tolstoy publishes War and Peace. 1869: First Transcontinental Railroad completed in United States on 10 May. 1869: The Suez Canal opens linking the Mediterranean to the Red Sea. 1870s[edit] Black Friday, 9 May 1873, Vienna Stock Exchange. The Panic of 1873 and Long Depression followed. 1870: Rasmus Malling-Hansen's invention the Hansen Writing Ball becomes the first commercially sold typewriter. 1870–1871: The Franco-Prussian War results in the unifications of Germany and Italy, the collapse of the Second French Empire and the emergence of a New Imperialism. 1870: Official dismantling of the Cultivation System and beginning of a 'Liberal Policy' of deregulated exploitation of the Netherlands East Indies.[18] 1870–1890: Long Depression in Western Europe and North America. 1871–1872: Famine in Persia is believed to have caused the death of 2 million. 1871: The Paris Commune briefly rules the French capital. 1871: The feudal system is dismantled in Japan. 1872: Yellowstone National Park, the first national park, is created. 1872: The first recognised international soccer match, between England and Scotland, is played. 1873: The samurai class is abolished in Japan. 1874: The Société Anonyme Coopérative des Artistes Peintres, Sculpteurs, and Graveurs, better known as the Impressionists, organize and present their first public group exhibition at the Paris studio of the photographer Nadar. 1874: The Home Rule Movement is established in Ireland. 1874: The British East India Company is dissolved. 1874–1875: First Republic in Spain. 1875: HMS Challenger surveys the deepest point in the Earth's oceans, the Challenger Deep 1875: Georges Bizet's opera Carmen premiers in Paris. 1876: Richard Wagner's Ring Cycle is first performed in its entirety. 1876: Battle of the Little Bighorn leads to the death of General Custer and victory for the alliance of Lakota, Cheyenne and Arapaho 1876–1914: The massive expansion in population, territory, industry and wealth in the United States is referred to as the Gilded Age. 1877: Great Railroad Strike in the United States may have been the world's first nationwide labour strike. 1877: Asaph Hall discovers the moons of Mars 1878: First commercial telephone exchange in New Haven, Connecticut. A barricade in the Paris Commune, 18 March 1871. Around 30,000 Parisians were killed, and thousands more were later executed. 1879–1880: Little War against Spanish rule in Cuba leads to rebel defeat. 1879–1883: Chile battles with Peru and Bolivia over Andean territory in the War of the Pacific. 1880s[edit] 1880–1881: the First Boer War. 1881: Wave of pogroms begins in the Russian Empire. 1881–1882: The Jules Ferry laws are passed in France establishing free, secular education. 1881–1899: The Mahdist War in Sudan. 1882: The British invasion and subsequent occupation of Egypt 1883: Krakatoa volcano explosion, one of the largest in modern history. 1883: The quagga is rendered extinct. 1883: Robert Louis Stevenson's Treasure Island is published. 1884: Mark Twain publishes The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. 1884–1885: The Sino-French War led to the formation of French Indochina. 1886: "The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde" by Robert Louis Stevenson is published. 1886: Construction of the Statue of Liberty; Coca-Cola is developed. 1887: Sir Arthur Conan Doyle publishes his first Sherlock Holmes story, A Study in Scarlet. 1888: Louis Le Prince records the Roundhay Garden Scene, the earliest surviving film. 1888: Jack the Ripper murders occur in Whitechapel, London. 1888: Slavery banned in Brazil. 1888: Founding of the shipping line Koninklijke Paketvaart-Maatschappij (KPM) that supported the unification and development of the colonial economy.[18] 1889: Eiffel Tower is inaugurated in Paris. 1889: Mirza Ghulam Ahmad establishes the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community, a reform sect of Islam. 1889: End of the Brazilian Empire and the beginning of the Brazilian Republic. 1889: Vincent van Gogh paints Starry Night. 1889: Moulin Rouge opens in Paris. First motor bus in history: the Benz Omnibus, built in 1895 for the Netphener bus company Miners and prospectors ascend the Chilkoot Trail during the Klondike Gold Rush Studio portrait of Ilustrados in Europe, c. 1890 1890s[edit] 1890: First use of the electric chair as a method of execution. 1892: Basketball is invented. 1892: The World's Columbian Exposition was held in Chicago celebrating the 400th anniversary of Christopher Columbus's arrival in the New World. 1892: Fingerprinting is officially adopted for the first time. 1892: Tchaikovsky's Nutcracker Suite premières in St Petersberg. 1893: New Zealand becomes the first country to enact women's suffrage. 1893: The Coremans-de Vriendt law is passed in Belgium, creating legal equality for French and Dutch languages. 1894: France and the Russian Empire form a military alliance. 1894–1895: After the First Sino-Japanese War, China cedes Taiwan to Japan and grants Japan a free hand in Korea. 1894–1906: Dreyfuss Affair in France. 1894: Lombok War[18] The Dutch looted and destroyed the Cakranegara palace of Mataram.[19] J. L. A. Brandes, a Dutch philologist discovered and secured Nagarakretagama manuscript in Lombok royal library. 1895: Taiwan is ceded to the Empire of Japan as a result of the First Sino-Japanese war. 1895: Volleyball is invented. 1895: Trial of Oscar Wilde and premiere of his play The Importance of Being Earnest. 1895–1896: Abyssinia defeats Italy in the First Italo–Ethiopian War. 1895–1898: Cuban War for Independence results in Cuban independence from Spain. 1896: Olympic Games revived in Athens. 1896: Philippine Revolution ends declaring Philippines free from Spanish rule. 1896: Klondike Gold Rush in Canada. 1896: Henri Becquerel discovers radioactivity; J. J. Thomson identifies the electron, though not by name. 1897: Gojong, or Emperor Gwangmu, proclaims the short-lived Korean Empire: lasts until 1910. 1897: Bram Stoker writes Dracula. 1898: The United States gains control of Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines after the Spanish–American War. 1898: Empress Dowager Cixi of China engineers a coup d'état, marking the end of the Hundred Days' Reform; the Guangxu Emperor is arrested. 1898–1900: The Boxer Rebellion in China is suppressed by an Eight-Nation Alliance. 1898–1902: The Thousand Days' War in Colombia breaks out between the "Liberales" and "Conservadores", culminating with the loss of Panama in 1903. 1899–1902: Second Boer War begins. 1899–1913: Philippine–American War begins. 1899–1900: Indian famine kills over 1 million people. 1900[edit] Galveston Hurricane in Texas kills 8000 people. L. Frank Baum publishes The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. King Umberto I of Italy is assassinated. Exposition Universelle held in Paris, prominently featuring the growing art trend Art Nouveau. Eight nations invaded China at the same time and ransacked Forbidden City. For later events, see Timeline of the 20th century.

Significant people[edit] Abraham Lincoln in 1863, 16th President of the United States, presided during the American Civil War, assassinated in April 1865 Tsar Alexander II, also known as Alexander the Liberator, was the Emperor of the Russian Empire from 3 March 1855 until his assassination in 1881 Otto von Bismarck, the Iron Chancellor Charles Alderton, creator of Dr. Pepper Alexander II, Emperor of Russia, King of Poland Clara Barton, nurse, pioneer of the American Red Cross Sitting Bull, a leader of the Lakota John Burroughs, Naturalist, conservationist, writer Benito Juárez, Mexican President Davy Crockett, King of the wild frontier, folk hero, frontiersman, soldier and politician Jefferson Davis, Confederate States President William Gilbert Grace, English cricketer Baron Haussmann, civic planner Franz Joseph I of Austria, Emperor of Austria and brother of Mexican Emperor Chief Joseph, a leader of the Nez Percé Kamehameha I, founder of the Kingdom of Hawaii died in May 1819 Ned Kelly, Australian folk hero, and outlaw Elizabeth Kenny, Australian Nurse and found an Innovative Treatment of Polio Sándor Körösi Csoma, explorer of the Tibetan culture Abraham Lincoln, United States President Fitz Hugh Ludlow, writer and explorer William McKinley, 25th U.S. President John Muir, Naturalist, writer, preservationist Florence Nightingale, nursing pioneer Ranjit Singh, Maharaja of the Sikh Empire Napoleon I, First Consul and Emperor of the French Charles Stewart Parnell, Irish political leader Commodore Perry, U.S. Naval commander, opened the door to Japan José Rizal, Filipino polymath, physician, nationalist, novelist, poet, liberator Sacagawea, Important aide to the Lewis and Clark Exploration Giuseppe Garibaldi, was an Italian general and politician, a central figure in the Italian Risorgimento Ignaz Semmelweis, proponent of hygienic practices Dr. John Snow, the founder of epidemiology F R Spofforth, Australian cricketer Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom King Victor Emmanuel II, first King of Italy William Wilberforce, Abolitionist, Philanthropist Hong Xiuquan inspired China's Taiping Rebellion, perhaps the bloodiest civil war in human history Karl Marx wrote The Communist Manifesto, promoted change in the labor system of Europe Nikola Karev commander and leader of the Ilinden Uprising in Ottoman-Macedonia. Henry George, economist and author of Progress and Poverty, one of the most influential books of the 19th century in the United States Show business and theatre[edit] Sarah Bernhardt, 1877 Konstantin Stanislavski P. T. Barnum, c. 1860 P. T. Barnum, showman David Belasco, actor, playwright, theatrical producer Sarah Bernhardt, actress Edwin Booth, actor John Wilkes Booth, actor, assassin of Abraham Lincoln Dion Boucicault, playwright Mrs Patrick Campbell, actress Anton Chekhov, playwright Buffalo Bill Cody, Wild West legend, and showman Baptiste Deburau, Bohemian–French actor and mime. Sergei Diaghilev, art critic, ballet impresario Eleonora Duse, actress Henrik Ibsen, playwright Edmund Kean, actor Charles Kean, actor Olga Knipper, actress Lillie Langtry, actress, socialite Frédérick Lemaître, actor Jenny Lind, opera singer called the Swedish Nightingale William Macready, actor Céleste Mogador, dancer Lola Montez, exotic dancer Adelaide Neilson, actress Vladimir Nemirovich-Danchenko, playwright, theatre director, co-founder of Moscow Art Theatre Annie Oakley, Wild West, sharp-shooter Alexander Ostrovsky, playwright Lillian Russell, singer, actress George Bernard Shaw, playwright Mikhail Shchepkin, actor Constantin Stanislavski, actor, theatre director, co-founder of Moscow Art Theatre Edward Askew Sothern, actor Ellen Terry, actress Maria Yermolova, actress Athletics[edit] Main articles: Baseball Hall of Fame, Major League Baseball, List of bare-knuckle boxers, List of heavyweight boxing champions, and Olympic Games John L Sullivan in his prime, c. 1882. Cap Anson, baseball player Gentleman Jim Corbett, heavyweight boxer Big Ed Delahanty, baseball player Bob Fitzsimmons, heavyweight boxer Pud Galvin, baseball player Dr William Gilbert 'WG' Grace, cricketer Peter Jackson, heavyweight boxer James J. Jeffries, heavyweight boxer Ivan Poddubny, wrestler Old Hoss Radbourn, baseball player Tom Sharkey, heavyweight boxer John L. Sullivan, heavyweight boxer John Montgomery Ward, baseball player Evangelis Zappas, Founder of the International Modern Olympic Games Business[edit] Andrew Carnegie John D. Rockefeller Main articles: Robber baron (industrialist) and business magnate John Jacob Astor III, Real Estate Andrew Carnegie, Industrialist, philanthropist Robert Reed Church, a freedman who became the South's first black millionaire, real estate Jay Cooke, Finance Henry Clay Frick, Industrialist, art collector Jay Gould, Railroad developer Meyer Guggenheim Family patriarch, mining Daniel Guggenheim (copper) E. H. Harriman, Railroads Henry O. Havemeyer (sugar), art collector George Hearst, Gold James J. Hill (railroads) – The Empire Builder Thomas Lipton, Scottish merchant and yachtsman known for Lipton tea Savva Mamontov, Industrialist, philanthropist Andrew W. Mellon, Industrialist, philanthropist, art collector J.P. Morgan, Banker, art collector George Mortimer Pullman (railroads) Ludvig Nobel, Oil Charles Pratt Oil, founder of the Pratt Institute Cecil Rhodes diamonds, mining magnate, founder of De Beers and benefactor of the Rhodes Scholarship. John D. Rockefeller, Oil, Business tycoon, philanthropist Levi Strauss, clothing manufacturer Pavel Tretyakov, Businessman, art collector, philanthropist, founder of Tretyakov Gallery Cornelius Vanderbilt, Shipping, Railroads William Chapman Ralston, Businessman, Financier, founder of Bank of California. Madam C.J. Walker, African American entrepreneur, philanthropist, political and social activist. Eulogized as first female self-made millionaire in America. Famous and infamous personalities[edit] Jesse and Frank James, 1872 Sitting Bull and Buffalo Bill Cody, Montreal, Quebec, 1885 Geronimo, 1887, prominent leader of the Chiricahua Apache James Barry (born Margaret Ann Bulkley), impostor who successfully lived as a male military surgeon in the British Army William Bonney a.k.a. Henry McCarty a.k.a. Billy the Kid, Wild West, outlaw John Wilkes Booth, the assassin of president Abraham Lincoln James Bowie, Soldier, Texan who died at the Alamo, invented the Bowie knife Jim Bridger, Wild West, mountain man John Brown, a fanatical American abolitionist who led an armed insurrection at Harpers Ferry, Virginia, in 1859. Kit Carson, Wild West, frontiersman Cochise, Chiricahua Apache leader George Armstrong Custer, soldier, whose last stand was in the Wild West Wyatt Earp, Wild West, lawman Pat Garrett, Wild West, lawman Charles J. Guiteau, assassin Jack The Ripper, serial killer whose identity remains unknown. H.H. Holmes, first documented American serial killer. Geronimo, Chiricahua Apache leader Wild Bill Hickok, Legendary Wild West, lawman Doc Holliday, Legendary Wild West, gambler, gunfighter Crazy Horse, War leader of the Lakota Ignacy Hryniewiecki, assassin of Tsar Alexander II of Russia Frances Clayton, impostor who disguised herself as a man named Jack Williams in order to fight for Union forces during the American Civil War Frank James, Wild West, outlaw, older brother of Jesse Jesse James, Legendary Wild West, outlaw Harvey Logan, Wild West, outlaw Gregor MacGregor, soldier, adventurer, confidence trickster, pirate, fraudster Gaetano Bresci, assassin of Umberto I of Italy Emma Goldman, anarchist, helped Alexander Berkman plan the attempted assassination of Henry Clay Frick Calamity Jane, Frontierswoman Bat Masterson, Wild West, lawman, gambler, newspaperman Solomon Northrup, A free-born African American from New York, he was the son of a freed slave and free woman of color. A farmer and professional violinist, a landowner, American abolitionist and the primary author of the memoir Twelve Years a Slave. Annie Oakley American sharpshooter in Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show Allan Pinkerton, spy, founded the Pinkerton Agency, first detective agency in the United States William Poole a.k.a. Bill the Butcher, member of the New York City gang, the Bowery Boys, a bare-knuckle boxer, and a leader of the Know Nothing political movement. Lewis Powell, attempted assassin of secretary of state William H. Seward and accomplice of John Wilkes Booth Belle Starr Legendary Wild West, female outlaw Nat Turner, led a slave rebellion in Southampton County, Virginia during August 1831. Loreta Janeta Velazquez, Cuban-born impostor who claimed that she masqueraded as a male Confederate soldier during the American Civil War Anthropology, archaeology, scholars[edit] Heinrich Schliemann, Archaeologist Franz Boas one of the pioneers of modern anthropology Churchill Babington, Archaeology Adolph Francis Alphonse Bandelier, Archaeology Franz Boas, Anthropology Charles Étienne Brasseur de Bourbourg, Archaeology Louis Agassiz Fuertes, Ornithology George Bird Grinnell, Anthropology Joseph LeConte, Scholar, preservationist Nicholai Miklukho-Maklai, Anthropology Clinton Hart Merriam, Zoology Lewis H. Morgan, Anthropology Jules Etienne Joseph Quicherat, Archaeology Robert Ridgway, Ornithology Edward Burnett Tylor, Anthropology Karl Verner, Linguist Journalists, missionaries, explorers[edit] Roald Amundsen Roald Amundsen, explorer Samuel Baker, explorer Thomas Baines, artist, explorer Heinrich Barth, explorer Henry Walter Bates, naturalist, explorer Faddey Bellingshausen, explorer Jim Bridger, explorer Richard Francis Burton, explorer William Clark, explorer The Lewis and Clark Expedition, exploration Frederick Samuel Dellenbaugh, explorer Percy Fawcett, adventurer, explorer, proto-Indiana Jones Vladimir Gilyarovsky, journalist Horace Greeley, journalist Peter Jones (missionary), Canadian Methodist minister, and go-between for Christians and his fellow Mississaugas and other Indian tribes. Adoniram Judson, missionary Sir John Kirk, explorer, physician, companion of David Livingston Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, botanist, explorer, friend of Charles Darwin Sir William Jackson Hooker, botanist, explorer, father of Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker Otto von Kotzebue, explorer Pyotr Kozlov, explorer Mikhail Lazarev, fleet commander, explorer Meriwether Lewis, explorer David Livingstone, missionary Stepan Makarov, explorer, oceanographer Thomas Nast, journalist, caricaturist and editorial cartoonist Robert Peary, explorer Marcelo H. del Pilar, writer, journalist, editor of La Solidaridad. Nikolai Przhevalsky, explorer Frederick Selous, explorer Pyotr Semyonov-Tyan-Shansky, explorer, geographer John Hanning Speke, explorer Henry M. Stanley, journalist, explorer John McDouall Stuart, explorer John L. O'Sullivan, journalist who coined Manifest Destiny Chokan Valikhanov, explorer ethnographer, historian Carter G. Woodson, African-American historian, author, journalist and the founder of the Association for the Study of African American Life and History. Ferdinand von Wrangel, explorer Photography[edit] One of the first photographs, produced in 1826 by Nicéphore Niépce Nadar, Self-portrait, c. 1860 See also: History of photography, List of photojournalists, Photojournalism, and Daguerreotype Ottomar Anschütz, chronophotographer Mathew Brady, documented the American Civil War Edward S. Curtis, documented the American West notably Native Americans Louis Daguerre, inventor of daguerreotype process of photography, chemist Thomas Eakins, pioneer motion photographer George Eastman, inventor of roll film Hércules Florence, pioneer inventor of photography Auguste and Louis Lumière, pioneer film-makers, inventors Étienne-Jules Marey, pioneer motion photographer, chronophotographer Eadweard Muybridge, pioneer motion photographer, chronophotographer Nadar a.k.a. Gaspard-Félix Tournachon, portrait photographer Nicéphore Niépce, pioneer inventor of photography Louis Le Prince, motion picture inventor and pioneer film-maker Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky, chemist and photographer William Fox Talbot, inventor of the negative / positive photographic process. Visual artists, painters, sculptors[edit] Main articles: History of painting, Western painting, and Ukiyo-e Francisco Goya, The Third of May 1808, 1814 Eugène Delacroix, Liberty Leading the People, 1830 Claude Monet's Impression, Sunrise, 1872, gave the name to Impressionism Paul Cézanne, Self-portrait, 1880–1881 Vincent van Gogh, Self-portrait, 1889 The Realism and Romanticism of the early 19th century gave way to Impressionism and Post-Impressionism in the later half of the century, with Paris being the dominant art capital of the world. In the United States the Hudson River School was prominent. 19th-century painters included: Ivan Aivazovsky Léon Bakst Albert Bierstadt William Blake Arnold Bocklin Rosa Bonheur William Burges Mary Cassatt Camille Claudel Paul Cézanne Frederic Edwin Church Thomas Cole Jan Matejko John Constable Camille Corot Gustave Courbet Honoré Daumier Edgar Degas Eugène Delacroix Thomas Eakins Caspar David Friedrich Paul Gauguin Théodore Géricault Vincent van Gogh Francisco Goya Ando Hiroshige Hokusai Winslow Homer Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres Isaac Levitan Édouard Manet Claude Monet Gustave Moreau Berthe Morisot Edvard Munch Mikhail Nesterov Camille Pissarro Augustus Pugin Pierre-Auguste Renoir Ilya Repin Auguste Rodin Albert Pinkham Ryder John Singer Sargent Valentin Serov Georges Seurat Ivan Shishkin Vasily Surikov James Tissot Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec Joseph Mallord William Turner Viktor Vasnetsov Eugene Viollet-le-Duc Mikhail Vrubel James Abbott McNeill Whistler Tsukioka Yoshitoshi Music[edit] Main articles: List of Romantic-era composers, Romantic music, and Romanticism Ludwig van Beethoven Niccolò Paganini, c.1819 Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Frédéric Chopin, 1838. Scott Joplin Sonata form matured during the Classical era to become the primary form of instrumental compositions throughout the 19th century. Much of the music from the 19th century was referred to as being in the Romantic style. Many great composers lived through this era such as Ludwig van Beethoven, Franz Liszt, Frédéric Chopin, Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky and Richard Wagner. The list includes: Mily Balakirev Ludwig van Beethoven Hector Berlioz Georges Bizet Alexander Borodin Johannes Brahms Anton Bruckner Frédéric Chopin Claude Debussy Antonín Dvořák Mikhail Glinka Edvard Grieg Scott Joplin Alexandre Levy Franz Liszt Gustav Mahler Felix Mendelssohn Modest Mussorgsky Jacques Offenbach Niccolò Paganini Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov Gioachino Rossini Anton Rubinstein Camille Saint-Saëns Antonio Salieri Franz Schubert Robert Schumann Alexander Scriabin Arthur Sullivan Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Giuseppe Verdi Richard Wagner Literature[edit] Main articles: Romantic poetry and 19th century in literature Jane Austen Edgar Allan Poe Charles Dickens Arthur Rimbaud c. 1872 Fyodor Dostoyevsky, 1879 Mark Twain, 1894 Leo Tolstoy, 1897 Ralph Waldo Emerson Émile Zola, c. 1900 Anton Chekhov On the literary front the new century opens with romanticism, a movement that spread throughout Europe in reaction to 18th-century rationalism, and it develops more or less along the lines of the Industrial Revolution, with a design to react against the dramatic changes wrought on nature by the steam engine and the railway. William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge are considered the initiators of the new school in England, while in the continent the German Sturm und Drang spreads its influence as far as Italy and Spain. French arts had been hampered by the Napoleonic Wars but subsequently developed rapidly. Modernism began. The Goncourts and Émile Zola in France and Giovanni Verga in Italy produce some of the finest naturalist novels. Italian naturalist novels are especially important in that they give a social map of the new unified Italy to a people that until then had been scarcely aware of its ethnic and cultural diversity. On 21 February 1848, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels published the Communist Manifesto. There was a huge literary output during the 19th century. Some of the most famous writers included the Russians Alexander Pushkin, Nikolai Gogol, Leo Tolstoy, Anton Chekhov and Fyodor Dostoyevsky; the English Charles Dickens, John Keats, Alfred, Lord Tennyson and Jane Austen; the Scottish Sir Walter Scott; the Irish Oscar Wilde; the Americans Edgar Allan Poe, Ralph Waldo Emerson, and Mark Twain; and the French Victor Hugo, Honoré de Balzac, Jules Verne, Alexandre Dumas and Charles Baudelaire. Some other important writers of note included: Leopoldo Alas Louisa May Alcott Hans Christian Andersen Machado de Assis Jane Austen Gertrudis Gómez de Avellaneda Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer Elizabeth Barrett Browning Anne Brontë Charlotte Brontë Emily Brontë Georg Büchner Ivan Bunin Lord Byron Lewis Carroll Rosalía de Castro François-René de Chateaubriand Anton Chekhov Kate Chopin Samuel Taylor Coleridge James Fenimore Cooper Stephen Crane Eduard Douwes Dekker Emily Dickinson Charles Dickens Arthur Conan Doyle Alexandre Dumas, père (1802–1870) Paul Dunbar José Maria Eça de Queirós José Echegaray George Eliot Ralph Waldo Emerson Gustave Flaubert Margaret Fuller Elizabeth Gaskell Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Nikolai Gogol Manuel González Prada Juana Manuela Gorriti Brothers Grimm Henry Rider Haggard Ida Gräfin Hahn-Hahn (1805–1880) Thomas Hardy Francis Bret Harte Nathaniel Hawthorne Friedrich Hölderlin Heinrich Heine Victor Hugo Henrik Ibsen Washington Irving Henry James John Keats Rudyard Kipling Caroline Kirkland Jules Laforgue Giacomo Leopardi Mikhail Lermontov Stéphane Mallarmé Alessandro Manzoni José Martí Clorinda Matto de Turner Herman Melville Friedrich Nietzsche José María de Pereda Benito Pérez Galdós Marcel Proust Aleksandr Pushkin Fritz Reuter (1810–1874) Arthur Rimbaud John Ruskin George Sand (Amandine-Aurore-Lucile Dupin) Mary Shelley Percy Shelley Stendhal (Marie-Henri Beyle) Robert Louis Stevenson Bram Stoker Harriet Beecher Stowe Alfred, Lord Tennyson Henry David Thoreau Leo Tolstoy Ivan Turgenev Mark Twain Juan Valera y Alcalá-Galiano Paul Verlaine Jules Verne Lew Wallace H. G. Wells Walt Whitman Oscar Wilde William Wordsworth Émile Zola José Zorrilla Science[edit] Carl Friedrich Gauss Charles Darwin Dmitri Mendeleev Louis Pasteur, 1878 Marie Curie, c. 1898 Nikola Tesla The 19th century saw the birth of science as a profession; the term scientist was coined in 1833 by William Whewell,[20] which soon replaced the older term of (natural) philosopher. Among the most influential ideas of the 19th century were those of Charles Darwin (alongside the independent researches of Alfred Russel Wallace), who in 1859 published the book The Origin of Species, which introduced the idea of evolution by natural selection. Another important landmark in medicine and biology were the successful efforts to prove the germ theory of disease. Following this, Louis Pasteur made the first vaccine against rabies, and also made many discoveries in the field of chemistry, including the asymmetry of crystals. In chemistry, Dmitri Mendeleev, following the atomic theory of John Dalton, created the first periodic table of elements. In physics, the experiments, theories and discoveries of Michael Faraday, Andre-Marie Ampere, James Clerk Maxwell, and their contemporaries led to the creation of electromagnetism as a new branch of science. Thermodynamics led to an understanding of heat and the notion of energy was defined. Other highlights include the discoveries unveiling the nature of atomic structure and matter, simultaneously with chemistry – and of new kinds of radiation. In astronomy, the planet Neptune was discovered. In mathematics, the notion of complex numbers finally matured and led to a subsequent analytical theory; they also began the use of hypercomplex numbers. Karl Weierstrass and others carried out the arithmetization of analysis for functions of real and complex variables. It also saw rise to new progress in geometry beyond those classical theories of Euclid, after a period of nearly two thousand years. The mathematical science of logic likewise had revolutionary breakthroughs after a similarly long period of stagnation. But the most important step in science at this time were the ideas formulated by the creators of electrical science. Their work changed the face of physics and made possible for new technology to come about: Thomas Alva Edison gave the world a practical everyday lightbulb. Nikola Tesla pioneered the induction motor, high frequency transmission of electricity, and remote control. Other new inventions were electrical telegraphy and the telephone. The list of important 19th-century scientists includes: Amedeo Avogadro, physicist Johann Jakob Balmer, mathematician, physicist Henri Becquerel, physicist Alexander Graham Bell, inventor Ludwig Boltzmann, physicist János Bolyai, mathematician Louis Braille, inventor of braille Robert Bunsen, chemist Marie Curie, physicist, chemist Pierre Curie, physicist Gottlieb Daimler, engineer, industrial designer and industrialist Charles Darwin, biologist Christian Doppler, physicist, mathematician Thomas Edison, inventor Michael Faraday, scientist Léon Foucault, physicist Gottlob Frege, mathematician, logician and philosopher Sigmund Freud, the father of psychoanalysis Carl Friedrich Gauss, mathematician, physicist, astronomer Francis Galton, English Victorian polymath Josiah Willard Gibbs, physicist Ernst Haeckel, biologist William Rowan Hamilton, physicist and mathematician Oliver Heaviside, electrical engineer, physical mathematician Heinrich Hertz, physicist Alexander von Humboldt, naturalist, explorer Robert Koch, physician, bacteriologist Justus von Liebig, chemist Nikolai Lobachevsky, mathematician James Clerk Maxwell, physicist Wilhelm Maybach, car-engine and automobile designer and industrialist Ilya Mechnikov, biologist Gregor Mendel, biologist Dmitri Mendeleev, chemist Samuel Morey, inventor Alfred Nobel, chemist, engineer, inventor Louis Pasteur, microbiologist and chemist Ivan Pavlov, physiologist Santiago Ramón y Cajal, biologist Franz Reuleaux mechanical engineer Bernhard Riemann, mathematician William Emerson Ritter, biologist Vladimir Shukhov, inventor Nikola Tesla, inventor William Thomson, Lord Kelvin, physicist Thomas Young, English polymath. Philosophy and religion[edit] Karl Marx Friedrich Nietzsche The 19th century was host to a variety of religious and philosophical thinkers, including: Mirza Ghulam Ahmad founded the Ahmadiyya Islamic movement in India. Bahá'u'lláh founded the Bahá'í Faith in Persia Mikhail Bakunin, anarchist William Booth, social reformer, founder of the Salvation Army Auguste Comte, philosopher Mary Baker Eddy, religious leader, founder of Christian Science Friedrich Engels, political philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, philosopher Allan Kardec, systematizer of the Spiritist Doctrine Søren Kierkegaard, philosopher Peter Kropotkin, anarchist Karl Marx, political philosopher Pierre Joseph Proudhon, Mutualist anarchist John Stuart Mill, philosopher Krste Petkov Misirkov, philosopher and historian William Morris, social reformer Friedrich Nietzsche, philosopher Nikolai (Nicholas) of Japan, religious leader, introduced Eastern Orthodoxy into Japan Ramakrishna Paramahamsa, Hindu mystic Claude Henri de Rouvroy, Comte de Saint-Simon, founder of French socialism Arthur Schopenhauer, philosopher Joseph Smith, Jr. and Brigham Young, founders of Mormonism Vladimir Solovyov, philosopher Herbert Spencer, "The Great philosopher" Charles Spurgeon, Baptist preacher and writer Leo Tolstoy, anarchist Ayya Vaikundar, initiator of the belief system of Ayyavazhi Ellen White religious author and co-founder of the Seventh-day Adventist Church St. Therese of Lisieux, French discalced Carmelite nun Politics and the Military[edit] The last Shogun Tokugawa Yoshinobu, c. 1867 Sojourner Truth, 1870 The allies: Sultan of the Ottoman Empire; Abdulmecid I, Queen of United Kingdom, Victoria and President of France, Napoleon III. John Quincy Adams, U.S. congressman, lawyer, and president Alexander I of Russia Alexander III of Russia Susan B. Anthony, U.S. women's rights advocate Pyotr Bagration, Russian general Otto von Bismarck, German chancellor Napoleon Bonaparte, French general, first consul and emperor William Wells Brown, American abolitionist, novelist, playwright, and historian John C. Calhoun, U.S. senator Henry Clay, U.S. statesman, "The Great Compromiser" Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederate States of America Louis-Nicolas Davout, French general Benjamin Disraeli, novelist and politician Frederick Douglass, U.S. abolitionist spokesman Ferdinand VII of Spain Joseph Fouché, French politician John C. Frémont, Explorer, Governor of California Giuseppe Garibaldi, unifier of Italy and Piedmontese soldier Alexander Gorchakov, Russian Chancellor Isabella II of Spain Gojong of Joseon, Korean emperor William Lloyd Garrison, U.S. abolitionist leader William Ewart Gladstone, British prime minister Ulysses S. Grant, U.S. general and president Theodor Herzl, founder of modern political Zionism Andrew Jackson, U.S. general and president Thomas Jefferson, American statesman, philosopher, and president John Mitchell, Jr., American businessman, newspaper editor, activist, and politician Ioannis Kapodistrias, Russian and Greek statesman Lajos Kossuth, Hungarian governor; leader of the war of independence Mikhail Kutuzov, Russian general Robert E. Lee, Confederate general Libertadores, Latin American liberators Abraham Lincoln, U.S. president; led the nation during the American Civil War Sir John A. Macdonald, Canada, first Prime Minister of Canada Klemens von Metternich, Austrian Chancellor Joachim Murat, King of Naples and French general Mutsuhito, Japanese emperor Napoleon III Michel Ney, French general Nicholas I of Russia Pedro II of Brazil Józef Poniatowski, Polish general Cecil Rhodes John Ross Robertson, newspaper publisher and philanthropist Theodore Roosevelt, Explorer, Naturalist, future President of The United States William Tecumseh Sherman, Union general during the American Civil War Dred Scott, enslaved African American man Fulwar Skipwith, the first and only president of the short lived Republic of West Florida Mikhail Skobelev, Russian general Leland Stanford, Governor of California, U.S. Senator, entrepreneur István Széchenyi, aristocrat, leader of the Hungarian reform movement Charles Maurice de Talleyrand, French politician Harriet Tubman, African-American abolitionist, humanitarian, played a part in the Underground Railroad Sojourner Truth, was an African-American abolitionist and women's rights activist William M. Tweed, a.k.a. Boss Tweed, influential New York City politician, head of Tammany Hall Abdülmecid I, 31st Sultan and 110th Caliph of Islam of the Ottoman Empire Queen Victoria, British monarch Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, British General and prime minister Hong Xiuquan, revolutionary, self-proclaimed Son of God Victoria Woodhull, American politician, suffragette, abolitionist Tokugawa Yoshinobu, the last Japanese Shogun Sultan Abu Bakar of Johor, Johore Sultan

See also[edit] Timeline of modern history 19th century in film 19th century in games 19th-century philosophy Capitalism in the nineteenth century France in the nineteenth century International relations of the Great Powers (1814–1919) List of wars 1800–1899 Mid-nineteenth-century Spain Nineteenth-century theatre Russian history, 1855–1892 Slavery in the United States Timeline of 19th-century Muslim history Timeline of historic inventions#19th century Victorian Era

Supplementary portrait gallery[edit] Mikhail Bakunin William Bonney aka Henry McCarty aka Billy the Kid, c. late 1870s Deputies Bat Masterson and Wyatt Earp in Dodge City, 1876 Mathew Brady, Self-portrait, c. 1875 Henry David Thoreau, August 1861. Alfred, Lord Tennyson Thomas Nast, c. 1860–1875, photo by Mathew Brady or Levin Handy Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Søren Kierkegaard Solomon Northup Dred Scott Madame CJ Walker

References[edit] ^ "The First Telephone Call".  ^ "Dec. 18, 1878: Let There Be Light — Electric Light". WIRED. 18 December 2009.  ^ Encyclopædia Britannica's Great Inventions. Encyclopædia Britannica. ^ "The United States and the Industrial Revolution in the 19th Century". 2012-09-18. Retrieved 2012-10-31.  ^ Laura Del Col, West Virginia University, The Life of the Industrial Worker in Nineteenth-Century England ^ "Modernization – Population Change". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on April 6, 2009.  ^ Liberalism in the 19th century. Encyclopædia Britannica. ^ Sailing against slavery. By Jo Loosemore. BBC. ^ The Atlantic: Can the US afford immigration?. Migration News. December 1996. ^ proclamation ^ McPherson, J. M. (2014). Emancipation Proclamation and Thirteenth Amendment. In E. Foner, & J. A. Garraty (Eds.), The Reader's companion to American history. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin. Retrieved from ^ 13th Amendment ^ Frederick Artz, Reaction and Revolution, 1814–1832 (1934) ^ Oppenheimer, Clive (2003). "Climatic, environmental and human consequences of the largest known historic eruption: Tambora volcano (Indonesia) 1815". Progress in Physical Geography. 27 (2): 230–259. doi:10.1191/0309133303pp379ra.  ^ Spring Hermann (1997) "Geronimo: Apache freedom fighter". Enslow Publishers. p.26 ISBN 0-89490-864-2 ^ "Killing ground: photographs of the Civil War and the changing American landscape". John Huddleston (2002). Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-6773-8 ^ "Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Archived from the original on April 21, 2009.  ^ a b c Vickers (2005), page xii ^ Wahyu Ernawati: "Chapter 8: The Lombok Treasure", in Colonial collections Revisited: Pieter ter Keurs (editor) Vol. 152, CNWS publications. Issue 36 of Mededelingen van het Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde, Leiden. CNWS Publications, 2007. ISBN 978-90-5789-152-6. 296 pages. pp. 186–203 ^ "William Whewell". Stanford University. Retrieved 2008-03-03. 

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